- What is TJX’s mission statement? More U. S. and international customers
- What is TJX’s vision for itself in the future? They envision a marriage between stores and the web and plan to use $23 billion brick-and-mortar business and 700–person buying organization to increase the customer base and add incrementally to their top and bottom lines over time.
- What are the values that TJX strives to incorporate as it conducts its business operations? Are these consistent with their stated mission and vision? To stretch the boundaries of the off-price business model and take intelligent risks to offer consumers even greater value. Target Customer
- Who is TJX’s target customer? Are you TJX’s target customer? A middle- to upper-middle-income shopper. No, I am not. Value Proposition
- What are the four components of value that TJX offers its customers? Is this value proposition likely to appeal to the TJX target customer? Great fashion, brand, quality and price. Yes, they are.
- Business Model 6. What does TJX sell? It sells off-price apparel and home fashions.
- What are TJX’s key retail concepts? How do these retail concepts enable TJX to provide the four components of value they offer TJX’s customers? Synergistic,
- What is TJX’s business model? TJX’s business model is flexible, particularly for a company of size, allowing reacting to market trends.
- How does TJX achieve flexibility in its business model? Their opportunistic buying and inventory management strategies. Competition
- Who does TJX consider to be its competition? The local, regional, national and international department, specialty, off-price, discount, warehouse and outlet stores as well as other retailers that sell apparel, home fashions and other merchandise that we sell, whether in stores, through catalogues or other media or over the internet.
- Identify 5 risks that TJX faces that are beyond its control. Execution, Inventory flow, natural disasters, political instability and increasing cost.
- What are some of the strategies that TJX plans to utilize to achieve these goals? For each strategy you identify, match it to at least one of TJX’s goals. By set the right goods in right stores, distribute goods to store effectively, maintaining an appropriate mix and level of inventory in stores, appropriately changing the allocation of floor space of stores among product categories to respond to customer demand and effectively managing pricing and markdowns.
- How is TJX organized? How many business segments and stores overall? Where are they? How many new stores do they plan to open in the next fiscal year?
Water Potential And Osmosis
Molecules are constantly in motion due to thermal energy. Therefore, the molecules will move around and bump into each other. Because of this, molecules tend to spread out evenly into available space in a process called diffusion. Diffusion is the random process of molecules moving from areas of high concentration to low concentration, thus requiring no energy. Many of the substances that enter or leave the cell do so through diffusion. Osmosis, a type of diffusion, is the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane. In osmosis, water diffuses across the area of lower solute concentration to that of higher solute concentration until the solute concentrations of the environment and the cell are equal. Tonicity, which is the ability of a solution to gain or lose water due to osmosis, results in an environment that is isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic. A hypotonic solution has a lower solute concentration than the cell so water moves into the cell causing the cell to swell. A hypertonic solution has a higher solute concentration than the cell so water moves out of the cell and into the solution causing the cell to shrink. In an isotonic solution, concentration of solutes is equal inside and outside the cell so water moves across the membrane in both directions retaining the same cell size. In all three environments, water will move until it reaches equilibrium.
In this experiment, the solution in which the dialysis tube was placed in is determined by the mass in grams of the dialysis tube before put in the solution compared to the mass after. If the mass increases, the dialysis tube was in a hypotonic solution since water went in the dialysis tube. If the mass decreases, the dialysis tube was in a hypertonic solution since water left the cell. If the mass stays the same, then the dialysis tube was in an isotonic solution since water went in and out of the dialysis tube at equal rates. The polarity of water allows water to dissolve many ionic compounds such as sodium chloride. Water dissolves salt because water’s partially positive area attracts the negative chloride ions and water’s partially negative area attracts the positive sodium ions. Therefore, salt is able to dissolve in water. In this solution, salt is the solute and water is the solvent. Water potential determines the direction in which water will move. Water potential is affected by two different factors, solute potential and pressure potential. Solute potential lowers the capacity of water to do work because the solutes bind to the water molecules which lowers the number of free water molecules. Pressure potential is the physical pressure on the solution and can have a positive or negative impact on water potential. Water potential is figured out through the equation ψ (water potential) =ψs (solute potential) + ψp (pressure potential). Solute potential is figured out using the equation –iCRT. Solute potential is always negative, “i” represents the number of ions, “C” represents the molar concentration, “R” is a pressure constant and will always be 0.0831 liter x bar / mole x K, and “T” represents the temperature in Kelvin. In this experiment, dialysis tube takes the place of an actual cell. The dialysis tube acts as a cell with a permeable membrane and allows for water to move in and out of the cell but not the solute.
Question: What is the water potential of the solution in the dialysis tube? Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to figure out if the water potential of the environment affects the dialysis tube with an unknown solution. Since the dialysis tube acts as a cell because of its permeable membrane, this experiment can determine how osmosis works in an actual cell membrane. Hypothesis: If osmosis occurs between solutions with different concentrations until there is equilibrium, then the weight of the dialysis tube after put in the environment will be affected only by the molarity of the environment thus the dialysis tube that doesn’t change weight will have water potential equal to the environment it was placed in. Procedure
1) Create a dialysis tube of around 6 inches and soak it in water. Tie one end of the dialysis tube and open the other end. Insert 10 ml of the unknown solution into the dialysis tube and tie the open end but leave a fair amount of air. 4) Repeat steps 1-3 until there are 5 dialysis tubes. Then weigh each dialysis tube in terms of grams. 5) Have 5 beakers with 100 mL of tap water each. Add 0.2 moles of sugar for 100 mL of water in the first beaker, 0.4 moles of sugar in the second beaker, 0.6 moles of sugar in the third beaker, 0.8 moles of sugar in the fourth beaker, and 1.0 moles of sugar in the last beaker. Then place dialysis tube into each of the beakers. 6) Let the dialysis tubes for around half an hour then take them out and weigh them again. Data
Ψ of unknown solution
Molarity of environmentWater potential of environmentWeight before (grams)Weight after (grams)Percent Change 0.2 M-4.89 bars10.5411.064.9% ↑
0.4 M-9.77 bars10.6410.511.2% ↓
0.6 M-14.66 bars10.759.987.2% ↓
0.8 M-19.54 bars10.979.5212.7% ↓
1.0 M-24.43 bars10.568.9914.9% ↓
Data Analysis and Conclusion
Conclusion: According to the data, the molarity of the unknown solution is about 0.38M thus the water potential is -9.28 according the equation ψs= -iCRT. The data reveals that the dialysis tube was in a hypotonic environment when the environment was greater than -9.77 bars and was in a hypertonic environment when the environment was less than -9.77. As the molarity of sugar increases, the water potential of the environment decreases and more water from the dialysis tube leaves the cell. As the molarity of sugar decreases, the water potential of the environment increases and more water will enter the dialysis tube. This supports the hypothesis that the different water potentials of the environment, whether isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic, will result in different mass changes for each of the dialysis tube. Ultimately, the experiment proves that osmosis occurs between the cell’s environment and the inside of the cell until there is equilibrium and the concentrations of the two solutions are equal.
“The God Of Small Things” By Arundhati Roy
An Unsentimental Bildungsroman When one thinks of childhood, death and sadness are not usually the first words that come to mind. Bildungsroman is defined as a novel about the moral and psychological growth of the main character. It typically ends on a positive note, with the hero’s foolish mistakes and painful disappointments behind him and life of usefulness ahead (Wikipedia contributors).
In this essay, I will argue that The God of Small Things written by Arundhati Roy is in fact an unsentimental bildungsroman that closely depicts the tragic lives of Rahel and Estha and gives the naive readers who believe childhood consists of laughter and happiness a better understanding of the horrifying experiences that one’s childhood could entail. To understand the significance of Estha and Rahel, the “two egg twins” in the novel, it is important to know their relationship is that of “one”. At the beginning of the story the author makes this very clear. Esthappen and Rahel thought of themselves together as Me, and separately, individually, as We or Us. As though they were a rare breed of Siamese twins, physically separate, but with joint identities” (4). This statement not only indicates the inescapable linkage these characters have, but also introduces the theme of the novel. Even as adults, there was never a time when they were not communicating, although they were thousands of miles apart. The twins were linked together in a way that no one would ever understand, not even Rahel’s husband. What Larry McCaslin saw in Rahel’s eyes was not despair at all, but a sort of enforced optimism. And a hollow where Estha’s words had been. He couldn’t be expected to understand that. That the emptiness in one twin was only a version of the quietness in the other. That the two things fitted together. Like stacked spoons. Like familiar lovers’ bodies” (21). The twins’ relationship is so intimately intertwined that they feel each other’s emptiness, sense each other’s desires. Throughout the novel the connection between the two grows and fades, but in the end the two are closer than ever.
Giving the readers a strong sense of the characters relationship from the beginning ominously creates the idea that these two are going to suffer extreme tragedy that will split them apart. Besides the love Estha and Rahel share for each other, the most crucial downfall to their tragic childhood is the lack of unconditional family love. If the two twins were accepted for who they were, the events that take place in this novel would have panned out much differently. Baby Kochamma, their Great Aunt proved that family love didn’t exist for these two characters. In the way the unfortunate sometimes dislike the co-unfortunate, Baby Kochamma disliked the twins, for she considered them doomed, fatherless waifs. Worse still, they were Half-Hindu Hybrids whom no self-respecting Syrian Christian would ever marry. ” (44). The only love laws that existed were those that stated who you could love, and how much. There were no love laws that expressed the love you needed for your family. The unconditional love that one needed to feel in order to love oneself. Baby Kochamma is the woman every mother tells their children about; when people aren’t nice to you, it is because they are insecure about themselves.
Her lack of British inheritance is the root cause for the hate she feels for the others who lack the same things she does. Throughout the novel Baby Kochamma has a strong dislike towards the twins. She will find any opportunity to humiliate them. They will never be good enough; they will never be Sophie Mol. “That whole week Baby Kochamma eavesdropped relentlessly on the twins’ private conversations, and whenever she caught them speaking in Malayalam, she levied a small fine which was deducted at source. From their pocket money.
She made them write lines – “impositions” she called them – I will always speak in English, I will always speak in English. A hundred times each” (36). Because Baby Kochamma finds the British language and culture inherently superior to India’s customs, she takes it out on the children. They are punished for being born into the Indian culture and ultimately disliked for it by their own family. This creates a fear for the twins’ that there is no such thing as love. Rahel even worries at one point that Ammu will love Sophie Mol more; that the love for her own child will reside because of the half British girl that is going to enter their lives. Chacko told the twins that, though he hated to admit it, they were all Anglophiles. They were a family of Anglophiles. Pointed in the wrong direction, trapped outside their own history unable to retrace their steps because their footprints had been swept away” (51). Hate surrounded Estha and Rahel because they weren’t British. As a child, one should be taught that you are loved for who you are and the people that cannot accept that are irrelevant to our lives. Unfortunately this family was taught that they were nothing because of who they are and the caste they were born into. Due to the lack of love within the family, the twins create life of quietness and emptiness with an unreal amount of tragedy in between. There are some things in life that no one, especially a seven-year-old child, should have to experience, ever. “’Now if you’ll kindly hold this for me,” the Orangedrink Lemondrink man said, handing Estha his penis through his soft white muslin dhoti, “I’ll get you your drink. Orange? Lemon? ” Estha held it because he had to’” (98). This is the moment in Estha’s life where he will silence himself from society. Haunted by the memory of this man and the fear that he will come find him consumes his thoughts.
His life is forever changed because of this instance that no one will ever understand, besides Rahel that is. “Rahel started towards him but something about the steady gaze in which he held her, made her shrink from him. So the redsteps once again. This time Rahel lagging. Slow. No I don’t want to go. A ton of bricks on a leash” (106). Rahel could sense within Estha’s voice that something was wrong with this man. The connection these two have is so strong that they can read each other through the tone in their voices and the gaze in their eyes, twin telepathy.
This is only just the beginning of the tragic events that unfold in these characters’ lives. Mourning the loss of someone you love is one thing, but witnessing the death of a young girl is a completely different experience. A harmless adventure turned into a gut-wrenching catastrophe when Sophie Mol insisted it was essential for her to tag along. “’Sophie Mol? ” she whispered to the rushing river. “We’re here! Here! Near the illimba tree! ” Nothing. On Rahel’s heart Pappachi’s moth snapped open its somber wings. Out. In. And lifted its legs. Up.
Down’” (277). The death of Sophie Mol did not only bring these “two egg twins” broken hearts, but it will change the way in which they live. Forever. There are some things in life that you can only understand when you feel them. These two felt something that no one should ever have to feel in their childhood. “They lay down in the back verandah on a grass mat with an inflatable goose and a Qantas koala bear. A pair of damp dwarfs, numb with fear, waiting for the world to end” (278). Two seven-year-old children believe that their world is going to end.
That there is nothing left to give. The only significant people they have left in their lives are each other and Velutha, which to, is all about to change. With little left in their lives besides the love they share for each other, Estha and Rahel witness the brutal beating of the one who truly loved, the God of Small Things. “They heard the thud of wood on flesh. Boot on bone. On teeth. The muffled grunt when a stomach kicked in. The muted crunch of skull on cement. The gurgle of blood on a man’s breath when his lung is torn by the jagged end of a broken rib” (292).
Too young to understand these were history’s henchmen doing what society has bestowed on them to do, fear engulfs their bodies. No one ever told these two that their lives were going to consist of sorrow, fear and loneliness. They were never warned that their childhood was never even going to begin. The laughter, happiness and play that people make childhood out to be was nothing they had ever felt. How could it get any worse for these children? What more could they possibly bear to see or feel? What was left for them in their lives? The only connection that was keeping them alive was the love they share for each other.
On top of witnessing death and experiencing more fear than any human should feel, Estha and Rahel were blamed for everything bad that happened in their lives. “’It’s a terrible thing to take a person’s life,” Baby Kochamma said. “It’s the worst thing that anyone could ever do. Even God doesn’t forgive that. And yet, you did it. You are murderers. So now you will go to jail and your mother will go to jail because of you. Would you like that? ’” (300). Being accused of murder at age seven is not something that can ever be forgotten. These children will look back on their lives thinking of themselves as criminals, animals of their own kind.
Their whole lives will be shaped by these words that their own Aunt engraved into their minds. “If you want to save her, all you have to do is to go with the Uncle with the big meeshas. He’ll ask you a question. One question. All you have to do is say ‘yes. ’ Then we will all go home. It’s so easy. It’s a small price to pay” (302). A woman who created a life of fear for these kids was now forcing them to make the biggest decision of their lives. The decision whether to save their mother with lies or to put this woman in her place would shape the rest of their lives.
For years to come this scene played in their heads over and over again. As children. As teenagers. As adults. This moment shaped who they had become. No one could ever take back what they saw. Their childhood would exist only in excruciating memory. In order to create a sense of closure for Estha and Rahel, they did something unspeakable, something that could only exist in a childhood filled with terror and remorse. Twenty three years later they find each other again. “They were strangers who had met in a chance encounter. They had known each other before Life began.
Only the quietness and emptiness fitted together like stacked spoons. Only that they held each other close, long after it was over. Only that once again they broke the love laws. That lay down who should be loved. And how. And how much” (310). Twenty three years later and they are still that of “one”. Experiencing so much pain with someone makes you want to love them to the deepest depth there is. They understood each other in ways that no one could ever understand and they grieve together all that they have lost. “There was little anyone could say to clarify what happened.
Nothing that would separate sex from love. Or needs from feelings” (310). As controversial as this scene is, the author gives the readers the idea that their childhood scarred the rest of their existence. These characters had nothing left to live for. Emptiness filled their lives and the only way to feel complete was to have each other; as close as humanly possible. After everything they went through, making love with each other seemed like the only right thing to do. This was the only way to feel alive, to rid the feeling of numbness that has encompassed one’s entire body.
Without a doubt the two egg twins’ lives rapidly spiraled down from an early innocence to a later horrifying wisdom. Many people think a childhood consists only of laughter, happiness and play. Arundhati Roy opened the eyes to the naive readers and gave a sense of reality. Estha and Rahel will never be the same. Not only because they witnessed horrifying events, but also because true love was something they had only felt with each other. In the first seven years of their lives they were molested, watched a young girl die, witnessed a brutal beating, accused of murder and worst of all, unloved.
How do you come back from that? How do you learn to love and be loved? Sometimes the only way you can come back from a life so tragic is to become whole again, to put back together the missing pieces. And that is exactly what they did; “Esthappen and Rahel thought of themselves together as Me, and separately, individually, as We or Us. As though they were a rare breed of Siamese twins, physically separate, but with joint identities” (4). Works Cited Wikipedia contributors. “bildungsroman. ” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 2013. <http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bildungsroman>.