Anthropology: Units 3–4 Final Essays Sample Paper

Essay 1 – Reviewing Key Anthropological Approaches

Section 1 – Inequality

Inequality and social stratification are the central themes of Module 7. The most crucial point in this module is that social position is a critical part of society, and societies produce different social classes grounded on this position. The classes created have additional access to power, prestige, and resources. The social classes are dropped on numerous factors, such as wealth, occupation, education, and race (Cultural anthropology; new introduction). In the United States, inequality is apparent in numerous aspects, including healthcare. Access to healthcare is uneven across different social classes, and this difference can lead to poorer health issues for lower-class individuals. As a result, the United States ranks low compared to other advanced countries regarding healthcare issues.

One particular experience of glaring inequality is related to education. I attended a public academy with inadequate resources, and scholars had to buy their handbooks and textbooks, while scholars from wealthy families attended private institutions with sufficient reading materials. This difference made me feel resentful and frustrated because I felt like I was at a disadvantage. In addressing this form of inequality, one approach could be to increase backing for public, academic institutions, provide adequate textbooks, and give full scholarships to learners who come from lower-income families.

Section 2 – Language and Culture

Module 8 focuses on the relationship between language and culture. In my own life, language and culture are intertwined. For instance, the language I use when communicating with my family members differs from the language I use when communicating with my associates. At home, I speak in my native language, and the discussion revolves around family, food, and artistic traditions. At work, I talk in English, and the debate revolves around work-related issues, and the tone of the discussion is more formal. Eventually, when I’m with my musketeers, the language I use is casual and relaxed, and the discussion tone varies, depending on the environment. These different types of language use suggest artistic variability in our lives. Various cultural and social contexts need different types of language use, and the language we use reflects the morals, values, and beliefs of the society in which we live.

Section 3- Symbols, Ritual, and Religion

Ritual is an emblematic exertion that is constituted by repeated actions, and it plays an integral part in constructing, conveying, and querying meaning. Anthropology of religion has shown me that religion isn’t just a set of beliefs but a system of importance and power that shapes the worldview of individuals and groups (Crapo, Anthropology of religion). A ritual that I’ve shared is a traditional marriage form. The ceremony is usually characterized by numerous symbols that convey meaning, similar to the rings, the marriage dress, and the flowers. The marriage ritual expressed power relations by pointing out the need for having a bride, groom, and their families. The ritual also said social cohesion by bringing together two families and their friends to celebrate the couple’s union.

Essay 2- Cuba, Anthropology, and Studying Culture

Section A-First- Person Journal Entry


It has been six months since my cousin left for Miami, and many things have changed so much in Havana. The government has allowed private businesses to operate, and the megacity is full of foreigners. I work at a motel whereby the primary source of our income is the tourists. But life is still strenuous; the cost of living and salaries haven’t increased. The government still controls numerous aspects of our lives, and corruption is rampant. My friend was arrested for protesting against the government, and I’m hysterical to speak out. Despite these challenges, I’m hopeful for the future. The changes in the megacity have brought new openings, and people are more open-minded.

Section B- Anthropological Analysis

As an anthropology cultural and social context, the use of the Spanish language, for instance, may suggest a cultural affinity to Spanish- speaking countries or an adherence to the Spanish colonizer heritage in the region. The use of the English language may imply a globalized mindset or an affinity to American culture.

Analyzing the Journal Entry

As an anthropologist, I would approach the journal entry regarding three crucial generalities power, identity, and globalization. The starting point is to examine power relations in the journal entry/ letter, particularly concerning the government and its programs. Roland’s book highlights how the Cuban government uses its power to control its citizens and the impact this has on their daily lives. I would look for signs of this in the journal entry, similar to mentions of government restrictions or limitations on individual freedoms. Secondly, I would examine the theme of identity in the journal entry. Roland’s book emphasizes Cuban identity’s complex and contested nature, particularly concerning ethnicity and race. I look for suggestions for this in the journal entry, similar to references to skin color, language use, or any cultural practices. Eventually, I would examine the impact of globalization on the journal entry. Roland’s book argues that Cuba is witnessing significant changes as a result of increased globalization and tourism, which are bringing new cultural and social influences and, at the same time, promoting the economic growth of the country ((Life and Debt, film) (Module 4-Introduction to Globalization lecture). Again, I look for suggestions in the journal entry as references to foreign tourists, global brands, or new technologies.

Applying Broad Course Concepts to the Journal Entry

Drawing on broad course generalities, I apply the following concepts to the journal entry: power relations, cultural hybrid, and the impact of neoliberal globalization. First, the concept of cultural integration can help explain how the author of the journal entry navigates multiple artistic influences and individualities. Roland’s book highlights how Cuban culture is a mongrel of African, Spanish, and indigenous influences. The journal entry may reflect this mongrel’s references to different artistic practices and languages.

Secondly, the conception of power relations can help explain how the author of the journal entry navigates power relations in their daily life. Roland’s book emphasizes how the Cuban government controls its citizens and the impact this has on their lives. The journal entry may reflect this power dynamic in its references to government programs or limitations on individual freedoms. Eventually, the conception of the impact of neoliberal globalization can help explain how the author of the journal entry navigates the forces of globalization (.(Life and Debt, film), (Module 4-Introduction to Globalization lecture) Roland’s book argues that Cuba is witnessing significant changes due to increased globalization and tourism. The journal entry may reflect these changes in its references to foreign tourists, global brands, or new technologies.

Reflection on the Anthropological Perspective

As someone interested in the anthropological perspective, I find it fascinating how various cultural concepts and practices shape people’s perceptions. The journal entry provides a rich data source that can be anatomized using anthropological generalities and tools, pressing the complex ways culture, power, and globalization intersect in contemporary Cuba. As an anthropologist, it’s important to acknowledge the diversity and complexity of human experiences and to seek to understand and appreciate the distinctive cultural practices and beliefs of different communities and societies.


Crapo, Richley H. Anthropology of religion. McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Keesing, F. M. (1965). Cultural anthropology. Mittal Publications.

Kaifa Roland’s Cuban Color in Tourism and La Lucha

Shriar, A. J. (2005). Life and debt.

Anti-Terrorism And Counterterrorism. Sample College Essay

Terrorism postures an ever-growing risk to the global community, and countries worldwide are taking activities to end it. Counterterrorism and anti-terrorism are two of the most frequently used stabilities in this setting. While they might seem substitutable, there are fundamental differences between the two. This dissertation aims to comprehensively define and describe anti-terrorism and counterterrorism, explain the differences, and highlight outstanding programs and actors within each. Anti-terrorism refers to efforts made to prevent a terrorist attack from happening. It is a preventative approach to counterterrorism that works to prevent turns of terror before they happen by targeting the roots of terrorism. These roots could be protests, hatred, and a desire to inculcate fear, among others, that make individuals or groups turn out to be terrorists.

Anti-terrorism plans are designed to reject a terrorist from having the opportunity to attack by disrupting their planning and resources. For instance, the government may use intelligence gathering, screening of personnel, or strict border controls to thwart a terrorist cell or individual from entering a country. In addition, countries may use military and economic aid to hostage the forces behind terrorism and to talk about the protests that drive individuals toward violence. Anti-terrorism purposes at ending terrorist turns or reducing the likelihood of those acts in the future. Counterterrorism, conversely, refers to the distrustful measures taken to diminish the effect of a terrorist attack once it has occurred. Counterterrorism targets reply to an attack or threat quickly to mitigate the damage done and stop similar incidents in the future (Taylor & Swanson, 2018). Counterterrorism means law enforcement, military intervention, and intelligence actions that focus on discussing terrorist events.

Law enforcement agencies, such as the FBI, are accountable for inspecting terrorist spells, following down accused, and prosecuting them under the law. Counterterrorism actions may include creating an emergency response plan, such as locking down an area where an attack is taking place and providing medical help to the victims. Military intervention is another approach to counterterrorism. This method includes the placement of Special Forces to penetrate and neutralize terrorist cells. Military intervention can aid in infringing on the organizational structure of terrorist clusters by capturing or eradicating their headship, destroying weapons and infrastructure, and rendering them powerless to plan and carry out their attacks.

Intelligence operations are also vibrant in counterterrorism. Intelligence services track the events of terrorist organizations and part this information with allied countries to avoid terrorist attacks. By continuously monitoring and tracking terrorist machinists, the intelligence community is better suited to respond to an attack rapidly and effectively. One of the most excellent protuberant cases of an anti-terrorism program is the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Recognized after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, it is accountable for safeguarding the protection of the United States contrary to local and global pressures (Taylor & Swanson, 2018). The DHS gears an array of programs aimed at avoiding terrorist attacks by detecting and addressing gaps in the country’s security infrastructure. For instance, the DHS has exhibited improved skills (such as radical screening skills) and safety measures at US ports, airfields, and transit schemes.

United Nations Counterterrorism Centre (UNCTC) is the other technology that offers technical support and training to countries on strengthening their legal frameworks, developing real criminal justice systems, and increasing the dimensions of their security services to interrupt and dismantle terrorist bustle. An example of a counterterrorism program is the National Response Framework (NRF), a complete guide that summarizes how the United States responds to incidents – including terrorist attacks (Taylor & Swanson, 2018). It outlines the roles and tasks of federal, state, and local authorities in emergency response situations and details various actions to be reserved to limit the harm instigated by a terrorist attack.

The Department of Defense is an additional example of a counterterrorism actor. Post-9/11, an essential restructuring of the Department of Defense happened, resulting in an improved emphasis on counterterrorism and irregular warfare. Despite being dissimilar in their approach, anti-terrorism and counterterrorism are closely interlaced. They work together to ensure the protection and security of citizens by speaking out about issues that prime to violent extremism while simultaneously replying to real threats on the ground. Additionally, successful anti-terrorism energies can also have a counterterrorism effect. Refuting terrorists the chance to execute their strategies helps mitigate the need for counterterrorism measures.

Understanding the alterations between anti-terrorism and counterterrorism is essential in developing effective plans for countering terrorism. A comprehensive tactic must address the source causes of terrorism while raising effective measures for responding to terror spells. Non-state and individual actions have increasingly complicated the fight contrary to terrorism; thus, a comprehensive tactic is necessary (Taylor & Swanson, 2018). While many strategies and actors are involved, there is a need for improved collaboration, information-sharing, and coordinated reply measures between agencies and actors involved in counterterrorism energies.

Finally, the CIA is accountable for gathering and investigating intelligence from a variety of sources to identify terrorizations to national security, including those postured by terrorist clusters. It collaborates with other agencies, including the FBI, to prevent terrorist attacks inside and outside the US (Taylor & Swanson, 2018). In conclusion, anti-terrorism and counterterrorism signify different methods and tools for addressing the matters of terrorism. Anti-terrorism is focused on avoiding and eliminating the root causes of terrorism, while disputing terrorism involves responses to actual or potential terrorist acts. Governments are global, and administrations are reliably emerging new strategies for combating terrorism, and numerous programs and actors play an important role in these efforts.


Taylor, R. W., & Swanson, C. R. (2018). Terrorism, intelligence, and homeland security. Pearson.

Babies’ Pre-Linguistic Period & Caregivers’ Support To Facilitate Language Acquisition Sample Essay


This paper seeks to compare and contrast two recordings of infants’ pre-linguistic period and the caregivers’ role in facilitating language acquisition. “Talking baby at 3 months old” by Weibell is the first video that will be analyzed in depth for this paper. The second YouTube video to be evaluated is “Dad has a hilariously adorable argument with his infant daughter.” The participants in the first video are a mother and her three-month-old son, Carlon. Based on the child’s comfort in the video, the mother and child are seated in a comfortable environment, which is likely the child’s home. The topic of discussion in this video is the child’s disposition. Because he was previously angry with her, the mother continued asking the infant if he was feeling okay. Therefore, they discuss whether the infant missed her and what he did while she was away.

In contrast, the second video features a father and his 2-month-old daughter. In this video, the father attempts to initiate a conversation with his two-month-old daughter while the child tries to participate to the best of her abilities. The father informs his daughter that she is only two months old and that he disapproves of her dating males.

Video 1.

The video depicts a carer attempting to use dialogue to calm a crying newborn who was three months old. She has made sure the discussion is tranquil by using pleasant and relaxing phrases to ensure the baby reacts appropriately and feels loved and cared for. The caregiver keeps talking to the baby in a child-friendly tone so that she may get down on the baby’s level and get a similar reaction from him.

The caregiver’s tone and word choice conveys the impression that she comprehends all the child says to her in his infant language. This gives the impression that she can understand the child. She asks him questions while listening to what he says and giving him signs. She keeps saying, “tell me more,” hoping that the child would feel more at ease and try to mimic her speech pattern. The caregiver’s tone is very reassuring and childlike, which helps the patient feel at ease. To get the infant to connect with her, she sometimes raises her voice, but she always does it in a kind and comforting way.

She takes her time speaking so that the infant may fully understand her. She also uses a lot of repetition to get the infant to respond to her questions and requests. For example, she may ask the infant, “Then what else?” Repeat after me, “What else did you do” By repeating the lines and making sure the baby understood what she was conveying via language, she received affirmation from the baby when the baby made a poop sound, and she asked whether the baby popped.

In terms of morphemes, the caregiver does not make much use of either kind. The utterances are brief and punctuated at just the right places to elicit a response from the infant. In contrast, the infant responds to almost every word she says throughout the movie. The infant has kept constant eye contact throughout the video and responded to her with both words and regular facial expression changes in what seems to be a child’s language. Baby plays at being shocked and upset before telling Mom how much fun he had swinging while she was gone.

The youngster seems to grasp what is being said to them during the whole engagement. The character’s responses show this to be true. He swings with the caregiver and giggles whenever his mother mentions swinging. When the caretaker inquires whether he has eaten, he says, “No.” To confirm, he nods his head and nods his tongue. In addition, she asks him if he wants more, and he says no. Once again, he gives an affirmative response in his childlike language and with a nod.

Video 2.

The father in the second video is severely and furious as he tries to grab his daughter. The pitch of his voice is high, yet he doesn’t seem distressed. The father’s tone is authoritative as if he were attempting to convince the youngster to be quiet and listen to him because of his superior status. The kid and the father both seem like they are from Africa, which would explain the African American accent. The father insists his daughter listen to him silently, saying, “I’m serious. The conversation with the daughter in the vernacular is not meant to be lighthearted or playful. He raises his voice to make it clear to his daughter that she should stop replying immaturely since he is upset and not in a pleasant mood. The father’s tone, mannerisms, and pitch are mild and accommodating, so he doesn’t scare the infant and lead her to scream.

The father often employed inflectional morphemes in this film. “Don’t be talking back” is an example of an inflectional morpheme. He continues repeating this phrase to get the kid to stop listening to him and engage with him. His use of the words “I am playing with you” immediately after the first line reinforces the idea that the daughter should be quiet and pay attention. He also utilizes the inflectional morpheme “What you talking” in his speech. During their chat, he uses these three inflectional morphemes to soften the tone and make it more conversational.

The infant continues responding to his words, but just how he would want. The infant continues to interact with her by crying and making other sounds. She constantly tries to prove to him that she is just as strong as he is by escaping from his grasp. This demonstrates that the child’s voice pitch and tone mirrored the caregiver’s. She even gives the dad the side eye for doing the same thing at the story’s start.

Comparison and Contrast

Both movies have in common that the youngster understands the caregiver’s tone and pitch and reacts appropriately. The youngster in the first video is consistently calm, joyful, and chirpy because the tone and pitch are highly calming and loving. In the second video, the caretaker’s tone and pitch are elevated, loud, and forceful, and the child’s reaction is the same. In the first video, the youngster is relaxed in his caretaker’s hand and only leaps when aroused. He has no immediate plans to abandon the caretaker. In the second video, the toddler wants to escape the talk completely by repeatedly trying to leave the caretaker. The kid seems open to the chat in the first video, but they want to go away in the second one.


In conclusion, comparing and contrasting the two videos helped clarify how infants respond to language acquisition. It can be concluded that the caregiver’s tone, cadence, and vocabulary determine the baby’s response to the conversation. If the words and tone are accommodating, the infant will respond similarly, and if the tone is high-pitched, the infant will react similarly and with the same facial expressions even at 2 months of age. The expressions of the caregiver play an essential role in determining the baby’s reaction to language acquisition.

Work cited.