Artificial Intelligence: Potential Problems And Threats Sample Paper

Much of the controversy surrounding the problem of creating artificial intelligence has an emotional background. The recognition of the possibility of artificial intelligence seems to be something degrading to human dignity. However, one should not confuse the issues of the capabilities of artificial intelligence with the case of the development and improvement of the human mind. The widespread use of AI creates the preconditions for the transition to a qualitatively new stage of progress, gives impetus to a new round of automation of production, and hence an increase in labor productivity. Artificial intelligence can be used for unsuitable purposes, but this is not a scientific problem but rather a moral and ethical one.

However, the development of cybernetics raises several problems that still require close attention. These problems are associated with the dangers arising in the course of work on artificial intelligence. The first problem is related to the possible loss of incentives for creative work due to mass computerization or the use of machines in the arts. However, it has recently become clear that a person will not voluntarily give up the most qualified creative work since it is attractive to the person himself.

The second problem is more serious, and it consists in the fact that there are already machines and programs capable of self-learning in the process of work, that is, increasing the efficiency of adaptation to external factors. In the future, it is possible that machines will appear with such a level of adaptability and reliability that the need for a person to intervene in the process will disappear (Jackson, 2019). In this case, it is possible for the person to lose his qualities responsible for finding solutions. There is a potential degradation of a person’s ability to respond to changes in external conditions and, possibly, the inability to take control over himself in the event of an emergency.

Reference

Jackson, P. C. (2019). Introduction to artificial intelligence. Dover Publications.

Race And Ethnicity. Minorities Issues

The concepts of race and ethnicity are used to describe distinct groups of the population. The difference is that race characterizes unique physical traits such as skin color or eye shape that distinguish one category of people from another. Ethnicity is about the culture with which a person identifies himself and national origin. According to Kendall (2015), the critical characteristics of ethnic groups are territoriality, common cultural traits such as language or religion, a sense of community, and a membership acquired from birth. Therefore, the representatives of one race might belong to different ethnic groups.

Even though in the 21st century, people devote a lot of attention to fighting against segregation on the racial ground, in Dallas, this issue is becoming worse every year. This is particularly evident since the black and Latino families reside in the suburbs, where the housing prices are lower, while the whites mainly live in the city center. Another fact that reveals segregation is that the representatives of different races occupy different parts of the city. Blacks live in the southern part, while whites – in the north one, and the Hispanic population – in the western part. Furthermore, according to the survey conducted by Chen (2019), only 5 percent of students at the Dallas Independent School District are white. Chen (2019) also claims that in some Dallas districts, the number of black students in schools increased, whereas the number of white students dropped. This way, it becomes evident that segregation flourishes in Dallas.

I believe that segregation has a devastating impact on the relations between the representatives of different races or ethnicities. Sometimes groups of black and white people fight with one another. For me, it seems stupid to hate people and fight with them just because of different skin color, eye shape, and hair texture. However, such clashes are inevitable as long as people divide the city into the parts that belong to the whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians. As noted on PBSs website (2014), people cannot pretend that races do not exist to eradicate inequality, discrimination, and segregation. The entire community will be better off if the government employs policies that would artificially prevent segregation and unite people.

References

Chen, G. (2019). Continued Segregation in Dallas Schools Puts Minorities at Risk. Public School Review. Web.

Kendall, D. (2015). Sociology in our times. (11th ed.) Wadsworth.

PBS. (2014). RACE – The power of an illusion. Web.

Dominicans’ Attitude Towards African Descent

Since the modern world is divided into nations, states, and communities, these groups of people, different in size and their characteristics, give rise to even more controversial points in their relationships and views. This is the reason why there are such challenges in the world for which it is sometimes hard to find an effective solution. They include religious, gender, environmental, social, cultural, and political issues. These topics are especially acute in third-world countries, which include the states of Latin America. In the Dominican Republic, one of the most pressing problems is the issue of racial identification. In turn, the population of Haiti has unique ideas about race. These issues are addressed in the study by Professor Gates, which reflects the influence of historical facts on the racial identity of the two nations. Therefore, many Dominicans do not agree with the African components of their DNA, culture, and history, while their Haitian neighbors, with whom Dominicans inhabit the island Hispaniola, inherited everything that Africa had to offer them.

First of all, Dominicans’ unique racial identity exists due to the consequences of servitude and the African diaspora. During slavery, most blacks were transported to the Caribbean, based on which many Dominicans are indeed of African descent. However, due to the influence of European colonization, Dominicans do not recognize their African roots and take pride in their Spanish heritage. Ricourt (2016) claims that although about 90% of Dominicans are of African descent, only 4.13% of the population recognize themselves as blacks, while the majority, 82%, identified themselves as “Indio.” This term, unique to the Caribbean region, encompasses many shades of brown, although most Dominicans have more African-like physical characteristics. Moreover, according to Read365 (2013), when Dominicans think about their homeland, Spain comes to their mind. Thus, despite the apparent connection between Dominicans and Africans, they do not identify themselves with the black continent.

To analyze the problem of racial identification of Dominicans in more detail, it is necessary to highlight the features of the neighboring people, Haitians. Childers (2020) notes that it is the first independent black nation that defeated its colonial masters in war. Unlike Dominicans, these people deny entirely everything associated with the colonial era and slavery. According to Read365 (2013), Haiti, being the wealthiest colony in the past due to numerous sugar plantations, destroyed everything that reminded of the past, including drainage and road systems and investments in sugar machines. Thus, Haitians sacrificed their material wealth to get rid of the French and Americans’ oppression forever.

Haitians embraced their African origins, and now it is a part of the country’s national culture. In Read365 (2013), Gates asserts that Haitian Creole, despite having some features of French, has taken most of its elements from West African languages. However, Haitians’ connection to Africa is most evident in their religion, voodoo. Childers (2020) claims that this belief was formed among the West African thralls in Haiti as a result of a compound of popular doxies and elements of Catholicism. Thus, Haitians, imitating the Africans, inherited their culture and completely abandoned the colonial past, unlike Dominicans.

The relationship between Haitians and Dominicans can serve as a clear example of racism and prejudice against the black. Being related to Haitians, Dominicans, nevertheless, reject both their language and culture. A propaganda campaign against the neighbors in the Dominican Republic was organized by government. According to Read365 (2013), the Dominican Republic’s former president, Rafael Trujillo, said that Dominicans are a white race, despite their Haitian origin. According to Childers (2020), the trend of discrimination against Haitians by Dominicans began in the last century, when in 1937, about 15,000 people were murdered on the orders of Rafael Trujillo. Because Dominicans deny their African identity, Haitians, who do the exact opposite, are like a red rag to a bull. According to Read365 (2013), racism and anti-Haitian feelings reinforce each other, establishing the attitude to Haitians as a completely different inferior race. This negative attitude towards Haitians gives Dominicans a sense of detachment from their origins. Since they associate their neighbors, with whom relations are not distinguished by respect, with blacks, Dominicans refuse to recognize their connection with this race. Thus, Dominican racism is directly related to them opposing themselves to Haitians.

Based on the analysis of the sources, it can be concluded that many Dominicans deny the African components of their DNA, culture, and history. Despite the real historical facts confirming the belonging of Dominicans to the Africans, they find many arguments to identify themselves with other races. At the same time, Dominicans oppose themselves to neighboring Haitians, which gives rise to racism. The race of these people was socially constructed, and the existing reality is the consequence of the policies of colonialism and various historical figures. Africa is a unique place which has a rich culture; thus, all Africans and people of African descent should be proud of their black race and not live in shame. There is no place for racism in the modern world, and relations between nations, especially those with a shared history as Dominicans and Haitians, should be respectful.

References

Childers, T. B. (2020). In someone else’s country: Anti-Haitian racism and citizenship in the Dominican Republic. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Read365 (2013) Haiti & The Dominican Republic: An island divided. Web.

Ricourt, M. (2016). The Dominican racial imaginary: Surveying the landscape of race and nation in Hispaniola. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

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