Archetypes And Their Influence On The Personality: Carl Gustav Jung Essay Example

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was born on July 26, in the small village of Kesswil on Lake Constance. He was named after his grandfather, a professor of medicine at the University of Basel. He was the oldest child and only surviving son of a Swiss Reform pastor. Carl attended the University of Basel and decided to go into the field of psychiatry after reading a book that caught his interest. Jung became an assistant at the Burgholzli Mental hospital, a famous medical hospital in Zurich. He studied under, and was influenced by Eugen Bleuler, a famous psychiatrist who defined schizophrenia. Jung was also influenced by Freud, with whom he later became good friends. Their relationship ended when Jung wrote a book called “Symbols of Transformation.” Jung disagreed with Freud’s fundamental idea that a symbol is a disguised representation of a repressed wish (Heaney, 1994).

After splitting up with Freud, Jung had a 2 year period of non-productivity, but then he came out with his “Psychological Types,” a famous work. He went on several trips to learn about primitive societies and archetypes. His explorations included trips to Africa, New Mexico to study Pueblo Indians, and to India and Ceylon to study eastern philosophy. He studied religious and occult beliefs like I Ching, a Chinese method of fortune telling. Alchemy became one of his interests during his journeys. His book, “Psychology and Alchemy,” published in 1944, is among his most important writings. In this study, he told about the human mind. One of his methods was word association. This is when a person is given a series of words and asked to respond to them. Abnormal response or hesitation can mean that the person has a complex about that word. His basic belief was in complex or analytical psychology. The goal is psychosynthesis, or the unification and differentiation of the psyche (mind). He believed that the mind started out as a whole and should stay that way. That answered structural, dynamic, developmental questions. Jung is best known for his theory of “The three levels of the mind” (Aurelio, 1995).

Discussion

The three levels of the mind theory includes the ego (conscious), personal unconscious, and collective unconscious. The conscious level serves four functions. It is the part of the personality that carries out normal daily activities: thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting. The personal unconscious contains an individual’s memories, and the collective unconscious is an inaccessible layer that contains universal experiences. Usually, one of the two classes usually dominates, and rarely does one see an individual with perfectly balanced classes of behavior (Nehr, 1996). Jung said that an ego is a filter from the senses to the conscious mind. All ego rejections go to the personal unconscious. The ego is highly selective. Every day we are subjected to a vast number of experiences, most of which do not become conscious because the ego eliminates them before they reach consciousness. “The personal unconscious acts like a filing cabinet for those ego rejections” (Jurkevich, 1991,p. 58). Clusters of related thoughts in the personal subconscious form complexes. Complexes are really suppressed feelings.

Complexes are often highly visible to people, but unfelt by the individual who has the complex. Complexes can be revealed by word association, which will cause hang-ups if a certain word is mentioned. A strong or total complex will dominate the life of a person, and a weak or partial complex will drive a person in a direction of it, but not too strongly. A complex, as Jung discovered, need not be a hindrance to a person’s adjustment. “They can be and often are sources of inspiration and drive that are essential for outstanding achievement” (Aurelio, 1995, p.351). “The collective unconscious is hereditary. It sets up the pattern of one’s psyche”(Kremer, 1990, p.2). An inherited collection of primordial images are stored here. They are universal inclinations that all people have in common somewhere by means of heredity.

The four important archetypes that play very significant roles in everyone’s personality are Persona, Anima(us), Shadow, and the Self. Persona is derived from the Latin word meaning “mask”. In Jungian psychology, the persona archetype serves a similar purpose; it enables one to portray a character that is not necessarily his or her own. The persona is the mask or facade one exhibits publicly, with the intention of presenting a favorable impression so that society will accept him (Nehr, 1996). Anima and Animus is what Jung referred to as the “inward face” of the psyche. The “inward face” he called the anima in males and the animus in females. The anima archetype is the female side of the masculine psyche; the animus archetype is the masculine side of the female psyche. Man has developed his anima archetype by continuous exposure to women over many generations, and woman has developed her animus archetype by her exposure to men (Heaney, 1994). According to Mannis (1997), the “Shadow” is what Jung referred to as “the negative side of the personality, the unpleasant qualities we like to hide”. When one is not conscious of their “shadow”, they give it more power. “Usually, the qualities we dislike the most in others, are the unknown qualities in our shadow” (Kremer, 1999, p.4). “The self represents all archetypes working together” (Heaney, 1994, p.29).

Jung used the words extraversion and introversion to show how one’s personality is. Those who lean towards extraversion are usually socially accepted. They are outgoing and very sociable. Those who lean towards introversion tend to keep to themselves and are not very sociable. One’s psyche works together three ways. One structure may compensate for the weakness of another structure (Jurkevich, 1991). One component may oppose another component, and two or more structures may unite to form a synthesis. Compensation may be illustrated by the contrasting attitudes of extraversion and introversion. If extraversion is the dominant or superior attitude of the conscious ego, then the unconscious will compensate by developing the repressed attitude of introversion.

Compensation also occurs between function. A person thinking or feeling in his conscious mind will be an intuitive, sensation type unconsciously. This balance is healthy and it prevents our psyches from becoming neurotically unbalanced. Opposition exists everywhere in the personality: between the persona and the shadow, between the persona and the anima, and between the shadow and the anima. The contest between the rational and irrational forces of the psyche never ceases. One’s integrity of “self” can actually determine whether or not this opposition will cause a shattering of a personality (Heaney, 1994). I decided to do my research on Carl Jung because he is not discussed much in the textbook. I find his theory of conscious and unconscious very interesting. I believe the thoughts of persona and ego without a doubt.

When one’s ego is shot down, a person can tend to develop a complex about it. I also agree that people tend to have a different persona based on where they are at and how they are expected to act around certain people.

References

  1. Aurelio, Jeanne M. (1995).
  2. Using Jungian archetypes to explore deeper levels of organizational culture. Journal of Management Inquiry, 4, 347-369. Heaney, Liam F. (1994).
  3. Freud, Jung and Joyce: Conscious connections. Contemporary Review, 265, 28-32. Jurkevich, Gayana. (1991).
  4. Unamuno’s intrahistoria and Jung’s collective unconscious: parallels, convergences, and common. Comparative Literature, 43, 43-60. Kremer, Jurgen W. (1999).
  5. Facing the collective shadow. Revision, 22, 2-5. Mannis, Robert F. (1997).
  6. Jung and his shadow. Utne Reader, 84, 91-94. Neher, Andrew. (1996).
  7. Jung’s theory of archetypes: a critiques. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 36, 61-92.

Metaphorically Speaking

The metaphor is a powerful tool used by writers to create vivid and impactful works. It involves comparing something to a familiar object and is composed of the tenor (the subject) and the vehicle (the metaphorical term). Metaphors allow authors to craft descriptions that evoke specific tones, whether subtly implied or explicitly stated. They serve as a means of conveying ideas in a unique and engaging manner.

The writers of the Wu Tang Clan’s song “Triumph” utilize various metaphors, similes, and self-reflexive comparisons to enrich the song’s meaning, allowing the listener to better comprehend its messages.

Implied metaphors are the most frequent types of metaphors used in the song, aiming to convey a sense of warfare by indirectly comparing the Wu Tang Clan to engaging in battle. Line 34 mentions “Guns of Navarone, tearing up your battle zone,” implying that the authors are referring to impoverished African American neighborhoods where the streets can be as perilous as an actual war.

The writers use the metaphor “Its court adjourned” to comment on how parents passing down negative traits to their children has a detrimental effect. This suggests that these children are unable to experience a positive upbringing because of their parents’ negative influence. Another example of an implied metaphor can be found in lines 77-82.

In this verse, the Vietnam War is portrayed as a war of the masses. The mention of a million names engraved on plaques refers to those honored on the Washington, D.C. Memorial Wall. By dedicating an entire verse to this significant war, the writers create a solemn and sorrowful mood for the listener.

Not only does it serve as a reminder of the consequences of war, but it also provides an effective platform for them to express their opinions on the subject. Additionally, in line 88, there is a continuation of the war theme where it declares that “As we engage in battle, the crowd now screams in rage.” This particular line holds significant meaning as it possesses a dual interpretation. On one hand, it can be understood that the battle is metaphorical and represents a concert. Though not explicitly stated, the audience’s reaction and the presence of someone on stage leads the listener to infer this comparison. By likening a concert to a battle, it evokes intense and chaotic emotions similar to what one might experience at an actual Wu Tang concert.

The line has another interpretation: the writers condemn war once again, asserting that the battle has infuriated the crowd. The song effectively conveys its messages through implied metaphors. Additionally, similes are employed by the writer to further develop the song, which, like metaphors, compare two dissimilar entities using “like” or “as”. An example is found in line 10, where it states that graphic displays melt steel as if they were blacksmiths.

The comparison between the tenor and graphic displays of lyrical rapping abilities can be likened to the act of a blacksmith melting steel at high temperatures. Wu Tang suggests that their skill in rapping is so exceptional that it can be equated to the heat of melting steel. In the subsequent verse, it begins with a simile: “As the world turns, I spread like germs.” Unlike the previous metaphors, this particular simile is explicit in its construction.

The rapper likened himself to germs that multiply rapidly, implying that he is widely recognized and firmly establishing his presence in the music industry. Line 70-72 presents another powerful simile, comparing the song to a current that travels through your body.

The simile used to describe how the beat makes the listener feel in line 72 implies that the music is incredibly emotionally intense, almost orgasmic. These positive depictions of the music are clearly intended to convey a sense of musical dominance to the audience. Additionally, the writers cleverly compare the music to Grand Central Station by playing on the word “terminal” in line 74. Describing the music as terminal or deadly serves as a metaphor for highlighting the extraordinary superiority of their beats.

The pun arises when the word terminal is also used to mean a station, in this instance, the Grand Central Station in New York. Additionally, the songwriter employs self-reflexive analogies in the song to aid the listener in visualizing the lyrics. These self-reflexive metaphors involve the Wu Tang Clan as the main subject. One instance of this can be found in line 50 where they compare themselves to an Olympic torch. By relating themselves to such a widely recognized and meaningful symbol, they are suggesting their own significance, as well as the importance of their music.

The concept of burning sweetly in Wu Tang’s music conveys the notion that they possess both positive and negative qualities simultaneously. This juxtaposition reflects their desired image as both notorious and talented artists. Additionally, the metaphor extends to comparing Wu Tang to a soldier in two instances within the lyrics. This further emphasizes their war-like mindset.

The writers compare themselves to soldiers, emphasizing their strength, boldness, and ability to overcome challenges and defeat enemies. They also compare Wu-Tang’s influence on the world to how soldiers control the globe and shape global activities. Additionally, in line 119, Wu-Tang boastfully compares themselves to a tranquilizer, suggesting that their music has a calming effect on listeners. Overall, these self-reflexive metaphors are used by the writers to showcase their pride and arrogance.

Overall, the Wu Tang Clan members have used metaphors in various ways within the song Triumph to enhance the listener’s understanding of its meaning. The writers make use of metaphors, similes, and comparisons to objects as means to convey the song’s message. Ultimately, the metaphor proves to be an indispensable tool for both literary and musical creators.

Legalize Drugs: Very Controversial And Important Issue

The question of whether to legalize drugs or not is a very controversial and important issue. Drugs affect so many areas of society. “The U.S. population has an extremely high rate of alcohol and drug abuse” (Grolier). Several groups have formed and spoken out regarding their position. “Speaking Out Against Drug Legalizationis the first step in helping to deliver the credible, consistent message about the risks and costs of the legalization of drugs to people in terms that make sense to them. The anti-legalization message is effective when communicated by representatives of the Federal Government, but takes on even more credibility when it comes from those in the community who can put the legalization debate in local perspective” (Internet). After learning about the issues regarding both sides of the argument, I would choose to support those who oppose legalizationof any drugs. Drugs simply create problems which effect society in several ways. The government has made several efforts to control drugs and their users, however, to most the problem appears too out of hand. “Others see potential profit in legalizing drugs and still others simply believe that individual rights to take drugs should be protected. The group also acknowledged that the legalization concept appeals to people who are looking for simple solutions to the devastating problem of drug abuse” (Internet). Societys answer tothe problem is to trick the drug user by giving him what he wants. People believe that making drugs legal will take away the temptation to use them. This idea is wrong and far from logical. If drugs are legalized then they will be more accessible to the young, addicted, and ignorant. “As a result the ready availability of addicting drugs, and as a result of their heavy use for medical problems, many individuals became addicted to the narcotics contained in these potent medicines. In fact, in 1900, there were more narcotics addicts, proportionate to the population, than there are today. At that time, most of the users who became addicts were medical addicts. Very few abusers took drugs for “recreational” purposes. In 1914, in an effort to curb the indiscriminate use of narcotics, the federal government passed the Harrison Act, making it illegal to obtain a narcotic drug without a prescription. During the 1920s the Supreme Court ruled that maintaining addicts on narcotic drugs, even by prescription, was in violation of the Harrison Act. Some 30,000 physicians were arrested during this period for dispensing narcotics, and some 3,000 actuallyserved prison sentences. Consequently, doctors all but abandoned the treatment of addicts for nearly half a century in the United States” (Grolier).

The only resulting effect will be a negative one. There are no positive aspects of putting drugs on the streets with a label reading “legal.” There are plenty of people in society that find enough trouble on their own without the help of their country. Legalizing drugs would have a devastating result that would affect society as a whole. “Audiences need to understand that 70% of drug users are employed, and that the school bus driver who drives your childrento school could smoke marijuana, that the surgeon who operates on you may have cocaine in his system, and that the driver in back of you may be on speed. The debate needs to demonstrate graphically how the common man will be impacted by drug legalization” (Internet). There is an idea that the “drug user” is a low class, unemployed junkie. This is untrue. The drug user is often a white collared worker with a family and a future. They are not all dirtywith missing teeth and poor grammar. The common misconceptions of the “user” are dangerous to those members of society trying to rid the world of the problem.

“Drinking on the job is a social and economic problem with a long history. With the growing popularity of illegal drugs in the 1960s and 1970s, it was to be expected that their use in the workplace would emerge as a major issue by the 1980s. Estimates of employee drug use vary greatly, ranging from 10 percent to 25 percent for the proportion of workers who use drugs occasionally on the job. The safe performance of some occupations – among them, airline pilot, air traffic controller, truck driver, and physician – can be compromised by drug use” (Grolier).

One of the greatest concerns of drugs is their contributionto the crime rate. Crime will always be a problem as long as drugs exist and are abused. “One category of crime is the victimless crime, which includes drunkenness, drug addiction, prostitution and gambling. The use of the term victimless is an extremely qualified one. It refers to acts committed by consenting adults in private; the acts involve only the participants and are not harmful to others. If harm occurs; it is inflicted only upon the willing participants. Victimless crimes are often characterized by the exchange of sought – aftergoods and services, and they generate huge amounts of illegal income. It has been argued, however, that no crime is victimless. The drug addict suffers physical and emotional harm and often commits property crimes to obtain money for buying drugs” (Grolier). Crime too often is the result of a drug problem. The crime rate would probably lower if drugs were illegal because the drugabusers wouldnt need to steal to pay for their drugs. Legalizing drugs would just add to an already rising problem. “Compared with other countries that keep crime statistics, the United States has the highest rate per 100,000 population for reported murders, rapes, and robberies. It is important to remember, however,that the incidence of crime is influenced by such factors as industrialization, urbanization, drug and alcohol abuse, unemployment, and the availability of fire arms” (Grolier). This should be reason enough to make all drugs illegal.

Legalizing drugs will just feed the problem that teenagers and young adults face daily. Making drugs legal makes them more conscience accessible and easier on the “The illegal use of psychoactive drugs is vast and extensive in the United States. Some 70 million Americans age 12 and over have tried at least one or more prohibited drugs for the purpose of getting high. The illegal drug trade represents an enormous economic enterprise. Sales of illegal drugs in the United States may have totaled $100 billion in 1986, more than the totalnet sales of the largest American corporation, and more than American farmers earned from all crops combined. About 60% of the illegal drugs sold worldwide end up in the United States” (Grolier). The problems that society already faces with the unemployed, homeless, criminals, and high school drop-out rate will simply increase. What society would want such problems to escalate. The thought of how seriously this could impact our entire nation is both ridiculous and terrifying.

I strongly believe that there are a great deal of people who have not tried drugs out of fear of getting caught. If this fear weretaken from them, they would probably become drug addicts. As stated by the National Commission of Marijuana and Drug Abuse, “The term abuse has no functional utility and has become no more than an arbitrary code word for that drug which is presently considered wrong” (Grolier). I believe that our country should uphold a few basic standards, and keep drugs and the problems they create out of our society. Legalization is an act of neglect and ignorance.Words/ Pages : 1,323 / 24

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