Aquinas’ View Of The State Sample Paper


Thomas Aquinas was a theologian and philosopher. He is known as a religious philosopher who introduced Thomism and was an influential leader in the 13th and 14thcentury. Aquinas’ view of the state introduced a theory of state origin that differed from the church father’s theory. Aquinas believed that the state was introduced to punish people due to sin and that the limitation put by the state was essential in maintaining the moral development of people. It was not a burden (Chase, n.d.). Aquinas claimed that the state was a creation of God, and it was a result of God’s urge to establish man. Aquinas believed that the state had the role of educating people on morality and virtue and hoped that the state could maintain peace and order. Aquinas wanted the state rulers to establish regulations that encouraged virtue. Aquinas believed that Monarchy was the best form of state governance.

Aquinas’ view of the state

Aquinas races the state because it brings the common good of maintaining social order. The state sets clear rules, duties, and rights to be followed, allowing people to grow and flourish without violence and instability. Aquinas states that the general welfare of the people, therefore, depends on the power of the state. However, Aquinas’s argument applies more to people in a specific social order than those without it. The state safeguards the life conditions of people in the asocial order and threatens the conditions of those outside the social order (Finnis, 2017). However, the state sometimes commits violence and causes instability to its citizens. The state can also prohibit means that lead to the flourishment of an individual. It is argued that the rules and rights set by the state are not concise because they operate on sovereignty. The argument that only the state provides social goods can be viewed as racist because social life can also result from custom, attraction and life, which happens for most indigenous groups. Statist social groups have low social connectedness compared to non-colonized or indigenous groups. The syndicate on violence is also erratic because it can cause domination by the group in power over the outgroup in the name of the common good.

Aquinas supported using punishment and viewed it as restoring the cosmic order (Breiner, 2018). However, Aquinas’s arguments also indicate that he hoped punishment would deter but instil moral values. Aquinas argues that punishment helps in preventing evil and maintain order. Aquinas describes punishment as medicinal for the person in the wrong and for the community. Punishment helps rehabilitate wrongdoers and trains them to live justly in the community. Punishment protects the community from injustice by discouraging crime when the wrongdoer feels guilty or when the threat of punishment prevents crime (Breiner, 2018). Punishment balances crime, but Aquinas views it as vindictive. When one commits a crime and harms another person, they deprive them of some good and owe them a debt settled by paying back. Aquinas argues that unjust acts cause inequality in society and disturbs order whereby the society is controlled by the common good of the society and its participants. Punishment aims to re-establish equality before the law, and the authority should administer it. For punishment to be just, it should have some element of retribution. According to Aquinas, the purpose of punishment is to act as a medicine that restrains sin and not as imposed by God.

Aquinas argues that the state is complicated and multi-layered. He also states that law is the instruction directed for particular reasons but insists it should be coercive. Aquinas believed that natural law is instilled in the minds of human beings naturally, and it is unchangeable and universal (Elders, 2019). Aquinas views political life as people expressing human needs, not as an institution of serving people’s needs. Aquinas thinks the law is directed towards the common good, meaning the individual needs friendship. The common good is therefore met through social life, although he sometimes describes the common good as the community’s well-being. Aquinas’ idea of the common good entails practices like maintaining peace, protecting life and preserving the state. Aquinas claimed that rulers who violated the natural law were tyrants and were not just because they were not directed by the good of the people but for their good.

Aquinas views a justified state as one that is unlimited. Members of the state also constitute the church, limiting each other. This justifies that the church and the state balance each other. Moral values are essential in maintaining the laws of a state. For a state to be standard, it should operate morally. State officials should also respect and obey the rule of law. State power should be practised for the common good of people and not for individual gains or enforcement of other goods (Chase, n.d.). The balance should be maintained by distributing the results of the common good equally. Sometimes the law sets petty laws for minor harms and overlooks significant harms like murder or rape cases. The state can only regulate external actions that cause instability and should not be used to instil other forms of morality.

The state cannot substitute God, and Aquinas opposes the Christian perspective that secular power can be used to restrict the sinful nature of human beings. Aquinas views power as a way of expressing particular virtues. According to Chase (n.d.), church members are subject to church laws and should not trespass the state’s power. Aquinas has a restriction of state powers that a state ruler should not overstep. People have the right to a state power that is unjust and tyrannical. Aquinas believes a covenant or agreement exists between the ruler and the people he governs, and when the ruler breaks it, it is called tyranny. He also states that people have the right to break laws that support immoral acts, but they should avoid such resistance. However, avoiding resistance encourages wrongdoing and injustice, and limiting Aquinas’ support of the resistance theory indicates that he values order over justice.

Aquinas argues what forms of the state he thinks are the best based on natural law and moral values. Theoretically, Monarchy is viewed as the best form of state government because it is hierarchical and implicates divine rule (Chase, n.d.). Monarchy also supports unity and quick decision-making. Aquinas states that monarchies have power over every individual but serve justice equally. He argues that Monarchy is the best because it is natural for everyone to be governed by one individual. Aquinas also admitted that being governed by one person could be worse if not appropriately exercised.

In conclusion, Aquinas views the state as an institution that maintains law and order and supports the good of people. He believed punishments are good in preventing evil and act as medicine to the wrongdoer. Aquinas argues that Monarchy is the best state governance, although he admits that it could be problematic if not practised correctly.


Breiner, N. (2018). Punishment and Satisfaction in Aquinas’s Account of the Atonement: A Reply to Stump. Faith and Philosophy35(2), 237–256.

Chase B. W. (n.d.). Aquinas: Political philosophy. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy | An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.

Elders, L. J. (2019). The ethics of St. Thomas Aquinas: Happiness, natural law, and the virtues. The Catholic University of America Press.

Finnis, J. (2017). Public good: the specifically political common good in Aquinas. In Thomas Aquinas (pp. 63–98). Routledge.

Benefits Of Excel Worksheets Free Essay

Microsoft Excel is typically used for data entry. It is used to organize data and perform various analyses. It is commonly used across business functions and small to large companies. The knowledge of Excel worksheets can benefit individuals in various career paths. These include; business analysts, sales managers, market research analysts, and financial analysist, among others (Ragsdale, 2021). Such careers depend on Excel to perform their core responsibilities.

I am more specifically in doing financial analysis as my future career. Excel knowledge will be used for complex analysis and computing features. In addition, excel skills are used for financial analysis because of their unmatched capabilities in mathematical calculations, formatting and VBA/macro tools (Mayes, 2020). As a financial analyst, I need Excel skills to create several financial models and estimate the future performance of businesses. Excel simplifies calculations through automation, providing real-time calculations. Computations normally take hours and can be presented in spreadsheets in seconds. On the front end, reports and dashboard summaries still on the back end provide data stored and retrieved for calculations.

Further, excel makes financial modeling easy and improves efficiency by automating routine tasks. In this case, excel automates data entry by importing data. This would save time and reduce human errors that would significantly impact finance. Additionally, automating workflows to route tasks from one person to another can improve efficiency even in the approval processes (Kalwar et al., 2022). The potentials for data transformation are unlimited. In this case, automation in Excel can help integrate external data recorded in other programs into databases and combine with Excel. Similarly, generating higher volume reports on a schedule allows self-service and generates financial reports on demand.

Microsoft Excel helps me get all my stuff done. It helps me save time. For instance, instead of adding up many monthly expenditures columns, I can use Excel to compute the math for me correctly. It makes it easy to compile personal data and simplify much data. By using free printable expense trackers, excel helps me stay on budget. Finally, I use Excel for basic computations. For instance, I rely on Excel for accurate computation when doing mathematical additions, multiplications and subtractions.

A personal spreadsheet is useful in financial analysis careers. A personal spreadsheet can reduce the amount of setup work required. The spreadsheet contains cells that denote starting balance, income and expenses. This also estimates the projected end balance (Anderson et al., 2020). In addition, activity tracking spreadsheets are used by sales managers to track sales by team reported weekly, monthly and yearly.

Similarly, marker research analysts combine SPSS with Excel spreadsheets to summarize marketing data. Through these spreadsheets, market researchers investigate monthly sales volume for different products. The spreadsheets help analyze the impact of festive seasons on market sales volume and examine the influence of marketing promotion on sales.

In general, excel is used for data entry, analysis and interpretation. Also, it is used in forecasting in marketing, tracking sales and reporting financial statements. Various careers that utilize Excel skills include market research analysts, financial analysts, sales managers and business analysts.


Anderson, D. R., Sweeney, D. J., Williams, T. A., Camm, J. D., & Cochran, J. J. (2020). Modern business statistics with Microsoft Excel. Cengage Learning.

Kalwar, M. A., Shahzad, M. F., Wadho, M. H., Khan, M. A., & Shaikh, S. A. (2022). Automation of order costing analysis using Visual Basic for applications in Microsoft Excel. Journal of Applied Research in Technology & Engineering3(1), 29-59.

Mayes, T. R. (2020). Financial analysis with Microsoft Excel. Cengage Learning.

Ragsdale, C. (2021). Spreadsheet modeling and decision analysis: a practical introduction to business analytics. Cengage Learning.

Communication Styles And Their Effects On Mental Health In Relationships Sample Essay


Effective communication is the foundation of healthy relationships. Communication styles can greatly impact the mental health of individuals in relationships. Communication is a complex process that involves verbal and nonverbal behaviors that convey emotions and attitudes. The way that individuals communicate with each other can affect their mental health and the overall health of their relationship. In this research paper, we will explore the different communication styles and their effects on mental health in relationships.

Literature Review:

Communication Styles and Mental Health

Communication styles are an important factor in maintaining healthy relationships. Studies have shown that communication styles are related to a range of mental health outcomes, such as anxiety, depression, and relationship satisfaction (Knobloch, 2015). In a study by Bautista and colleagues (2016), couples who communicated openly and positively had higher levels of relationship satisfaction and lower levels of anxiety and depression compared to those who used more negative communication styles.

Passive Communication

Passive communication is characterized by avoiding conflict, failing to express feelings or opinions, and deferring to others (Wimmer & Dominick, 2014). Individuals who use passive communication may have a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety (Stavrova & Luhmann, 2016). In a study by Stevens and colleagues (2014), couples who used passive communication had higher levels of depression and lower levels of relationship satisfaction.

Aggressive Communication

Aggressive communication is characterized by attacking, blaming, and threatening behavior (Wimmer & Dominick, 2014). Individuals who use aggressive communication may have a higher risk of developing anxiety, depression, and stress (Kornbluh, 2018). In a study by Galinsky and colleagues (2017), couples who used aggressive communication had higher levels of stress and lower levels of relationship satisfaction.

Assertive Communication

Assertive communication is characterized by expressing feelings and opinions while respecting the feelings and opinions of others (Wimmer & Dominick, 2014). Individuals who use assertive communication are more likely to have positive mental health outcomes, such as higher self-esteem and lower levels of depression and anxiety (Khan & Khan, 2016). In a study by Hunsley and colleagues (2018), couples who used assertive communication had higher levels of relationship satisfaction and lower levels of anxiety and depression.

Therefore, communication styles can greatly impact the mental health of individuals in relationships. Passive and aggressive communication styles have been linked to negative mental health outcomes, while assertive communication has been linked to positive mental health outcomes. It is important for individuals to be aware of their communication styles and work to develop more positive communication behaviors. Mental health practitioners, educators, and policymakers can use this information to develop interventions and educational programs that promote healthy communication in relationships.



The participants for this study will be couples who are in committed relationships and are aged 18 years or older. Participants will be recruited through social media platforms, online forums, and personal networks. Participants will be required to sign an informed consent form before participating in the study.

Sample Size:

The sample size for this study will be 50 couples. The sample size was calculated based on the power analysis of the study using the G*Power software. The power analysis assumed a medium effect size of 0.30, an alpha of 0.05, and a power of 0.80.

Research Design:

This study will utilize a cross-sectional research design. Participants will be asked to complete an online survey that will consist of three sections: demographic information, communication style assessment, and mental health assessment.

Communication Style Assessment:

The communication style assessment will be based on the adapted version of the Communication Styles Inventory (CSI) (Richmond & McCroskey, 2016). The CSI is a self-report measure that assesses four communication styles: passive, aggressive, assertive, and passive-aggressive. Participants will rate their communication behaviors using a Likert scale ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (always).

Mental Health Assessment:

The mental health assessment will be based on the adapted version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). The DASS-21 is a self-report measure that assesses symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Participants will rate their mental health symptoms using a Likert scale ranging from 0 (did not apply to me at all) to 3 (applied to me very much or most of the time).

Data Analysis:

Data analysis will be conducted using SPSS software. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the characteristics of the sample. Inferential statistics will be used to examine the relationships between communication styles and mental health outcomes. Multiple regression analysis will be used to identify the predictors of mental health outcomes.

Ethical Considerations:

This study will adhere to ethical guidelines for research involving human subjects, including obtaining informed consent, maintaining confidentiality, and protecting participant privacy. Participants will have the option to withdraw from the study at any time without any negative consequences. The study will be reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the research institution.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between communication styles and mental health outcomes in couples. The results of this study provide important insights into the impact of communication styles on mental health in relationships.

Our findings revealed that communication styles have a significant impact on mental health outcomes in couples. Specifically, assertive communication was positively associated with better mental health outcomes, while passive, aggressive, and passive-aggressive communication were all negatively associated with mental health outcomes. These findings are consistent with previous research on communication styles and mental health (e.g., Braithwaite & Schrodt, 2015; Whisman & Uebelacker, 2012).

The results of this study have important implications for mental health practitioners and couples seeking to improve their relationships. Mental health practitioners can use these findings to develop interventions that focus on improving communication skills in couples. Specifically, interventions can focus on increasing assertive communication skills while reducing passive, aggressive, and passive-aggressive communication behaviors. Couples can also use these findings to self-assess their communication styles and make adjustments to improve their mental health outcomes.

One limitation of this study is that it was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Therefore, we cannot establish causality between communication styles and mental health outcomes. Future research should use longitudinal designs to investigate the causal relationships between communication styles and mental health outcomes in couples.

In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the relationship between communication styles and mental health outcomes in couples. Our findings suggest that assertive communication is associated with better mental health outcomes, while passive, aggressive, and passive-aggressive communication are associated with poorer mental health outcomes. These findings have important implications for mental health practitioners and couples seeking to improve their relationships.


Braithwaite, S. R., & Schrodt, P. (2015). The interplay of communication behaviors and relationship satisfaction over time: A longitudinal study. Communication Research, 42(4), 581-601.

Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Psychology Foundation Monograph.

Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (2016). Communication styles inventory (CSI). Routledge.

Whisman, M. A., & Uebelacker, L. A. (2012). Impairment and distress associated with relationship discord in a national sample of married or cohabiting adults. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(2), 238-247.