Main Ideas of Freire’s ‘Pedagogy of the Oppressed
In “Pedagogy of the Oppressed,” Paulo Freire offers a novel viewpoint on education, oppression, and social change. His work advocates for a pedagogical approach rooted in liberation and criticizes conventional educational systems that uphold oppressive power dynamics. This pedagogical strategy strongly emphasizes the necessity for education to serve as a vehicle for empowering disadvantaged people, enlightening society, and their liberation from oppressive systems (Freire, 2020). The principle of conscientization, dialogical education, the banking model of education, and the value of praxis are some core concepts of Freire’s pedagogy. Collectively, these viewpoints support an educational framework that fosters critical thinking, opposes hierarchical power relations, and encourages active engagement in the learning and social transformation processes.
The core of Freire’s pedagogical theory is his idea of conscientization, also known as critical consciousness. He contends that education should equip students with the skills to analyze and comprehend the sociopolitical and economic situations affecting their daily lives. People learn about the oppressive systems and institutions that support inequality through this process and gain the power to act responsibly and transformatively (Freire, 2020). For instance, in a literacy program, participants could talk about how illiteracy affects their lives, the power dynamics at work, and how education can give them the tools to confront these dynamics.
Contrary to the conventional banking education model, dialogical education is at the core of Freire’s philosophy. In the banking paradigm, students are viewed as obedient consumers of knowledge deposited by the teacher. A collaborative and egalitarian learning environment is fostered via dialogical education, which encourages active and reciprocal participation between educators and students. This strategy promotes candid communication, tolerance for other viewpoints, and knowledge production in collaboration.
According to Freire (2020), the need to translate knowledge into practical activities that result in social change is emphasized by Freire’s focus on praxis, the combination of theory and practice. According to this perspective, education is a tool for engaging with and changing the world and intellectual activity. Students are urged to analyze their personal experiences critically, be thoroughly aware of societal challenges, and actively address these issues.
Applying Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed to Activism for Social Justice and Change
The transformative Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire promotes critical consciousness and direct action in undoing oppressive structures. This educational philosophy can help activists promote social justice and meaningful social change. Using Freire’s ideals, activists may empower communities, promote discourse, and challenge and overthrow unjust power structures. Freire’s emphasis on unveiling oppression is crucial for activists (Freire, 2020). To apply this principle, activists must first recognize and analyze how oppressive systems operate. For example, in racial injustice, activists may expose how systemic racism manifests in policies, institutions, and everyday interactions. By shedding light on these oppressive mechanisms, activists empower marginalized communities to comprehend the root causes of their suffering and mobilize for change. This process aligns with Freire’s notion of conscientização, whereby individuals develop critical consciousness and the ability to perceive social realities accurately.
Freire’s concept of dehumanization is another essential element for activists. To apply this concept, activists must expose how oppressive systems strip marginalized individuals of their humanity. For example, in the fight against gender discrimination, activists may highlight how objectification and gender stereotypes dehumanize women and non-binary individuals. By amplifying these narratives, activists can rally support for dismantling harmful norms and advocating for gender equality.
According to Freire (2020), activists are also encouraged to link theory and practice by Freire’s call for praxis. Transformative activities that challenge oppressive structures can be taken by activists when they combine critical analysis with concrete strategy. For instance, activists may coordinate efforts to raise awareness of economic inequality with others to promote better working conditions and wealth redistribution measures. Freire’s view that social change develops from informed action and constant reflection is reflected in this method.
However, Freire’s idea revolves around the importance of collective action. Community organizing is a potent tool for activists challenging entrenched power structures. For instance, activists may work with communities to demand clean air and water to combat environmental injustice (Freire, 2020). By banding together, activists can present a united front against the status quo and pressure the government to meet the demands of those on the margins. Finally, the notion of amplifying underrepresented voices is consistent with Freire’s emphasis on the leadership potential of the oppressed. Activists may magnify these voices by providing outlets for those on the margins to speak out. Safe spaces can be created by activists fighting for LGBTQ+ rights so that people can feel comfortable speaking out and lobbying for legislative changes. This method challenges the idea that change must come from outside sources and equips underprivileged communities to drive their freedom.
For social justice advocates, Freire’s Pedagogy of Liberation is transformative. By understanding and utilizing his principles of revealing oppression, praxis, dehumanization, collective action, and empowering the oppressed, activists may effectively fight and deconstruct systems of inequity. Critical awareness, informed action, and collaboration can create permanent social change. As recommended readings illustrate, Freire’s work has inspired innumerable activists to use his ideas to fight for justice, demonstrating his pedagogical approach’s continued relevance and impact.
Freire, P. (2020). Pedagogy of the oppressed. In Toward a sociology of education (pp. 374–386). Routledge.
Chief Anthony Bourdain
By combining his many skills and voracious thirst for travel, Anthony Bourdain, a renowned name in culinary exploration and narrative, created a lasting impression on the globe. He was born on June 25, 1956, and lived until his death on June 8, 2018, leaving behind a legacy that included works of literature, travel writing, and food. Bourdain broke through barriers as an American celebrity chef, novelist, and travel documentary filmmaker by exploring the core of cultures, cuisines, and the human experience. Beyond his travel and culinary adventures, Bourdain was a talented writer who dabbled in fiction and historical nonfiction in addition to his wise stories of food and travel. Bourdain’s incredible experience tragically ended abruptly on June 8, 2018, when he was in France shooting “Parts Unknown” due to an alleged hanging suicide. However, his influence lives on, motivating countless others to appreciate the diversity of cultures, the delights of gastronomic adventure, and the deep ties that bind people together.
Renowned chef, author, and television personality Anthony Bourdain had a life filled with close friendships, artistic endeavors, and struggles with addiction. He was born in the 1950s and went to Dwight-Englewood School in the 1970s when he dated the rebellious Nancy Putkoski. After graduating early, he joined Putkoski at Vassar College to continue his studies there from 17 to 19. The Culinary Institute of America, conveniently located near Vassar, was where he enrolled after that. The pair were hitched in 1985 and were together for 20 years until divorcing in 2005.
Bourdain wed mixed martial artist Ottavia Busia in 2007, and the couple had a daughter called Ariane the following year. Despite their love, their split in 2016 was ultimately brought on by the stresses of his demanding television work, which often required him to be gone for lengthy periods. 2016 Bourdain met Italian actress Asia Argento in Rome when the show Parts Unknown episode was filmed. He related to Argento’s account of escaping Harvey Weinstein’s sexual assault and openly stood by her throughout her trying ordeal (Rolls, 2006). Among his many hobbies was Brazilian jiu-jitsu, where he trained and, in 2015, earned a blue belt. In 2016, he also won the gold medal in the IBJJF New York Spring International Open Championship. Known for liking to smoke, Bourdain first gave it up in 2007 for the sake of his daughter before picking it back up at the end of his life. In his book Kitchen Confidential, he describes his prior issues with drug misuse, including his early 1980s experiments with cocaine, heroin, and LSD while living in SoHo.
Despite his struggles, Bourdain’s love forever changed the world for culinary discovery and storytelling. Relationships, artistic accomplishments, and open disclosures of his weaknesses and vulnerabilities made up his existence (Hayward, 2018). Tragically, Anthony Bourdain’s adventure ended prematurely and unexpectedly, leaving behind a legacy of outstanding cooking and an influence beyond the kitchen.
Culinary Training and Career
On a family vacation to France, Anthony Bourdain had a life-changing event when he had his first oyster from a fisherman’s boat. This incident inspired his interest in the culinary industry in his formative years. This introduction to many cuisines and cultural traditions sparked his lifelong passion for eating. Before recognizing his true love in the culinary arts, Bourdain briefly attended Vassar College after graduating from the Dwight-Englewood School in 1973. While completing his degree at Vassar, he immersed himself in the culinary business by working at seafood restaurants like the Lobster Pot in Provincetown, Massachusetts.
Bourdain attended The Culinary Institute of America and graduated in 1978 due to his dedication to honing his culinary abilities. He entered New York City’s bustling food industry with a formal degree in culinary arts (Rolls, 2006). He developed his skills by taking on managerial responsibilities in the kitchens of many restaurants, including those at the Supper Club, One-Fifth Avenue, and Sullivan’s. Thanks to these encounters, he gained tremendous exposure to various cuisines and the challenging dynamics of restaurant management.
When Bourdain accepted the executive chef position at the famed Brasserie Les Halles in Manhattan in 1998, his career came to a turning point. The popularity of The Brasserie spread beyond New York, as it also opened branches in Miami, Washington, D.C., and Tokyo. His talent as a chef, originality, and commitment to his trade made him stand out throughout his time there. Even after officially leaving his position as head chef, Bourdain still had a close relationship with the establishment, and his impact could still be seen.
When Brasserie Les Halles filed for bankruptcy in 2017, tragedy struck, and the restaurant was forced to close. Despite this setback, Bourdain’s reputation endured because of his significant contributions to cuisine and his persistent love of food. His rise from a young oyster finder to a well-known personality in the food industry demonstrated his commitment, culinary training, and practical chef expertise. A genuine passion for food and a relentless pursuit of quality are the keys to success in the culinary arts. Anthony Bourdain’s incredible narrative serves as an example for aspiring cooks.
A complex path, Anthony Bourdain’s media career included writing, hosting television shows, publishing, and even acting in movies. His writing ambitions first became apparent in Bourdain’s early ventures into the media in the middle of the 1980s. He sent his writing to publications like Between C & D, where he finally gained attention for his harsh, unvarnished storytelling, which often dealt with society’s underbelly and the culinary world.
His breakthrough came with the 2000 publication of “Kitchen Confidential: Adventures in the Culinary Underbelly,” an enlarged version of his 1999 New Yorker essay. His ascent to notoriety as a writer began with this. In addition to “A Cook’s Tour: Global Adventures in Extreme Cuisines,” which was published at the same time as his debut television series of the same name, Bourdain also wrote the famous book “Medium Raw: A Bloody Valentine to The World of Food and the People Who Cook” and “Medium Raw: A Bloody Valentine to the People Who Cook.”
The television industry felt the effects of Bourdain. He was the host of many well-known programs, including “A Cook’s Tour,” “Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations,” “The Layover,” and possibly his most well-known program, “Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown.” In his television work, he explored international cuisines, cultures, and politics in an unvarnished and realistic way (Mack, 2000). He received accolades for his unique and captivating narrating style, skillfully merging knowledge with slang.
In addition to hosting, Bourdain contributed as a judge, coach, and guest to some cooking competition series, including “The Taste” and “Top Chef,” showcasing his knowledge and in-depth comprehension of the food industry. In addition, he provided voices for animated shows, including “Archer” and “Sanjay and Craig.” Bourdain’s media presence also had an impact on the book industry. He started his own publishing company, Anthony Bourdain Books, intending to showcase books with distinctive voices and various topics that reflected his varied preferences.
Interests and Advocacy
The well-known chef, author, and television personality Anthony Bourdain dedicated his life to various pursuits and ardent advocacy. He had a great talent for combining a compelling and pleasant approach with journalistic ethics. He firmly believed in the value of speaking the truth and questioning authority, but his extraordinary talent made these endeavors exciting and enjoyable.
The range of Bourdain’s activism was extensive. He fought against the wastefulness of rich civilizations by promoting the worth of traditional and lesser-known meals, especially those eaten by underprivileged people (Hayward, 2018). He lauded street food quality in developing nations, comparing it to fast food chains, and disputed claims of Western moral superiority in culinary issues, calling such arguments racist. He passionately fought the dismissiveness of cultural differences and challenged prejudiced views of Chinese food, refuting misunderstandings about substances like MSG.
He was a vocal supporter of Palestinian rights who emphasized empathy and denounced their dehumanization. In addition, Bourdain honored Spanish-speaking immigrants, recognizing their essential and sometimes underappreciated contributions to the culinary business in the United States. The range of Bourdain’s activism went beyond food-related issues. He became a strong opponent of sexual harassment, denouncing business leaders like Mario Batali and John Besh. When Asia Argento made accusations against Harvey Weinstein, he supported her and denounced Hollywood’s involvement. He was not scared to oppose established authorities and institutions.
Bourdain’s passion for social justice and his commitment to activism stemmed from his conviction that these two things are not incompatible (Helen, 2019). He made a lasting impression by proving that speaking the truth could be both illuminating and amusing and by fighting for a more just and compassionate society in various contexts.
The sudden death of acclaimed chef, author, and television personality Anthony Bourdain on June 8, 2018, shocked the globe. At 61 years old, Bourdain passed away suddenly in his chamber at the Le Chambard in Kaysersberg, France. Concerns were raised when Bourdain skipped meals while working on an episode of Parts Unknown in Strasbourg with his close friend Éric Ripert. He had tragically committed suicide by hanging and was found dead by Ripert (Vernon, 2018). Bourdain’s corpse showed no physical injury, indicating a terrible and spontaneous act. According to the toxicological findings, there were no drugs and only a minimal amount of therapeutic non-narcotic medicine. On June 13, 2018, Bourdain’s remains were cremated in France due to this sorrowful occurrence. The following two days saw the return of his ashes to the country (Severson et al., 2018). The details surrounding Bourdain’s passing severely upset his admirers, colleagues, and family members while focusing on the complexity of mental health issues that can afflict anybody, regardless of their outward success or engaging personality.
In conclusion, the late Anthony Bourdain comes highly recommended as a superb cook, storyteller, and cultural ambassador. Indelible imprint on the culinary world because of Bourdain’s enormous enthusiasm for food, travel, and many cultures. He charmed viewers with his sincerity, humor, and unapologetically open attitude to exploring the cuisines of the globe via his television programs, publications, and public engagements. It was amazing how well Bourdain could communicate with individuals from all walks of life and cross culinary borders. His devotion to spotlighting lesser-known culinary treasures and his strong regard for regional customs demonstrated his commitment to sincerity and genuine personal relationships. Through his contributions to food, culture, and social conscience, Anthony Bourdain leaves behind a lasting legacy. Chefs, travelers, and enthusiasts continue to be motivated by his bold exploration, contagious curiosity, and genuine appreciation for life’s basic pleasures to embrace the world with an open heart and a hunger for knowledge.
Hayward, T. (2018). “Anthony Bourdain obituary.” The Guardian. Retrieved August 14, 2023.
Helen Rosner (2019). “Introduction”. Anthony Bourdain: The Last Interview: and Other Conversations. Melville House. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-61219-825-5.
Severson, K.; Haag, Matthew; Moskin, Julia (June 8, 2018). “Anthony Bourdain, Renegade Chef Who Reported From the World’s Tables, Is Dead at 61”. The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2023
Vernon, P. (2018). “Anthony Bourdain, accidental journalist.” Columbia Journalism Review.
“Chef Anthony Bourdain found dead at 61”. BBC News. June 8, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2023.
Rolls, Albert (2006). “Bourdain, Anthony.” In Thompson, Clifford (ed.). Current Biography Yearbook 2006. New York: H. W. Wilson Company. pp. 72–75. ISBN 9780824210748.
Mack, Patricia. “The Cook, The Thief…”, The Record (Bergen County), October 25, 2000; accessed August 14, 2023. “Anthony Bourdain, the Leonia native with the French-sounding name, took a leave from his job as an executive chef at Brasserie Les Halles in New York City.”
Clinical Field Experience A: Informal Observations
While Navigating the corridors of educational administration, informal observations stand out as vital tools to gauge classroom dynamics and instructional efficacy. These brief yet revealing observations can bridge the gap between administrative expectations and actual classroom realities. My recent experience with these observations, in tandem with the Professional Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL) Standard 6, underscored their significance in teacher coaching and development. This reflection delves deep into this journey.
The Observation Process: A Brief Overview
Navigating the classroom setting without the confines of a structured evaluation protocol provided genuine snapshots into the nuances of daily teaching Minimalism and sincerity guided me. To avoid disrupting natural dynamics, I tried to blend in; this helped capture spontaneous teaching and learning. I watched the kids’ gaze, questions, and overall interest in education. I also focused on the teacher’s methods. Understanding the teaching method—whether a hands-on exercise, group discussion, or lecture—showed its effectiveness and adaptability in real-world classrooms.
First-hand Experience with Informal Observations
The two 10-minute observation sessions were eye-opening. Despite sharing an institution, the classrooms taught differently. Students actively engaged, discussed and worked together in the first room. Interactive learning empowers students to take charge of their education. The second classroom was more traditional. The teacher taught through lectures. Students took notes and asked questions. Many educational institutions recommend it. Both classrooms had strengths—the former fostered team spirit and collaborative abilities, the latter disciplined, structured knowledge acquisition—but they both needed improvement. My quick trips yielded deep insights. I could feel the classroom environment, observe teacher-student interactions, and assess educational tactics. Even in observational studies, quality beats quantity.
Linking to PSEL Standard 6
PSEL Standard 6 emphasizes cultivating a professional community of teachers and other professional staff (Robyn Conrad Hansen & Davidson, 2022). The observations were inherently tied to this standard. These observations’ feedback, insights, and reflections can catalyze the creation of a community where teachers feel supported, understood, and motivated to improve. Through coaching based on real-time classroom scenarios, a school can foster a collaborative learning culture where teachers are both learners and leaders.
Implications for Teacher Coaching Development
Informal observations are about using classroom data to improve teaching (Burns, 2022). I learned the importance of quick, specific feedback. Knowing their strengths and weaknesses helps teachers get targeted coaching. Informal observations keep coaching current, relevant, and based on classroom scenarios.
Applying the Learning to Future Professional Practice
As I advance in my administrative journey, I recognize the unparalleled value of informal observations, viewing them not just as fleeting moments of assessment but as rich reservoirs of insight. To understand classroom dynamics, I will constantly observe. I can create customized coaching strategies for each teacher. I want teachers to use these observations as learning opportunities rather than evaluations. Creating a cohesive teacher development strategy requires aligning these observations’ feedback and coaching with the school’s mission.
My venture into the world of informal observations was both enlightening and affirming. It validated the essence of PSEL Standard 6, which champions creating a thriving professional community. In education, where the dynamics are ever-evolving, such observations serve as a compass, guiding administrators, informing coaching, and propelling teacher development. They will be an integral part of my future administrative endeavours, paving the way for a holistic, feedback-driven growth environment for educators.
Burns, M. (2022). Improving classroom observations to better support teachers | Blog | Global Partnership for Education. Www.globalpartnership.org. https://www.globalpartnership.org/blog/improving-classroom-observations-better-support-teachers
Robyn Conrad Hansen, & Davidson, F. D. (2022). The Principal’s Desk Reference to Professional Standards. Routledge.