Are We Truly Free Or Only To A Certain Degree? Homework Essay Sample

The concept of freedom has been a cause of discussion ever since the rise of humanity. In general, I think that yes, we are free since we are always responsible for the decisions that we make or do not make. In a sense, we choose our destiny, but we do it to the best of our understanding of our needs and motives. However, I also think that we are free only to a certain degree, and there are serious limitations to our freedom that are related to several factors.

For example, psychoanalysis states from the beginning that we all have a contradicting nature. Our internal contradictions – such as between reason and feelings, desires and duty, the search for freedom, and the desire for security – often interfere with making choices. Our psyche is always looking for a compromise – and it is good if it finds the best possible one. At the same time, the consciousness often remains in the dark about the motives of our behavior. In the depths of any individual’s personality, there are desires, impulses, and motives that, while remaining unconscious, nevertheless influence our choice.

Most philosophers assume that there is a close connection between the concept of free will and the concept of moral responsibility. Thus, any act of free will requires understanding and acceptance of its moral responsibility. Moreover, some scholars distinguish between freedom of action and free will because our success in achieving our goals depends in part on factors that are completely outside our control. Since the presence or absence of such conditions is usually outside our area of ​​responsibility, it seems that our main subjects of responsibility are our choices.

In my opinion, the choices that we consciously make constitute the majority of our freedom due to the fact that, while still affected by our subconsciousness, they are still determined by our will and needs. Cottingham (2021) adds that “knowledge involves a kind of fusion of intuitions on one hand, and the concepts of the understanding on the other.” (p. 43). Thus, we are free to a degree where we can affect these needs and our will with our understanding of current conditions and knowledge from sensory perception without harming ourselves or others.

Reference

Cottingham, J. (2021). Western philosophy: An anthology. Wiley/Blackwell.

A Coder’s Job In The Healthcare Industry

The job of the coder is currently one of the most demanded in the job market. Its immense popularity is explained by the computerization of most jobs that did not involve modern technologies before. However, being a coder is quite difficult, as the job presumes a wide range of knowledge in many fields apart from ICT. Hence, it is necessary to understand what the job concerns and the possible challenges a coder may face.

The coder’s job involves many tasks from different fields. Thus, a coder may create programs for the medical institution and for the bookshop at the same time. A typical day of a person involved in making computer programs may consist of working on different projects, fixing coding mistakes, if any, and sometimes generating new ideas. The most challenging part of the coder’s job is definitely, meeting the deadlines. When the project’s performance comes to an end, coders usually forget about sleeping and eating and spend all their time looking at their computers’ screens trying to do a high-quality job. Next comes the lack of time because creating computer programs in different fields involves not only meeting deadlines but also answering e-mails, and communicating with colleagues and personal staff. Apart from that, the fast development of the IT world makes coders follow all the trends and be aware of all changes in the sphere.

When it comes to coding in a particular field, coders must collaborate with people related to this field. Thus, when creating a coding program for the medical sphere, the coder should not write the program on his own. He must consult medical personnel of a particular institution to provide up-to-date materials on the number of patients, their diagnoses, and the ways of treatment to create an accurate database (Heywood et al., 2016). Hence, the coder may query a physician if he needs additional or specific materials concerning the work of the medical institution or a particular patient to provide relevant data in the code.

To conclude, being a coder is a difficult but necessary job. Its high popularity is explained by the computerization of the majority of spheres of life and the increased demand for ICT specialists. The medical sphere is among those who need coders the most because the automatic programs they create help treat patients more accurately. Thus, medical personnel should communicate with coders to ensure the creation of the relevant clinical database.

Reference

Heywood, N. A., Gill, M. D., Charlwood, N., Brindle, R. & Kirwan, C.C. (2016). Improving accuracy of clinical coding in surgery: Collaboration is the key. Journal of Surgical Research, 204(2), 490-495.

The Cider House Rules Directed By Lasse Hallström

The Cider House Rules is a novel by John Irving published in 1985 with a consequent movie adaptation that saw the light in 1999. While the two artistic works differ slightly in the plot development and motivation of the characters, the primary themes concerning human relationships and abortions persist. The narrative is divided into three parts demonstrating different stages of Homer Wells’ life and how it is influenced by the aforementioned topics. The current essay attempts to report the summary of the movie adaptation and discusses the primary ethical subjects encountered in the narrative.

Summary of the Narrative

The movie commences with the introduction of the two primary characters – Homer Wells, a child growing up in the Maine orphanage, and Dr. Wilbur Larch, the director of the school. Despite the emotional distancing of the doctor from the children, the relationship between these two characters starts to resemble the one of the father and his son. The primary theme of the story, that is the ethical aspect of abortions, starts emerging in the first chapter since Dr. Wilbur Larch is secretly helping women deal with their unwanted pregnancies. It is essential to note that at the time of the novel (and the movie) abortions are illegal in the country, and the doctor has to hide the fact of the procedures. Wilbur assists women from the purest of motives; however, when Homer learns about the secret, he is disappointed since he believes in the value of human life and considers abortions highly immoral. The boy has a hard time comprehending the necessity of such operations; and, thus, leaves the orphanage shortly after.

The second half of the novel concerns the youth and adulthood of Homer Wells and his changed perspective on the ethics of abortion. The young man is becoming friends with Wally Worthington and Candy Kendall who came to the orphanage to have an operation. Consequently, he starts living with them at Worthington family apple orchard (Ocean View Orchards in the novel) and develops feelings for Candy. At the time, Wally is sent to the military front to fight in the Second World War, and Candy and Homer have an affair and become much closer. However, Wally does survive in the action and comes back to the orchard to reunite with his partner.

The ultimate part of the movie differs drastically from the narrative of the novel and concerns the story of Rose, a girl living and working at the Worthington orchard. As the story unfolds, Homer learns that Rose has been raped by her father and got pregnant. The protagonist agrees to perform an abortion operation, hence, taking the perspective of Dr. Wilbur Larch that he used to disagree with beforehand. Consequently, Homer decides to return to the Maine orphanage and takes the position of the supervisor of the school. After the demise of Dr. Wilbur Larch, Homer continues this line of work and assists women in dealing with unwanted pregnancies. Therefore, the narrative has made a full circle from Homer denying the necessity of abortions due to its immoral nature to accepting the procedure and taking in the role of Dr. Wilbur Larch.

Ethics

As mentioned prior, the primary ethical issue of the novel concerns abortions and discusses whether such operations are moral or not. This subject is highly complicated and concerns not only ethical standards but also governmental policies since abortions are illegal in some parts of the world. The primary perspectives on the matter are pro-life, which advertises the value of life and denies abortions, and pro-choice, which respects the judgment of the woman. As seen from the movie, Homer used to align with the pro-life policy in his youth; however, he has adopted the pro-choice perspective later in life. There is a number of ethical questions concerning abortions, such as whether the fetus has human rights or whether the procedure is a murder or not. Nevertheless, despite the seeming immorality of abortions, such procedures are rarely delivered out of personal wishes. Frequently, the women who decide to have an abortion have health complications or are victims of rapes and sexual assaults. Overall, the subject of abortions is highly complex from the ethical perspective, and just like Homer Wells, one should critically analyze the different positions and decide for themselves.

Conclusion

Summing up, The Cider House Rules is an excellent example of an artistic work that revolves around the relevant societal and individualistic issues and makes readers reflect on the topic. The subject of abortions is a highly controversial since everyone has their own opinion on whether it is ethical to deal with unwanted pregnancies this way. The topic is further complicated if the government of the country considers abortions illegal which may lead to a high number of unqualified operations resulting in saddening statistics. The protagonist of the story has come a long way in his understanding of the topic, from the complete rejection of abortions to the acceptance of the procedure and taking the position of the doctor. The author of the story, John Irwing, does not state whether this approach is correct ethically; however, he does demonstrate that both main characters agree to assist women with unwanted pregnancies and honor their choice.

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