Art Perception And Ways Of Seeing Free Sample

Art

Different people will describe this term in their own different ways of seeing, thinking, and understanding. What people see or describe to be art today may not be what it was sometime back. Many of the things that were done sometime back we describe to be art today e.g. a painting of a lady, a decorated church window, a molded Chinese clay cup, etc, may not have been art to those people who actually did them but something else or the result of a certain expression. These objects may have been called different names other than art.

Art does not have an exact definition. It is much easier to say that art is the way one comes up with something e.g. a picture, painting, sculpture, design, etc. today, many things are described as art. Some people will describe music as an art and that is why musicians are also called artists.

Music is an art because it is brought about by one’s imagination and creativity. Music is as diverse as the people themselves. Just like a drawing or a painting, music is an expression of one’s feelings or what is going on in the environment. One can be able to get a glimpse of who the artist is by listening to their music and one can even know the type of situation the person is in (Harris 36).

Perception, comparison, and contrast

An example of Celine Dion’s song ‘Because you loved me’ was written to her husband for he had greatly encouraged and supported her. ‘We are the world’ by the American singers was sung when Africa was going through a hunger period, etc. These are just but two out of many other singers who have sung songs as a result of how they felt or how the situation was.

A piece of art displayed somewhere can present or attract different comments from the different types of people looking at it. Let’s take an example of the way the church windows are made using different colored windows of what is known as the collage style. Some take it to be a great and way of adding beauty to the otherwise plain church. It is also seen as a way of communicating certain messages as there are pictures of Mary, Jesus, the Angels, Jesus in a manger, Jesus on the cross, etc. In some African churches, the worshippers have personalized it and put the pictures of Mary, Joseph, and Jesus as Africans.

The same mosaic windows have been viewed as a way of defining the church. In Kenya, a lot of controversies have come about as the windows in the P.C.E.A (Presbyterian Churches of East Africa) churches are said to have idol images. Some Kenyans see the images as a form of devil worship and have actually left the church and started their own denominations. This was actually one of the reasons that led to the emerging of many denominations in the making of the early church in Kenya.

Let’s take another example of the sculpture of a beautiful naked lady. This can also bring different comments and evoke different emotions from the different people looking at it. Some people may look at it and say that it is meant to portray the beauty of a woman both inside and outside. Some may say that it was made for the purpose of showing how Eve of the Bible was before she ate the fruit, some may say that the sculptor had a particular person in mind and just wanted to make the sculpture in their remembrance and some may say that it is a sign of immorality and is a way of showing how a woman is used to expose off her body to attract attention.

In the movie Titanic, Jack Dawson (Leonardo Dicaprio) makes a drawing of Rose Dewitt Bukater (Kate Winslet) when she is naked with just a necklace. If that drawing can be seen by someone who has not watched the movie, am sure it can derive a lot of different comments. As we see in the movie, Rose just wants Jack to make a drawing of her with the beautiful necklace she was given by Brock Lovette (Manguel 78).

The good thing about art is that different views are welcome depending on the individual. An artist only needs to make the art and present it to the people who appreciate it in accordance with their views, perception, and feelings. Today, art pieces that were done some centuries ago by famous artists like Leonardo da Vinci go for millions of dollars. The painting Mona Lisa also brings draws different comments from the different people looking at it. Nobody has exactly known what the artist had in mind when he made it.

There are people who put a lot of value in art and can spend a fortune buying a piece of artwork or buying a musician’s album while there are those who won’t even take a second glance at a piece of art or waste their time listening to any music.

Acting and movie making is also known as art. This is because there is a lot of creativity and use of one’s imagination to come up with the movies, films, plays, etc. that we see and watch. The actors and actresses are known as artists. All these may not have been considered art in the past. People may have looked at them and named them something different but not necessarily cooking (Berger 16).

In art, everyone’s opinion is correct. This is because it is derived from one’s perception and their way of thinking. Poetry is an art in that they express their feelings in writing. One may read a poem written by a poet and get a totally different meaning from what the poet actually felt or intended to pass across.

Use of art

In the past, people used art to pass across a message, express their feelings entertain, decorate, and simply for the day to day use. For example, clay items such as pots, spoons, and other types of utensils were made for the day to day activities. Paintings and drawings were made for decoration and would also convey a certain message that would be educative or entertaining. Music was used as a way of entertaining and educating, poetry was used as a way of communicating a message and even educating and so on.

This has not changed even today. Artists still use art as a means of communication and entertainment. Apart from all this, it has been used as a means of earning a living. As mentioned earlier, some of these pieces cost a fortune. Theatres are packed to the fullest especially on weekends as people watch the plays being presented and they pay to watch this. Musicians like Celine Dion, Mariah Carey, Beyonce Knowles, Kirk Franklin, just to mention but a few are worth millions of dollars (Tolstoy & Nikolayevich 102).

Actors and actresses like Eddie Murphy, Will Smith, Scriptwriters, and film directors like Mel Gibson are to mention but a few who earn a living through art. One major disadvantage about the art of which it also poses as an advantage is that it can completely be interpreted completely different from what the artist intended it to be. This is a disadvantage because a message that an artist intended to pass across may not go through e.g. in the case of a sculpture of a naked woman, the sculptor may have intended to show the beauty of a woman.

Conclusion

Let’s all embrace art no matter our different views and perception.

Works cited

Berger, John. Ways Of Seeing. London: Penguin Books, 1972.

Harris, Jonathan. Art History: The Key Concepts. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Manguel, Alberto. Reading Pictures: What We Think About When We Look at Art. New York: Random House, 2000.

Tolstoy, Leo, Tolstoy Count Leo Nikolayevich. What is Art? New Jersey: Bibliolife, 2009.

The 1900 Galveston Hurricane: Disaster Management Failure

Introduction

The essay talks of the 1900 Hurricane that rocked the city of Galveston on September 8. The City of Galveston on the U.S map is located on the Western part of the South-Central part of the United States. The speed of the wind had estimates of 135 miles per hour (217 km/h) on its landfall placing its mark as a category 4 storm as defined by measurements on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The effects that accompanied the storm were severe causing a situation where an estimated 6,000 – 12,000 people succumbed to death and left many families homeless. This storm was considered as one of the deadliest to ever hit the Atlantic after the Great Hurricane of 1780 and Hurricane Mitch which hit the United States in 1998.

U.S Army Signal Corps Weather Bureau Relationship with Cuban forecasters

The U.S Army Signal Corps Weather Bureau and Cuban forecasters had one main aim of monitoring the weather patterns so as to guide sailors while at sea and also to ensure that any activities that could be perilous in nature are prepared for and help device methods to handle the activities. At the start of signs that a storm was to strike, signals were not prompt enough for the preparation to be established. Communication between the two weather centers was not clear of what was going on as the U.S weather Bureau was not sure of the situation and had reported of a storm which was of moderate intensity. Though they did not know to which the direction the storm was heading to. The U.S bureau believed the storm would take a curve and was later reported to be traveling towards Galveston days after it had been reported over Cuba and Florida. This issue created controversy with the Cuban forecasters which led to disagreement. The Cuban forecasters reiterated that the hurricane would head west which meant that there would be continuity of course. On the contrary, one of the Cuban forecasters made a predicament that the hurricane would follow its original course and head into Central Texas close to San Antonio. Communication between the weather centers was hindered by the gust winds of the hurricane and before long, it had already struck the city of Galveston – claiming lives and causing massive destruction. Due to this misunderstanding, the unremarkable weather at the time caused confusion as few of the residents of Galveston were attentive to the warnings issued. In this respect, the few persons were forced to evacuate across to the mainland over Galveston Bridges. This meant that the majority of the residents who ignored the warnings were in danger as the clouds bearing rain had already rolled in by the middle part of the morning.

Forecasting Errors made by Isaac Cline that resulted in Thousands of Deaths

Isaac Cline, who by then was the director of the Galveston Weather Bureau, placed his arguments which were based on the statements saying that the city of Galveston did not require a seawall which would protect the city from future hurricanes. He also reiterated that, there were no more chances of intense hurricanes which would strike the island. In this regard, the seawall was not erected thus increasing vulnerability. In the area This information made by Cline were seen as misleading as the area was a target for hurricanes and storms hence needed much attention for the protection of residents of Galveston. This needed much attention thus the city of Galveston had to be prepared at all times and monitoring systems placed on alert as the Area was prone to thunderstorms and hurricanes and was likely to be hit unexpectedly.

On the afternoon of September 8, 1900Cline took the responsibility of traveling along the beach including other areas that were of low altitude and sent out warnings to the people of Galveston indicating the arrival of an oncoming hurricane. This idea was executed without the permission from the Weather Bureaus’ office. This undertaking took twists as his responsibility in the occurrence of the disaster sparked controversy with author Erik Larson indicating in the book Isaac’s storm that prior to the hurricane’s occurrence, Cline never warned any of the residents of Galveston about a the hurricane that would soon cause havoc.

Conclusion

Preparation and the management of natural disasters is a key and important factor for consideration for the security of a Nation. This is evident as due to ignorance, many of the people who lived in Galveston in 1900 perished. Disaster management needs fast reactions as soon as an alert is sounded so as to avoid loss of lives even though damage can be experienced. For this to happen there must be proper communication through weather departments and the people so as to ensure security. This can only be achieved through teamwork as processions to work on a solo basis are a recipe for a disaster. In this sense, Cline was faulted for alerting people though having no permission granted from the Weather Bureau.

The Fall Of The Roman Empire: The Main Reasons

The Roman Empire is variably described as one of the most powerful empire the world had ever seen and was characterized by a republican form of Government and existed across Europe and spread all over the Mediterranean. The Roman Empire in many ways describes the Roman states starting with Emperor Augustus after the weakening of the Roman Republic which had been weakened by various civil wars. The Roman Empire Emerged in the 8th Century B.C. and before that it was ruled by kings but by 509 B.C. the Roman Republic was declared after the monarchy was overthrown. The city of Rome from that time began its unprecedented expansion swallowing up all the neighbouring states including conquering all the hostile nations. What made it so successful was its disciplined and skilful fighting army which was renowned militarily across Western Europe.

Unfortunately the Empire started declining because of various reasons which include; strain economically, Civil wars, Religious divisions and failures in its military outfits. Some historians at the same time claimed that the rise of Islam contributed towards it decline. The fall of the Roman Empire was very gradual and the emperors of the period tried to adopt various transformations to save the emperor from its decline. The emperor known as Diocletian brought a lot of transformations in the political view and he brought a lot of military enforcement to support the Roman emperor. He enlarged the civil and the military services within the emperor. He managed to save the empire’s borders and posed a lot of threats to any invasions. He was greatly remembered for his ability to achieve lasting and favourable peace in Rome. However he failed in his attempts to reduce inflation through price control. His economic and political reforms remained in force in the following centuries. Constantine also brought a lot of reforms in Rome especially in the conversion to Christianity. He managed to re-unite the western and the eastern halves of the emperor.

The Romans were historically very practical about religion. Most of the activities they did were related or explained by the majesty of the all powerful God. The Romans actually had a religion of their own which was not based on the beliefs, taboos, rituals or traditions. To them religion was far more of a spiritual experience that gave rise to a relationship between mankind and the forces they believed were controlling mankind. Christianity in Rome had its roots with the birth of Jesus Christ. The evidence of the birth, life and death of Jesus Christ had a great effect on the beginning of Christianity in Rome. The new religion was greatly appreciated by many. The religion however was viewed as a great threat to the other religions since it preached the existence of only one God. This religion also guaranteed the Roman people of peace among the people within the empire. The religion received a lot of hostility especially with the slaughter of Christians who refused to worship Caesar. By the end of the first century, Christianity had taken its roots in Rome and this saw many Christians persecuted in the second century. They were killed because the government believed that this was a form of civil disobedience. After the persecution of Marcus Aurelius, Christianity spread in Rome and this also saw tolerance by the authorities. Christianity further was made predominant by the following era of Constantine the great. He is known to have effectively achieved supremacy over the emperor and established the Christian church in Rome.

The Barbarians

The name Barbarian was used in Rome to refer to any person who lived outside the boarders of the Roman Empire. Barbarians were composed of basically five tribes namely; the Huns, the Vandals, the Visigoths, Franks and the Saxons. Or to a broader extent, anybody who could not speak Latin was a Barbarian. While Rome opted to have peaceful boarder relations with their neighbours, the Barbarians took the exact opposite stand, invading Rome and their allies. The Romans allowed them a safe entry and stay in their land but they abused this freedom and wanted more and more, leading to conflicts of interest hence inversions (Abbott, p.35). All the five Barbarian tribes were involved in constant inversions of the Roman Empire all at the same time; this led to the tribes going against themselves in an attempt to prove superiority over the other.

The Valens thought ahead of the others and established a stronger force and manipulated the others to support its course. They promised to share the leadership benefits; but to the surprise of the other groups, it was just a political gimmick. The Valens failed to keep their promise, the other Barbarian tribes led by Visigoths were never impressed and so rebelled…leading to the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the year 476 CE (Luttwak, p.76). This was a great successful raid on the Barbarians. The fall of the Roman Empire did not come as a surprise to many, as reported in most history books that the fall was gradual; it began by a loss of the Western Part of the Empire, then the Eastern part weaken terribly before the entire empire came down. The Barbarians are said to have caused a lot of changes to the Roman Empire as it was from this tribe (collection of individuals) that most of the Empires came from (Abbott, p.36). The numerous inversions engineered by the Barbarians led to taking control of the Roman land in a successive manner before the eventual fall of the Roman Empire when the groups started ganging against one another.

Traditionally the fall of the Roman Empire is believed to have been forth September 476 A.D. when Odoacer disposed the last Roman Empire Emperor Romulus Augustus. However, in my opinion it is true the Physical Roman Empire that ruled much of Europe during the medieval period does not exist today. However, its ideals like government and language are heavily borrowed from by major contemporary governments, for example the US government that is the leading superpower today.

Works Cited

Abbott, F. Frank. (1901). A History and Description of Roman Political Institutions. Elibron Classics. Pp.34-36,

Luttwak Edward. (2003). The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire, John Hopkins University Press. pp.76.

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