Applying The Framework: A Depressed Adolescent Essay Example For College

Influence Behavior and Decision-Making in Her Adolescence

Three ways that Susie’s environment has influenced her behavior and decision-making in her adolescence, according to the book “Applying the Framework: A Depressed Adolescent,” are through the media, peer pressure, and parental support. Susie’s environment has influenced her behavior by providing abundant entertainment that can influence behaviors such as cyberbullying and social media addiction. The media is also a source of information about peer pressure, which can influence adolescents to engage in risky behaviors such as drug use or unprotected sex. Peer pressure is a powerful force that makes it difficult for adolescents to resist engaging in risky behaviors like alcohol because they think they are being cool (Burroughs, 2020). This often leads to negative outcomes such as unprotected sex and drug addiction among teens. Parental support is also an important factor in helping adolescents make good decisions about their behavior and lifestyle choices, especially when dealing with problems such as mental health issues.

Ethical Concerns and Its Application

The ethical concern I would need to consider when working with Susie or her family is confidentiality. The case study details indicate that Susie has been experiencing some problems in school, and her parents are concerned about her overall academic performance. They have decided to seek professional help for their daughter but do not want to discuss these concerns with anyone else at school. I can address confidentiality by keeping all conversations between myself and Susie’s parents confidential until we complete our work together (Zisk et al., 2019). This means that no one at school will know about our conversations unless we come out publicly with this information ourselves. It’s also important that we don’t tell anyone about what we’ve discussed because it could potentially be used against them if they choose not to participate in therapy or counseling sessions with me later on down the road.

Assistance and Support for Her Current Issues

Susie would need to be referred to a human service professional who could help her with her current issues. There are three specific services that this agency could provide that would be helpful to Susie. First, Susie needs to receive a diagnosis for her mental health issues to begin the treatment process for these issues. Second, she may need some education about living with depression to understand better what it entails and how it affects her life (Burroughs, 2020). Finally, she may need some assistance in finding resources within the community, such as peer support groups, and outside of it, such as family members or friends who can help her through this difficult time. These services could be provided by one human service agency. The name of this agency is NAMI. They are a nonprofit organization that provides mental health services such as counseling, therapy, and other types of emotional support to people in its community. They also offer programs like suicide prevention and substance use disorder treatment.

Knowledge of Ethical Standards and Available

Susie is a young, depressed adolescent. She has a history of depressive symptoms and self-harming behaviors that have been a serious concern for her family, school, and community. The first step in helping Susie develop the ability to cope with these life challenges is to help her understand the impact they have on her well-being. The human service professional must be aware of Susie’s strengths and vulnerabilities so they can better address her needs (Bodden et al., 2018). Further, Susie has struggled with depression throughout much of her life, which means she requires extra support when dealing with stressors or negative emotions.

Finally, Susie needs more resources than most adolescents because she may struggle with substance abuse, other forms of self-harm, and mental health issues such as depression (Wark et al., 2019). The human service professional should work closely with Susie’s family members and teachers to understand what resources are available in their community and make informed decisions about which services best meet their needs.


Bodden, D. H. M., Stikkelbroek, Y., & Dirksen, C. D. (2018). The societal burden of adolescent depression, an overview, and cost-of-illness study. Journal of affective disorders241, 256-262. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.06.015

Burroughs, E. (2020). Ethical Standards of Human Services Professionals in Trauma Informed Care Across Diverse Settings.

Wark, L., Dice, T., Kerewsky, S., & Hudson, T. (2019). Ethics education in human services: Course context and teaching activities. Journal of Human Services, 39(1).

Zisk, A., Abbott, C. H., Bounoua, N., Diamond, G. S., & Kobak, R. (2019). Parent–teen communication predicts treatment benefit for depressed and suicidal adolescents. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 87(12), 1137. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000457

Conceptual Description Of The Iroquois Sample Assignment

Iroquois refers to the ancient unification of the six tribes that thrived before the Europeans arrived in North America. It is a political consolidation of tribes that include Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk (Simpson, 2016). The listed five tribes were the first group to form the alliance that would become a union that guaranteed peace between them. At the time of the formation of the Iroquois, they went by the title Haudenosaunee. The sixth tribe that joined the newly formed confederation was called Tuscarora (Simpson, 2016). Together, these tribes were brought together by a legend known as Hiawatha. He was one from the Onondaga tribe who had felt despaired with the frequent wars that ravaged the communities before their alliance.

Hiawatha is categorically described as one of the instrumental founders of the Iroquois League. His story recaptures the frequent warfare that existed as the correlation between the tribes. The five tribes thrived on invading one another and stealing from them while also killing women and children. This quagmire went on through a model of capturing the defeated side and making their people become enslaved people and warriors of the other tribe, as told by Simpson (2016). Hiawatha stems from a defeated community that had his wife and daughters all massacred by the other tribes. His rage and incessant lack of peace caused him to wander across other tribes until his encounter with a man only known as the Great Peacekeeper (Simpson, 2016). The idea of creating a confederacy was inspired by this peacekeeper and enhanced by Hiawatha. His name remains legendary for ultimately stopping the war among the six tribes.

The ‘Great Law of Peace’ meant that the tribes would not return to the same place of war that previously galvanized every aspect of their lives and relationship. Peace meant that waging war would only be commenced on an outsider but not any member of the community in which they lived. For instance, the leading opposer of the confederation at first was a mystical chief known as Atotarho, as told by the author (Simpson, 2016). He used witchcraft to cause fear among warriors and defunct the role of the council of elders. As a result, he opposed the federation to remain in sole power and an element of war with the rest of the warriors. The ‘Great Law of Peace’ has implications for this because the founders of the union seconded the fact that no stain of violence or war would shadow the newfound union (Simpson, 2016). Therefore, they included Atotarho in the union through peace talks and compromises. In a nutshell, the law enhanced peace and binding agreement between the six tribes.

Because the Belt is a symbol of the unification of the league that binds the named tribes, it is estimated to have been formed towards the end of the 1400s. No circumstantial evidence pinpoints the formation of the Belt in any particular year. However, the fact that it reiterates the more comprehensive picture means that when the league breathed its first existence, so did the Belt. Furthermore, the image of the Belt has been used in both oral literature as part of educational discourses and political implications of the native tribes, as connoted by Simpson (2016). In the educational sector, the symbolism embedded in the Belt reflects canopies of early life and past culture practiced by the early tribes. The presupposition of the Belt rides on the significance of cultural knowledge of the people of North America as it should be when conforming to factors of cultural identity (Bossman, 2003). Essentially, it is viewed that Hiawatha has always continued on the Cayuga as well as the Seneca that they have equally signed on the gospel regarding that of the great peace maker. For example, the moment the four nations collectively got aligned, they ended up approaching Atotarho that being influenced by the anger of blood crisis as well as his individual power and desires ended up denying to join such confederacy (Austeen, 2018). Hence, the individual members of such four linked nations ended up communicating with Hiawatha on the belief that they remained stronger as opposed to before due to their united front as already expressed.

Lastly, the Belt is used in the political discourses to make culturally sound policies. The source from which the history of the tribe has been derived denotes that some of the democratic principles that the Iroquois people practiced have been incorporated into the Federal Constitution of the United States, as denoted by Simpson (2016). It means that some of the guiding principles that regulated the confederacy were influential enough to have them determine how modern American society should be governed. In a nutshell, the story of Hiawatha and the Iroquois League are blueprints for understanding American social and political principles.


Simpson, J, M. (2016). Hiawatha. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Available at

Austeen, L. (2018, September 4). Welcome to the Museum of Ontario Archaeology. Museum of Ontario Archaeology.

Bossman, D. M. (2003). A Season for Thanks Giving. Biblical Theology Bulletin: Journal of Bible and Culture33(3), 86–87.

B.F. DeCosta, Hiawatha: Story of the Iroquois Sage (New York, NY: Anson D.F. Randolph & Co., 1873).

Detecting The Source Of The Bubonic Plague Sample College Essay

The bacterium Y. pestis is the causative agent for the Black Death pandemic that took place in the fourteenth century and lasted for approximately five hundred years. The Black Death pandemic has been termed one of the largest catastrophes pertaining to infectious diseases in the history of the world. It is estimated that the pandemic claimed the lives of more than sixty percent of the population in western Eurasia over eight years after its second attack. The Black Death pandemic has left behind profound socioeconomic and demographic impacts in the areas where it spread. Until now, the historical record of the disease in Europe has been the most extensively studied to unravel its origin.

The long-lasting consequences and devastating demographic impact of the medieval Black Death, also called the bubonic plague, has for years motivated researchers to conduct continuous investigations on the topic. The pandemic ran from 1346 AD to 1353 AD (Callaway, 2022). Archeological evidence linked to the bubonic plague had been discovered in modern-day Kyrgyzstan, fueling debates that the region could be the source of the plague. The evidence was found from cemeteries located close to Lake Issyk-Kul. Researchers believe these sites housed the victims of the Black Death epidemic in the fourteenth century as their inscriptions date back to the time when the pestilence is believed to have begun gathering momentum; that is, 1338-1339 (Callaway, 2022). The tombstones at the cemeteries also state that the cause of death of the buried individuals was ‘pestilence.’

The report examines ancient DNA data obtained from seven individuals whose remains were exhumed from two cemeteries at Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan. These cemeteries are Burana and Kara-Djigach. The synthesis of the ancient, historical, and archeological genomic data obtained from the seven individuals clearly shows that the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis was involved in the pestilence that resulted in their demise. The researchers reconstructed the ancient genomes of Y. pestis to identify their origin. The reconstruction results showed that two of the genomes represent a strain that is the most recent common ancestor to the major diversification associated with the pandemic’s emergence (Callaway, 2022). The strain was dated back to the early fourteenth century. The Y. pestis strain represented by the two reconstructed genomes compared to the modern-day diversity present in Y. pestis reservoirs obtained from the Tian Shan region supported the theory that the ancient strain recovered was responsible for a local emergence. The researchers discovered multiple sources of evidence that support their data on the origin of the second pandemic plague that took place in the early fourteenth century in central Eurasia.

The reconstruction of the genomes from the plague bacteria that have ancestral links to the plague bacteria responsible for the Black Death has been a huge breakthrough for the epidemiologic community, according to the independent scholar and medieval historian Monica Green. She states that the closest the scientific community will ever get to understanding the Black Death pandemic is through the headstones at the Lake Issyk-Kul cemeteries. The discovery has affirmed the previous assumption that the lineage of Y. pestis was present during the pandemic. However, Green is unsure that the birth of the species occurred during the 1338-1339 deaths in Kyrgyzstan (Callaway, 2022). She hypothesizes that the expansion of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century is the most likely catalyst for the diversification and spread of the Y. pestis strains credited with the Black Death pandemic judging from the historical, ecological, and genetic evidence obtained so far. The report by Spyrou, Slavin, and Krause et al. is a landmark in the study of the first and second outbreaks of the Black Death pandemic within and beyond Europe.

The methods and models of pathology that we have studied in this course shed light on numerous factors concerning the discovery of the origin of the Black Death. The techniques used in pathology include necroscopy, urinalysis, hematological tests, radiography, anatomical pathology, and the microscopic examination of tissues. Necroscopy is the surgical examination of bodies after death. It is done by dissecting a corpse to determine the manner, mode, and cause of death or to examine any present injuries or diseases for educational and research purposes (Shaw & Sykes, 2018). Diagnostic microbiology was also used to identify the origin of the bacteria found in the specimen of the seven individuals. Diagnostic microbiology is done by isolating microorganisms from the sample and culturing them for relevant research (Shaw & Sykes, 2018). The results obtained are then scientifically interpreted to yield meaning.

Radiography is perhaps the most useful pathology method in the study of archeological findings. Since its origin, it has been used to analyze ecofacts and artifacts obtained from the excavation of archeological sites. Archeologists use CT and X-ray investigations to allow them to investigate these sites without causing significant damage, hence the term they are given; non-destructive examination techniques (Shaw & Sykes, 2018). Radiography can be applied to the study to examine skeletonized or mummified human remains of the seven excavated individuals. Radiological methods in archeology contribute to the evidence concerning an individual’s life, including their cause of death and age.

Anatomic pathology is concerned with the molecular, macroscopic, immunologic, microscopic, and biochemical examination of tissues and organs to diagnose illnesses. The method of pathology can be incorporated in the study of the origin of the Black Death, where the tissues and organs of the seven individuals are collected and examined biochemically, macroscopically, immunologically, molecularly, and microscopically to determine whether or not the pestilence which they died of was related to the Y. pestis bacteria. In this case, the concerned tissues are the bone tissues, while the concerned organs are the different bones available (Shaw & Sykes, 2018). Unlike in the past, where anatomic pathology involved examining the whole body, today, it can be centered on specific body parts where the relevant information can be obtained.

Researching pathology using nature study is a very effective way of deriving efficient results. Nature study involves observing the things under research and drawing conclusions from observations. I find it effective as it does not focus significantly on memorizing terminologies and concepts related to pathology. Instead, it encourages understanding the subjects under study without reference to their relationship or systematic order with other subjects. The advantage of researching pathology using nature study is that the mind and eye are trained to comprehend and see the natural things around them to connect the dots between related objects. For instance, the research conducted to discover the origin of the bubonic plague did not rely on scientific terminologies. Instead, the researchers went out to the field and studied the surroundings around the long-debated origin of the epidemic. They then made several findings, collected specimens, and conducted pathological studies on the sample to derive their groundbreaking results. The disadvantage of researching pathology through nature study is that it can take up immense resources such as time and money.

I find no concern with the findings obtained, especially since the researchers concisely documented every step of their study, making it easy for me as the reader to follow from the beginning to the end. The findings suited the research study as it had been conducted. They did not appear exaggerated or biased. The study raised more questions on what resulted in the wider outbreak of the Bubonic plague that took place within and outside Europe, also termed the second Black Death pandemic. It would be interesting to compare the mortality patterns and demographics of the victims of the Kara-Djigach plague with the results obtained from the bubonic plague victims in Europe. The research fails to answer the question, “what started the bubonic plague, and where did it start?” It links the Eurasia Black Death pandemic to the one that took place in Kyrgyzstan. An analysis of the remains of Chinese victims will shed light on what happened in East Asia to promote the rapid spread of the plague. Therefore, presently, the research does not answer all of our queries. It is not entirely certain that ten years from now, there will be no discoveries on the bubonic plagues that may change our thinking towards the findings from these studies since archeology is ever-evolving and discoveries linking various diverse subjects with each other are constantly made. Overall, the information from the study is valuable as it evidences the connection between Nature Study, pathology, and archeology. It can be used for further research into the Black Death pandemic in Asia with the hopes of finally pinning down the original causative agent.


Callaway, E. (2022). Ancient DNA traces the origin of black death. Nature, 606(7915), 635–636.

Shaw, J., & Sykes, N. (2018). New directions in the archaeology of medicine: Deep-time approaches to human-animal-environmental care. World Archaeology, 50(3), 365–383.