Applying Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory In Motivating Apple Inc’s Employees Free Essay


New York Times Magazine featured 500 Apple Inc’s current and former employees. The employees complained of various forms of sexual harassment. These encounters were registered on Appleton. The discontent of employees was witnessed at Apple Inc in September 2021.

Herzberg’s Motivation Theory

This paper applies Herzberg’s motivational theory to Apple Inc. employees’ discontent. Herzberg’s motivational theory aims at motivating employees by adjusting hygiene factors and motivators. Motivators are factors that can compel an employee to work more. Lack of hygiene factors results in demotivation of employees. Apple Inc’s management failed to address motivators and hygiene factors.

Hygiene factors at Apple

Employees perceived the company’s policy of secrecy as “toxic“. Apple restricts employees from discussing their working conditions, or experiences. Employees could not share their harassment experiences. The management ignored accusations of misconduct by the supervisors.

Remuneration and salaries were hygiene factors affecting Apple Inc.’s employees. Apple employees complained of disparities in compensation. The siloed culture prevented employees from discussing their remuneration terms. The human resource manager claimed of evaluating remuneration procedures regularly. The management claimed to close any mishaps when identified.

Motivational Factors

Motivators stem from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. Motivation in Apple Inc. is predicated on an array of job qualities or incentive schemes. Job qualities or incentive schemes lead to employee fulfillment. A different set of job qualities lead to employee dissatisfaction.

Causes of Employee’s Unrest at Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. employees’ unrest was a result of the harassment. The unrest stem from deprived attention to hygiene factors. This causes demotivation in the workplace. Hygiene factors need to be eliminated to create employee satisfaction.

Remedies for solving the problem at Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. should compensate employees adequately for their contribution. The compensation strategies at Apple Inc. should also be transparent. Remuneration transparency will eliminate curiosity in the workplace. Apple Inc. management should disband the soiled culture. The management should foster collaboration between employees and supervisors.

A culture that promotes democracy and encourages interaction would reduce complaints. The employees should not be dismissed for reporting harassment by management. Workplace fulfillment should be promoted. Job unhappiness should be eradicated before setting for employee satisfaction.

Implementing Motivators at Apple Inc.

Employees get satisfied when they share knowledge. Employers should provide incentives, to appeal to motivators. Apple Inc. should devise mechanisms to reward hardworking employees. The management should reward employees who preserve trade secrets.

A Positive Outcome

Apple Inc.’s unrest resulted in lawsuits against the firm. Employees believed to have led the unrest were fired for breaking the secrecy policy. In a positive turn of events, employees got the management’s and public’s attention. Standing up for their rights was more important than working in a distressful environment.


This paper uses Herzberg’s two-factor theory and Apple’s case of employee unrest. Employee motivation results from motivators or hygiene factors. Siloed culture and payment inequities caused dissatisfaction in Apple Inc. Motivators such as incentives and collaboration-based culture should be encouraged. Employee motivation guarantees optimum performance.

Hyatt Hotels Corporation: Annual Report, Cash Flow Statement, And Risk Analysis

Analysis of Annual Report

Reviewing the Profit and Loss Account (2017-18)

In 2017-18, Hyatt Hotels Corporation experienced a sharp growth of the gross profit margin by 2.5% in comparison with the preceding year. The corporations profitability that is accessed by ROCE increased by 1.2%. The net income after taxes in 2017-18 was 1.7% higher than in 2016-17. In other words, in 2018, the company generated more profits using its capital. At the same time, in 2017-18, in comparison with 2016-17, the operating expenses decreased. However, this decline was insignificant since it was less than 1%. The same minor decrease could be observed in changes in the sales revenue to the capital employed ratio between 2017-18 and 2017-17. 2017-18 is also marked with a decrease of depreciation by 0.9%.

Reviewing the Profit and Loss Account (2018-19)

The year 2018-19 was less successful for Hyatt Hotels Corporation than the year 2017-18. First of all, the gross profit margin declined by 1.1%, and the company’s total liabilities increased by 1.2%. Secondly, in contrast to the preceding year, in 2018-19, depreciation increased by 1.006%, leading to the consequential growth of expenses and the net income decline. Indeed, the financial report shows the increase of operating expenses by 1.15%, and the net income after taxes fell by almost 1%. The sales revenue to capital employed ratio raised from 0.84 in 2017-18 to 0.9 in 2018-19.

Reviewing the Profit and Loss Account (2019-20)

The operation of the Hyatt Hotels Corporation had been heavily affected by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The borders of numerous countries were closed, meaning that tourists and business people were unable to travel and live in Hyatt hotels. During the first year of the pandemic, the gross profit margin fell by 1.5%, and the revenue became more than two times smaller. The net income after taxes declined by more than 200% and became negative. The sales revenue to capital employed ratio declined by 2.7%, and the total liabilities increased by 1.3%. More precisely, the amount of the corporation’s long-term debt became 1.9% higher. The depreciation decreased by 0.9%. The company’s total equity decreased by 0.8% in 2019-20.

Review of Cash Flow Statement

As for the year 2019-20, the cash from operating and investing activities fell dramatically and became negative in spite of the growth in the preceding years. The worldwide lockdowns and tourism restrictions explain the decline in cash from operating activities by 200%. The reduction in cash from investing activities reveals that the corporation was investing in companies that were also heavily affected by the pandemic. At the same time, the positive sign is the increase of cash from the corotation’s financial activities from -541 to 1525 USD thousands. This includes growth in financing cash flow items, total cash dividends paid, issuance of stock and debt. Therefore, the company could increase its profit margin through loans from financial institutions and equity and debts issuance.

Risk Analysis

There are several risk factors that should be considered by the Hyatt Hotels Corporation.

Demand risk

The first reason for the risk is the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 and the consequential limitations on the movement of tourists. The second reason that threatens demand is cyber attacks and customers data theft. In 2017, the credit card data of visitors was stolen from 249 Hyatt hotels (Panai, 2018). The corporation should take the issue of clients data protection seriously.

Credit risk

Profits of Hyatt Hotels Corporation depend on the season and, more importantly, on the travel restrictions provoked by the pandemic of COVID-19. Hence, the company is at risk of not repaying the loans due to the low profits.

Interest rate risk

A significant share of Hyatt Hotels Corporations debts is funded by its property. Hence, the increase of interest rate could bring the Hyatt Hotels Corporation to the risk of defaulting on its loans payments.


Panai, E. (2018). A cyber security framework for independent hotels. Challenges of Tourism Development, 145-152.

Analysis Of Gustav Dore’s View Of Satan

Gustav Dore is one of the world’s most famous illustrators who are known for his artworks for such books as Bible, Don Quixote, Divine Comedy, and Paradise Lost, to name a few. In this regard, I would like to mention one of his drawings that had a significant impact on me in the past. This work is the portrayal of Satan for the poem Paradise Lost. This illustration depicts Lucifer’s sufferings due to exile from heaven, self-doubt, and feeling of alienation (Neville, 2021). Although Dore’s artwork was based on and motivated by the contents of the poem mentioned above, I think that it is the art that sufficient in itself without the reference to the original text.

Now to the ascent of that steep savage hill
Figure 1. Now to the ascent of that steep savage hill (Dore, 1898).

There is basically the combination of two characteristics that enhance my esthetic appreciation of the work. On the one hand, there is a Satan – considerably the most corrupted and cunning creature ever to exist or the quintessence of evil in this world. On the other hand, the viewers can see the expression of severe pain on his face – the suffering that is so strong that fainted Lucifer has to lean on the rock to avoid falling. Such a representation of God’s main antagonist is quite unusual and personally made me think a lot about how labeling and common opinion can make us insensible towards other people’s real feelings. I believe that this work reminds me of the fact that even people whom we do not like so much always deserve the chance to be understood. Therefore, it can be said that I appreciate this piece as “the idea behind the art-work is far more important than the art-work itself” (Hickman, 2010, p. 75). For this reason, this piece of work is among one of my most favorite ones.


Dore, G. (1898). Now to the ascent of that steep savage hill [Book illustration]. University at Buffalo Digital Collections. Web.

Hickman, R. (2010). Why we make art: And why it is taught (2nd ed.). Intellect Ltd.

Neville. (2021). Satan in Paradise Lost | Unsung heroes. Titanium Tutors. Web.

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