Anoxic Brain Injury: Causes And Effects Essay Example

Introduction

People with existing conditions are always at risk of experiencing additional negative health outcomes, and one of them is anoxic brain injury. At the same time, such a brain injury can also affect healthy individuals, including children, as a result of accidents such as drowning. Moreover, the eventual health outcomes following anoxic brain injury for individuals are often worse than those resulting from traumatic health injuries (Agrawal et al., 2020). Essentially, anoxic brain injury is a severe condition, the aspects of which must be analyzed thoroughly. I believe it is particularly vital to list, describe, and summarize all of the core effects of anoxic brain injury on the human body.

About Anoxic Brain Injury

It is first necessary to provide a comprehensive definition for the condition in question to ensure a better understanding of its impact. Anoxic brain injury refers to a type of injury which constitutes the result of the reduced supply of oxygen to the human brain or a limited cerebral blood flow (Zasler et al., 2021). Since oxygen is vital for the proper functioning of people’s bodies, the lack of it can lead to severe health consequences, including the death of brain cells. Every instance of anoxic brain injury must be identified as an emergency situation and therefore requires immediate medical assistance.

Causes of Anoxic Brain Injury

The causes of anoxic brain injury are diverse, and generally, people of all ages can suffer from them. Due to the fact that patients with limited cerebral blood flow also may have anoxic brain injury, the condition is common in people who get a clot (Capizzi et al., 2020). The most common cause of the condition is respiratory failure due to the aforementioned drowning, tracheal obstruction, carbon monoxide poisoning, or strangulation (Hrishi et al., 2019). At the same time, anoxic brain injury also can be caused by cardiac failure resulting from septic shock or substantial blood loss (Annoni et al., 2021). Thus, despite the fact that anoxic brain injury can affect any person, people who have problems with their heart, usually older adults, are more susceptible to the condition.

Effects of Anoxic Brain Injury on the Human Body

The effects of anoxic brain injury on the body are different depending on the severity of the causes experienced by the patient and range between mild and severe ones. Effects can include dizziness, headache, vision problems, and numbness in different parts of the body (Zasler et al., 2021). Essentially, such symptoms may be difficult for the patient themselves to recognize as indicative of anoxic brain injury since they are quite universal. Cyanosis is one of the key signs of the condition since it involves a change in the tint of the skin’s color to a bluish one which demonstrates the lack of oxygen in the blood (Hrishi et al., 2019). Moreover, the person experiencing the condition may also partially lose their ability to concentrate and maintain attention, as well as short-term memory (Kim et al., 2019). Therefore, anoxic brain injury can adversely affect a person’s life for a short or even long-term period, and requires analysis and detection of symptoms of additional abnormalities.

Nevertheless, the mild effects of anoxic brain injury may soon transform into more severe ones, which will require immediate hospitalization of the suffering person. In the case of anoxic brain injury, neuronal injury occurs progressively, and its magnitude is directly linked to the initial insult and its duration. According to research, during anoxic brain injury, the dead tissue begins to swell at a rapid rate due to increased volume of the water content of the cells becoming pale while arteries narrow (Fugate, 2017). At the same time, neurons are not the only cells which become subject to necrosis. In addition, oligodendrocytes, myelinating cells of the nervous system also suffer from it. Essentially, under anoxic brain injury, the aforementioned cells start to gradually die as the oxygen stops being supplied to the brain. In response to the necrosis, inflammation occurs, which involves a production of cytokines and proteases, while at the level of molecules, catabolic products accumulation can be observed (Hrishi et al., 2019). Thus, the aforementioned processes lead to neurological deficit accompanied by demyelination emerges, which eventually result in physical symptoms listed earlier, such as vision problems.

At the same time, there are certain areas of the brain which may be more susceptible to the condition and its effects. Necrosis resulting from the absence of oxygen can begin to impact the occipital and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus (Prosser et al., 2018). As a result, as each of these areas becomes affected, the person suffering from the condition starts to experience numerous physical symptoms. For instance, once the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex become impacted, the individual can sense weakness in their feet and arms, as well as problems with coordination and balance of their body. The function of muscles may also be hindered since they can turn rigid and even spastic, preventing the person from staying in control of their limbs. Basically, the person may start to exhibit movements which are convulsive and may get tremors. The Man-in-the-Barrel syndrome is one of the conditions which accompanies anoxic brain injury, and it involves an inability to move arms which is caused by cerebral hypoperfusion (Hrishi et al., 2019). Apart from physical symptoms, there are many other ones affecting different parts of the body.

As mentioned above, the person suffering from anoxic brain injury can experience problems with vision, speech, and ability to think in a proper manner. For example, the occipital lobe, which is susceptible to the condition in question, when affected, can cause cortical blindness, which can be permanent (Zasler et al., 2021). Additionally, with a damaged hippocampus, the patient may have problems with memory which can become long-term. Due to the aforementioned symptoms, the person with the injury may be unable to communicate both verbally and in writing. It is also common among people with the injury to experience problems with the ability to reason and analyze information which happens due to the frontal lobe damage (Hrishi et al., 2019). Nevertheless, the most severe effects of anoxic brain injury are coma and persistent vegetative state, which can last until the death of the person.

Conclusion

Anoxic brain injury constitutes a condition which involves the lack of oxygen supply or cerebral blood flow to the brain. It was discovered that injury can be caused by cardiac failure, excessive blood loss, strangulation, drowning, and carbon monoxide poisoning. By now, I recognize the fact that the effects on the human body of anoxic brain injury are diverse, and their severity depends on how long the person is prevented from getting the oxygen they need. Based on the literature review which was conducted, I can conclude that the answer to the research topic is that it is important to list, describe, and summarize all of the core effects of anoxic brain injury on the human body.

References

Agrawal, N., Faruqui, R., & Bodani, M. (2020). Oxford textbook of neuropsychiatry. Oxford University Press.

Annoni, F., Peluso, L., Gouvea Bogossian, E., Creteur, J., Zanier, E. R., & Taccone, F. S. (2021). Brain protection after anoxic brain injury: Is lactate supplementation helpful?. Cells, 10(7), 1714.

Capizzi, A., Woo, J., & Verduzco-Gutierrez, M. (2020). Traumatic brain injury: An overview of epidemiology, pathophysiology, and medical management. Medical Clinics, 104(2), 213-238.

Fugate, J. (2017). Anoxic-ischemic brain injury. Neurologic Clinics, 35(4), 601–611.

Hrishi, A., Prathapadas, U., Lionel, K. Puthanveedu, D., & Sethuraman, M. (2019). Anoxic brain injury: The abominable malady. Journal of Neuroanaesthesiology and Critical Care, 6(2), 96–104.

Kim, Y. H., Lee, K. S., Kim, Y. S., Kim, Y. H., & Kim, J. H. (2019). Effects of hypoxic preconditioning on memory evaluated using the T-maze behavior test. Animal cells and systems, 23(1), 10-17.

Prosser, D., Grigsby, T., & Pollock, J. (2018). Unilateral anoxic brain injury secondary to strangulation identified on conventional and arterial spin-labeled perfusion imaging. Radiology Case Reports, 13(3), 563–567.

Zasler, N., Katz, D., & Zafonte, R. (2021). Brain injury medicine (3d ed.). Springer.

Nutrients In Different Food Groups

Background

The composition of nutrients, both macronutrients and micronutrients vary significantly in different food items and food groups. When these food items are classified botanically or taxonomically, some food groups prove to have a higher concentration of certain nutrients than others. The variation in nutrients concentration in these food groups is mainly associated with the nature and chemical composition of the food as well as individual nutrients. For example, water-soluble vitamins, classified and micro-nutrients are highly concentrated in green leafy and cruciferous vegetables while their concentration is low in animal products such as meat and dairy products. Therefore, this essay explains more about the variety of nutrients in different food groups, the reasons for these variations, and the health benefits associated with the nutrients.

Macronutrients

Just as the name suggests macronutrients are the nutrients that are required in the body in large amounts. These nutrients play a major role in maintaining normal growth and development, supplying energy for the vital organs and protecting these organs. The macronutrients comprise the carbohydrates, both simple and complex, lipids, and proteins (Meyer, 2018). Each of these nutrients plays a different role in the body. Additionally, the distribution in different food groups significantly varies. These macronutrients are extensively discussed below.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates lie under the macronutrients classification and their main role is to provide the body with energy, which is produced as glucose after carbohydrates metabolism. Both simple and complex carbohydrates give energy to body organs and cells. The main difference between the two types of carbohydrates is in their chemical structure. Simple carbohydrates have one to two sugar molecules in their structure while complex ones have more than two sugar molecules. When foods are grouped taxonomically or botanically, leaves, cruciferous vegetables, and seeds have a high level of complex carbohydrates. On the other end, animal products have significantly low levels of complex carbohydrates (Clevers, E., & Urlings, 2015). Simple carbohydrates are found in processed foods such as juices and dairy products. For example, from the datasheet presented, fresh orange juice has 20.8 grams of simple sugars and 5g of complex sugars.

Proteins

Proteins are another macronutrient needed in the body for the synthesis of body tissues. The muscle mass of a person is made of proteins, which are simplified into amino acids. Dietary protein varies in different food groups. For instance, the leaves, cruciferous vegetables, and fruits have the lowest amounts of protein while seeds and animal products have the highest respect. The variation in these food groups is mainly due to the nature of the food (Havemeier, et al, 2017). Vegetables, both leafy and cruciferous are high in vitamins while grains and animal products are high in macronutrients.

Another variation of proteins in different foods is in the type of protein. Proteins of high biological value are found in animal sources of foods, i.e meats, eggs, and milk. While plants are good sources of protein, this protein is of low biological value. The seeds also have antinutrient factors such as phytates which reduce the bioavailability of these proteins during the digestion process.

Micronutrients

Unlike the ma macronutrients, micronutrients are required in the body in much lesser amounts. These nutrients are involved in the metabolic pathways, which metabolize the macronutrients. Vital organs such as the heart, brain, kidneys, lungs, and liver greatly depend on these nutrients for normal functioning. The distribution of micronutrients in different taxonomic and botanic food groups significantly varies. The variation can be associated with the nature of a food group or individual food items. Food processing and preservation methods can also affect the micronutrient levels in a food item (Havemeier, et al, 2017). These nutrients are explained more in the subtopics below.

Micronutrients (Vitamins)

Vitamins are broadly classified into water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. The water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and are heat-labile. These vitamins also do not require oils for them to be efficiently absorbed. On the other hand, fat-soluble vitamins are not soluble in water and require oil to be efficiently absorbed.

Thiamine (B1)

Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a significant role in the Krebs cycle, a metabolic pathway that converts carbohydrates into energy. Vitamin B1 also is involved in conducting nerve signals and muscle contraction. Food groups with high levels of thiamine include seeds and cruciferous vegetables. However, the thiamine levels in seeds are higher than in all other food groups as this nutrient is mainly found in foods with complex carbohydrates (Clevers, E., & Urlings, 2015). Polished grains such as corn, wheat, and rice are low in thiamine.

Niacin (B3)

Niacin is also a water-soluble vitamin that is found in various food groups. The nutrient is involved in energy metabolism. It also helps in the regulation of body cholesterol levels. Food groups with high levels of niacin include the underground storage organs, animal products, and seeds (Clevers, E., & Urlings, 2015).

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is necessary for maintaining skin integrity and promoting good vision. Underground storage organs such as sweet potatoes and carrots have high levels of vitamin A, followed by cruciferous vegetables and leaves. All red-orange colored fruits and vegetables are good sources of vitamin A. The main reason why this nutrient is selectively distributed in these food groups is that they contain the beta-carotene pigment, which is responsible for their color (Havemeier, et al, 2017). Some leaves such as spinach also have relatively high amounts of vitamin A. For example, spinach has 609.5 micrograms, and sweet potatoes have as high as 1921.8 micrograms.

Vitamin E

Just as vitamin A, vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that has antioxidant properties. Normally, the body gets oxidative stress from byproducts of metabolism, exposure to chemicals, long-term use of drugs, and obesity. Oxidative stress can cause diseases such as cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis and tamper with the management of diabetes Mellitus. Antioxidants scavenge the free radicals responsible for causing oxidative stress, thus reducing their negative impacts on health (Clevers, E., & Urlings, 2015). Food groups high in vitamin E are the seeds followed by green leafy vegetables. For example, almonds have 36.7 mg of vitamin E.

Micronutrients (Minerals)

Iron

Iron is an essential mineral in the body. It is involved in the formation of blood and helps to prevent anemia. Dietary iron deficiency can lead to iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Various food groups are rich in iron. However, dietary iron is classified as heme and non-heme iron. Although plant-based foods such as lentils and green leafy vegetables are rich sources of dietary iron, the iron from these foods cannot be readily absorbed in the body as it requires the aid of vitamin C (Meyer, 2018). In contrast, the heme iron from animal sources such as beef, chicken, and liver is readily absorbed snd does not require the aid of vitamin C.

Food groups with high levels of iron include seeds, leaves, and animal sources. For example, lentils have 12.5 mg of iron. Iron is significantly low in fruits and underground storage organs. Cruciferous vegetables have relatively higher levels of iron compared to fruits.

Calcium

Calcium mineral is an important component of bones and teeth. People with degenerative bone disorders have calcium losses, leaving their bones weak and brittle. The absorption of this mineral into the body requires the aid of vitamin D, which can be gotten from the sun and other dietary sources. Food groups that are high in calcium include seeds, cruciferous vegetables, dairy products, and leafy vegetables. Fleshy fruits and underground storage organs have significantly low amounts of calcium.

In conclusion, nutrients, both macronutrients, and micronutrients vary in their distribution in different food groups. The variation of these nutrients is mainly associated with the nature of food items and the nature of individual nutrients. For example, fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A are highly concentrated in red to orange pigmented foods. This is because these food items contain the betacarotene pigmentation responsible for the presence of this micronutrient (Meyer, 2018). Other nutrients also vary in their distribution levels in other taxonomic and botanic food groups. The table below shows a summary of the distribution of the nutrients discussed in the essay.

Macronutrients Micronutrients

(Vitamins)

Minerals
Fleshy fruits Medium High Medium
USO High High e.g vitamin A Medium
Leaves Low High High
Seeds High High High
Animal products High Medium Medium
Cruciferous Low High High

References

Clevers, E., & Urlings, M. (2015). From dietary guidelines to dietary guidance? European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 5(4), 250–259.

Havemeier, S., Erickson, J., & Slavin, J. (2017). Dietary guidance for pulses: the challenge and opportunity to be part of both the vegetable and protein food groups. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1392(1), 58–66.

Meyer, C. (2018). Diversity among older Australians is both an opportunity and a challenge. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 37(4), 239–240.

Marburg Virus And Ebola Virus: Epidemiology, Etiology And Symptoms

Introduction

Ebola virus, also called Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a fatal and rare disease caused by the Ebola virus. The virus affects humans and non-human primates such as gorillas, chimpanzees, and monkeys. Marburg disease is a hemorrhagic fever that is caused by the Marburg virus. This fever affects non-human primates and humans same as the Ebola virus. The two viruses originate from the same family of filovirus.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the research study is to identify the comparison between Marburg and Ebola virus with respect to their epidemiology, etiology, and symptoms.

Importance of the Topic to Public Health

Ebola and Marburg virus are very deadly viruses that result in significant outbreaks with high fatalities. These viruses have been underestimated in the current society because their outbreaks have been experienced in a few parts of the world. However, the number of fatalities experienced in those areas is very high. It is imperative to note the two viruses and incorporate further research to identify possible measures to prevent an outbreak. Also, whenever there is an outbreak, the public should identify the symptoms so that containment measures can be taken to avoid the further spread of the disease.

Study Design

To identify the comparison between Ebola and Marburg virus, the researcher makes use of a literature review. Many researchers have described the two viruses from different perspectives but with the same outcomes.

Literature Review

The Ebola virus was first reported in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Sudan. Since 2000, the number of cases of the Ebola virus in Africa has significantly increased, making it among the major viruses in Africa. Marburg virus was first reported in 1967 in Serbia, Belgrade, and Germany (Ndjoyi-Mbiguino et al., 2020; Kortepeter et al., 2020). In Africa, the first case was reported in Uganda, which resulted from human contact with imported green monkeys’ human tissues. The Ebola virus is mainly distributed in West Africa, Spain, Thailand, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States (Wolfe et al., 2020). Marburg virus is mainly distributed in Germany, DRC, Angola, and Uganda (Jacob et al., 2020).

Ebola affects people of any age, with more than 80% affecting adults between 21 and 60. Occupations with a high risk of Ebola virus infection include laboratory technicians, nurses, and physician assistants (Kellerborg et al., 2020). Marburg virus also affects individuals of all ages, with high cases in adults because they are physically active (Pawęska et al., 2018). With the Marburg virus, the population at a higher risk are family members and hospital staff (Ristanović et al., 2020). The Ebola virus has no cure, and therefore prevention and control methods are significant. Prevention and control include the setup of quarantine zones for the infected people. Social distancing is substantial in preventing the further spread of the Ebola virus (Burki, 2020). Prevention and control of the Marburg virus are similar to the Ebola virus, with an additional focus on avoiding sick non-human primates and fruit bats.

The primary Etiology of the Ebola virus is not yet known by scientists. It is believed that the Ebola virus results from the fluids and tissues of infected non-human primates and bats. Ebola virus transmission is through human-animal contact, especially during the consumption or hunting of infected non-human primates (Arcos González et al., 2020). Similar to the Ebola virus, the Marburg virus leading cause is not identified. Ebola symptoms include muscle pain, fatigue, sore throat, fever, headache, vomiting, rash, kidney and liver impairment, and diarrhea. Symptoms of the Marburg virus include nausea, abdominal pain, chest pain, jaundice, shock, pancreas and liver failure, vomiting, and massive hemorrhage (Becker et al., 2018).

References

Arcos González, P., Fernández Camporro, Á., Eriksson, A., & Alonso Llada, C. (2020). The epidemiological presentation pattern of Ebola virus disease outbreaks: Changes from 1976 to 2019. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 35(3), 247-253.

Becker, S., Feldmann, H., Geisbert, T., & Kawaoka, Y. (2018). Marburg and Ebola viruses – marking 50 years since their discovery. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 218(suppl_5), Si-Si.

Burki, T. (2020). Ebola virus disease in DR Congo. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(4), 418-419.

Jacob, S., Crozier, I., Fischer, W., Hewlett, A., Kraft, C., & Vega, M. et al. (2020). Ebola virus disease. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 6(1).

Kellerborg, K., Brouwer, W., & van Baal, P. (2020). Costs and benefits of early response in the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, 18(1).

Kortepeter, M., Dierberg, K., Shenoy, E., & Cieslak, T. (2020). Marburg virus disease: A summary for clinicians. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 99, 233-242.

Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, A., Zoa-Assoumou, S., Mourembou, G., & Ennaji, M. (2020). Ebola and Marburg Virus: A brief review. Emerging and Reemerging Viral Pathogens, 201-218.

Pawęska, J., Jansen van Vuren, P., Kemp, A., Storm, N., Grobbelaar, A., & Wiley, M. et al. (2018). Marburg virus Infection in Egyptian rousette bats, South Africa, 2013–20141. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1134-1137.

Ristanović, E., Kokoškov, N., Crozier, I., Kuhn, J., & Gligić, A. (2020). A forgotten episode of Marburg virus disease: Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1967. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 84(2).

Wolfe, D., Taylor, M., & Zarrabian, A. (2020). Lessons learned from Zaire ebolavirus to help address urgent needs for vaccines against Sudan ebolavirus and Marburg virus. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 16(11), 2855-2860.