Applying Cognitive Behavioral Theory In Chemical Dependency Sample Essay

Chemical dependency is an everyday occurrence that affects all economic and social classes throughout the world. In this paper I will explore Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and how it is used in working with chemical dependency or addiction patients’ in the counseling setting. In addition, when working with chemically dependent clients, not all treatments work for any particular client and some clients do not respond to any treatment at all.

Overview of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or CBT is a short term psychological therapy that usually involves seeing a therapist once a week for approximately five to twenty five sessions. The clinician using CBT may also set a number of assignments for the client to do between the therapy sessions, which are in some cases referred to as homework. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy focuses on a patient’s thoughts, cognitions, and behavior.

CBT attempts to breaks down a client’s issue into smaller components and tries to identify specific problematic thoughts and behaviors, which also known as triggers. Once these thoughts and behaviors have been broken down and identified, the therapist and client can intervene, not only to promote recovery, but to learn new techniques as well. Cognitive behavioral therapy is goal oriented where the client and patient must to work together to meet objectives.

Applying CBT in Chemical Dependant Client’s: The main goal in a cognitive behavioral therapy session for chemical dependency is to discuss the changing relationship to addictive behavior and learn various coping strategies. In a typical cognitive behavioral counseling session, the client and counselor talk about beliefs and how each belief leads to a feeling. Together, the client and patient should identify behaviors causing him or her to take part in the use of the certain chemical they are dependant on. There is a vast amount of techniques when using CTB. One technique that I thought was significant is the use of homework.

After exploring the persons’ beliefs, a clinician can then collaborately implement take home assignments, which keep track of the persons behavior on a daily basis. Once this is done the clinician and client can analyze the data and come up with strategies for coping with the dependency.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in a Future Work Setting: First of all, let me say that I am starting an internship this coming spring at the University of Texas Pan American Substance Abuse Center. So I will definitely be dealing with cases of chemical dependency. I recently spoke with the program director, Miguel Lopez who said, they primarily use Transactional Analysis and certain standardized instruments when working with chemically dependent students.

I think that CBT can be incorporated in some cases, especially for people who have multiple disorders. Many times people who are chemically dependent develop other mental disorders, for example, chemically induced depression. CBT has many techniques and is only one type of treatment available for chemical dependency. Conclusion:

In all, cognitive behavioral therapy is good when working chemical dependency; however, I believe that a combination of several different theories and techniques will facilitate better outcomes. I chose CBT because it is about the “here and now” and not like the dynamic approaches that look at the past and childhood. I do not have any firsthand experience working with chemical dependency but it is something that has always fascinated me and plan to find a career in. I have already started using some of these techniques on family and friends and the results are congruent with research I am currently doing.

A Psychoanalysis Of Holden Caulfield’s Daydreams And Fantasies

In The Catcher in the Rye, author J. D. Salinger creates a timeless antihero who embodies flawed adolescent confusion and brash teenage skepticism. Holden Caulfield’s two hundred-page testimony to the reader—littered with his colloquial prose and cynical opinion—helps the audience understand his attitudes and identify his yearnings and tendencies. One of the best ways to capture Holden’s imagination—to really understand why he does what he does—is to examine the several daydreams and fantasies that take place in his mind through the course of the book.

With some psychoanalysis, it easy to see what the daydreams reveal about Holden’s personality and under what circumstances he allows his mind to daydream. First, Holden sometimes daydreams as a plea to collect sympathy from surrounding people. He fantasizes about his family to vent the regret he has for his stoic family life. Finally, he imagines scenes in desperation to avoid the coming of age he fears so much. Holden fantasizes as a means of collecting sympathy, channeling regret, and stalling adulthood; he always allows himself to do so when he feels uncomfortable or pressured.

One of the “themes” that drives Holden’s mind is the genuine desire for sympathetic nurture. He needs people to pity him, and sometimes he fabricates situations to make people feel bad. One example is Holden’s encounter with Mrs. Morrow on the train. When the woman shows curiosity in Holden’s leaving school early, he replies with a white lie: “‘It’s me. I have to have this operation’” (Salinger 58). Mrs. Morrow begins to express sympathy, at which point Holden’s thirst is satisfied and he begins to regret leading her on. It is this type of charity which he thrives on.

When the situation does not allow Holden to sell his poor-boy routine in real life, he actually imagines his problems in an attempt to collect a sort of simulated pity. A good example is the hotel scene on pages 103-104: in reality, the pimp Maurice punches Holden. His fantasy then turns the scene into a shooting, where he is in noticeable pain but is eventually (and highly unlikely) comforted by his constant crush Jane. A similar situation is illustrated on page 154, where a drunk, depressed Holden dreams up his own funeral—the ultimate fantasy of pity collection.

It is easy to see that these daydreams all arose from a situation where Holden was uncomfortable—talking with an undesirable parent, being pressured by a pimp, and enduring a lonesome night in New York. It is also sensible from Holden’s many fantasies that he has trouble with his home life. He simultaneously regrets the subtle rift in his family and desires closer relationships with them. To be specific, he still has qualms about the way he treated his dead brother, Allie.

At one point, Holden begins to talk aloud to Allie in order to correct a mistake in their childhoods: “I kept telling him to go home and get his bike and meet us outside of Bobby Fallon’s house” (Salinger 98). Many regrets about trivial matters like these sum up to what Holden believes was an undeserved mishandling of Allie, something that still troubles him. He also wishes he had a closer relationship with his mother. This can be shown by his episode with Ackley in the book’s beginning: “Then I started horsing around a little bit…‘I think I’m going blind,’ I said in this very hoarse voice. Mother darling, everything’s getting so dark in here’” (Salinger 21). It is possible Holden’s “horsing around” is actually a subconscious cry for his mother; his games might be much deeper than he is willing to admit. Again, all the situations that produced these fantasies—Holden’s scene with Sunny the prostitute and his response to his roommate Stradlater going out with Jane—are uncomfortable and undesirable for Holden. Finally, it is noticeable from Holden’s fantasies and daydreams that he is desperate to avoid growing into adulthood.

This is especially true toward the end of the book, after a weekend of frightening self-discovery and many encounters with less-than-innocent adults. At this point Holden makes two separate, desperate claims in attempt to “escape” adulthood by going away. The first is made to Sally Hayes after their date: he starts with the erratic “‘Here’s my idea. How would you like to get the hell out of here? ’” (Salinger 132-3). Naturally, Sally declines, but not after Holden becomes angry at her and grows even more desperate in his pursuit of escape.

Soon after that, Holden tells Phoebe about his newly-hatched plan to leave again: “‘I know this guy whose grandfather’s got a ranch in Colorado. I may get a job out there’” (Salinger 165). It seems that in his desperation, he was subtly informing Phoebe of his idea, as if he was trying to extract her approval. Both of these instances, of course, were products of pressure on Holden. After extensive analysis on Holden Caulfield’s fantasies and dreams, it is easier to pinpoint his desires and tendencies.

Holden’s daydreams begin when he is forced into a high-pressure or uncomfortable situation. His imagination creates one of three scenarios at times like these: a situation where he can be pitied upon, one where he can reconcile his lost family ties and closeness, or one where he can escape the coming terrors of aging. While Holden may use these phenomena as portals of self-discovery, The Catcher in the Rye readers have discovered that the fantasies lucidly reveal Holden’s hidden insecurity and utter confusion.

Study Abroad Speech

Enrolling in classes is a regular activity for students. In the past, I did not find subjects such as European Social Politics, Globalization, and International Finance interesting. However, studying abroad this semester has ignited my curiosity about the world and inspired me to view America from a wider viewpoint. Many of us have gained knowledge about America through American literature, music, and films within the American public school system.

These various forms of media are typically produced by Americans, resulting in a biased perspective. Our society tends to focus inward and overlook the fact that our ancestors were much like us. Fortunately, I was able to break free from this pattern and study in Paderno del Grappa, Italy for a transformative three and a half-month period. Before we left, we were warned that we would likely experience culture shock when we arrived in our new countries.

Despite thinking I could avoid or handle any challenges, I was unprepared for the difficulty I would encounter. I believed that because our ancestors came from Europe and we adopted their customs, culture shock wouldn’t be a significant issue. However, my assumption proved to be completely wrong when I arrived in Italy. It took me about three weeks to adjust and overcome homesickness, but eventually, I became familiar with my new environment. Although initially overwhelmed, I soon realized that things were not as unfamiliar as they appeared.

At times, the accumulation of numerous tiny and unimportant factors would have a significant impact. Even the smallest things appeared peculiar: encountering Euro signs instead of dollar signs, applying oil and vinegar to a salad, having to pay for ketchup, and predominantly walking everywhere felt very unfamiliar. There were instances when, if given the opportunity, I would have immediately taken a flight back to Kansas. Being without my American phone and high-speed internet made me feel isolated from everyone back home.

The newfound feeling of insecurity I experienced was beneficial for my education and fostered my independence. The most thrilling aspect of my international experience was traveling. Throughout three and a half months, I visited Ireland, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Germany, and Spain. Each destination provided enjoyable and challenging experiences that were equally fulfilling. Among these moments, the ones that had a lasting impact were those of profound realization.

I had planned a ten-day adventure in Spain during my trip. I believed that my Spanish language skills, acquired from high school classes, would be very useful in helping our group create itineraries. However, upon arriving in Spain and attempting to use my vocabulary to find our hostel, I faced difficulties due to the significant differences between Spanish dialects in Spain and Mexico. Unfortunately, nobody could understand what I was trying to communicate.

The situation left me both perplexed and annoyed since I had expected to excel in this specific area. Nonetheless, it provided me with a new comprehension of the significance of language barriers. Understanding that there are more travels awaiting me, I recognized the potential advantage of leveraging this newfound knowledge in the future. To my astonishment, I found out that there are around 35 unique dialects derived from different regions in Italy. Although I was already aware of this fact, it still caught me off guard. Nevertheless, I wholeheartedly accepted and embraced these variations.

This encounter went beyond a mere language barrier and instead became a convergence of diverse cultures. There were instances when I experienced frustration and disillusionment as my training failed to facilitate effective communication. The entire ordeal left me disheartened; however, I eventually comprehended that certain lifestyles diverged significantly from my own upbringing. Regardless of personal preferences, I recognized the necessity to adapt to this unfamiliar way of life. As time progressed, my awareness of the environment heightened and I gradually grew more comfortable in this alien setting.

After overcoming personal obstacles, I gained an easier understanding and observation of lifestyle differences. For instance, in Ireland, people would sit next to strangers to start a conversation. In Italy, businesses close in the afternoon for rest. In Venice, people commute by boat, gondola, or walking if possible. In Spain, natives wake up from late evening naps around midnight to start partying until sunrise. In Germany, drinks are served without ice.

When you spend your entire life in one place, you become accustomed to a single way of living. This can lead to naivety as you are not exposed to new and diverse experiences. However, studying abroad provides the opportunity to explore the world beyond our 50 states, encompassing nearly 200 countries. This enables a better understanding of both others and oneself. Our country is so vast that it is often easy to remain within its borders for a lifetime, thus limiting our knowledge of international affairs.

A local Italian explained to me that Italy, being smaller in size compared to the US, could be covered in a news segment lasting only 5 minutes. This observation is valid, but it should not be used as an excuse for our lack of knowledge about global events. My study abroad experience has greatly increased my awareness of various subjects. It has continuously exposed me to new things and will enable me to approach my education with a wider perspective.

This experience will enhance my capability to consider all perspectives effectively, as it provides me with better-informed insights. I am pleased that study abroad programs are increasing in popularity in America. I urge everyone to seize the opportunity to live in a foreign country and develop a profound understanding of it, as there is an abundance of knowledge we can gain from our surroundings. Standing within Rome’s Coliseum was an exceptionally educational encounter, similar to my language challenges in Spain. These instances contribute to the holistic development of each nation and its people.

error: Content is protected !!