Artists Rauschenberg And Lin In Cultural Context Sample Assignment

Robert Rauschenberg. Minutiae, 1954.
Robert Rauschenberg (American, 1925-2008). Minutiae, 1954. Freestanding combine. 84 1/2 x 81 x 30 1/2 in.

Minutiae are one of the earliest and biggest combines that have been created by Rauschenberg. It was created by Rauschenberg for his friends at the Brooklyn academy of arts in 1954. Their friendship is traced from the days they used to spend at the legendary Black Mountain College in the late 1940s (Diggory, 402). The main thing about Rauschenberg and his art is the fact that he lays out a picture with an ab-ex overlay.

In this artistic work, there is an effective repositioning of the aesthetic decision making process as it is in abstract expression. This is because it is basically used in literature as the element of security. Minutiae create a historic bridge between movements. Muntiae is a combination of oil paint, paper, fabric, newspaper, wood, and metal (Diggory, 431). In addition, it is also made of plastic with mirror as well as a string on a wooden structure on a beaded frame work.

Minutiae 1954 is extracted from its context but still holds to the fragments of the original meaning. Rauschenberg creates a collage using a multi media aimed at commenting on the saturated culture that media has brought to the community (Diggory, 403).

This is an implication that the Western culture has been gripped with a world of constant collage, a society that is focused on technology, as well as quotes and references This art work in addition presents an idea that the past never disappears from us. This is because it has been catalogued in the current virtual space digital memory. Furthermore, past interactions and communications have been catalogued and automatically saved for an imprecise time (Diggory, 415).

Rauschenberg combines panels, collaged photographic images, fabric found images together with some pieces of furniture unified with gestural images of brush work. As he calls it, “In the space between art and life”, Rauschenberg brings a move from the wall to the interactive environment. The main interest in this art work was to show the interest that for long lived in Rauschenberg. The interest in the physical environment was in him for early work. Again, the picture is an indication that painting relates to both life and art (Diggory, 451). This statement implies that life at all times will definitely reflect in any form of art work, moreover, as a strong affect on its materials.

Minutiae 1954 can be interpreted by the fact that two circumstances testify how powerful the aesthetic choices we make are. First, the over painting in the picture is an indication that the painting was modified. Secondly, is the fact that the picture presents the road that was never taken. In this case, it stands as a considerably connected entity in which a number of collage materials are gathered to work out with the purpose of serving the theme to be.

Unlike Rauschenberg later unites, “the two-dimensional collage materials lose their identity and history outside the picture plane” (Andrews 67). The end result is that they come to function more or less exclusively pictorially. In this case, Minutiae, is much more a traditional collage that is properly pioneered (Andrews 67). Again, the difference between these two models are shown outstandingly is the sense that collage can be reengineered to serve new pictorial purposes severed from their original purposes. The formal utility to the composition easily triumphs their object. However, “collage materials can also betray an extra-pictorial origin because their autonomous sign quality is rarely circumscribed by new pictorial context” (Langmead 166).

Maya Lin, 11 Minute Line.
Maya Lin, 11 Minute Line, 2004.

Maya Lin is an American artist and architect known for her splendid artistic work in sculpture and landscape art. Her best recalled art work is the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. Maya Lin has utilized the way scientist and computers see the universe. Lin’s drawings are in 3D (Langmead 166). Her drawings and images are based on the sonar view of the ocean floor to aerial and satellite views of the land (Langmead 166).

Maya’s art translates to technological view into the sculptural form. Drawings such as the 11 Minute Lines are generously illustrated and beautifully designed. The art work has a systematic landscape tracing her fascination with geological phenomena as well as phenomena. The drawing, at the same time, integrates natural contours and materials which evoke landscape sculptures (Langmead, 169).

Lin’s earth work and public sculpture have at the same time developed alongside small scale, exploratory sculptures together with monumental installations (Andrews 32). These include 11 Minute Line through which Lin manages to evoke the entire physical process that shapes the entire universe. Lin also creates a systematic landscape exhibition drawings and relief demonstrating the expanding scope of her creativity.

The art work takes a pixel like image, of a hill, as well as a close up in order to create a form evoking into peoples mind both mound together with wave, earth and water (Langmead 156). In addition, the systematic landscape of Lin’s piece of work is interesting to many newcomers in the art industry. This also applies to longtime enthusiast of her unique artistic work as well as stunning creativity.

Thematically, Lin tries to ensure that her artistic work relates to her architectural background. Owing to the fact that her reasons for involving in architecture were never theoretical, she begins her art work with a psychological understanding of the environment. The main interest here is the human response to the piece of work rather than architectural impression. Her work is different from westerner in the sense that the ideology behind it is not as that in the western culture which denies reference to culture. Her piece of art work originates from a form of simplicity that can as well be traced back to Shintoism, to Zen (Andrews 45). Having no background, knowledge on western philosophy or religion, Lin uses her art work to explain her problem with the way Western European culture was presented.

One of her themes in this art work is to present equity in all genders. She expresses her displeasure with the Western order where men were at the centre of everything. Men were at a position to order the entire world (Langmead 172). On the other hand, Lin brings the Eastern understanding of art and design with a different simplicity. This is an indication that everything can be handmade, and crafted including households.

In addition, this brings out a fundamental belief that non western art and culture deals with the notion of teaching. This in turn can be seen as passive in the Western perspective. 11 Minute Line is aimed at opposing facts and in turn let individuals interpret the ideas as per their understanding. In addition, the non western culture gives the viewer hope that his or her opinion in art work is trusted. As a result, everyone has the chance to have an individual view of the world focusing on certain information.

Furthermore, Maya Lin’s work is an initial gesture of landscape. In urban projects, this work creates responses to the hard, urban site while, at the same time, fighting to get back to the initial nature of land, admires and love for the earth artists.

Works Cited

Andrews, Richard. Maya Lin: Systematic Land scapes: [exhibitions, Seattle, Henry art, gallery, University of Washington, 2006. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.

Diggory, Terence. Encyclopedia of New York School Poets. New York: Facts on File, 2008.

Langmead, Donald. Maya Lin: a Biography. Santa Barbara: Greenwood. 2011.

Women’s Health: Sexual Desire And Arousal Disorders


Today, there are many women with a significant history of sexual desire and arousal complaints. Therefore, women’s sexual health turns out to be a considerably growing area of research interest among the representatives of different countries (Youngkin, Davis, Schadewald, & Juve, 2013). In this paper, the topic of sexual dysfunctions in women in the form of sexual desire (interest) and arousal disorder will be discussed from the point of view of its etiology, clinical findings, patient history, exams, lab studies, diagnoses, and care plans.


The peculiar feature of sexual arousal disorders is that they have almost the same etiology as sexual desire (interest) disorder has. The list of causes is long indeed. For example, women with signs of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem can be under threat of having sexual problems (Graham, 2016). Relationship factors like poor communication and abuse may cause this type of disorder. There are a number of stressors that may cause sexual dysfunctions among women, including divorce, job loss, the death of a family member or a close relative, or even a regular quarrel. Infections may cause painful sexual acts and an unwillingness to continue. Finally, the impact of cultural and religious beliefs should not be ignored (Graham, 2016). Some women develop special attitudes to sexuality and sexual relations from their childhood.

Clinical Findings

The main sign of sexual desire and arousal disorders is, first of all, reduced or absent interest in sexual activities. Women may demonstrate low or no initiation of sexual activities with decreased or poorly/no developed erotic fantasies (O’Loughlin, Basson, & Brotto, 2018). In addition, through an adequate lubrication-swelling response to the sexual excitement is observed, the patient may demonstrate no genital/non-genital sensations (O’Loughlin et al., 2018). Still, the inability to reach orgasm is defined as the main complaint of many women who suffer from sexual desire and arousal disorders.

Patient History

Many patient histories may be pertinent to the problem of sexual desire and arousal among women. For example, a 27-year-old woman is fired and has to search for a new job. She is depressed and anxious about the inability to find a good alternative to her previous place of work. In addition, she sued her ex-husband because of several cases of domestic violence. The combination of physical abuse and psychological factors results in increased sexual dysfunction and the inability to become sexually active again. She wants to have a baby. Still, she is afraid to make a mistake and not sure if she can handle all her problems to make a correct decision.


Several exams need to be done to prove the chosen diagnosis of sexual desire and arousal disorder. First, a pelvic examination is required to be checked for the signs of infections, physical changes, and vaginal problems. Second, general blood and urine tests should help to define the level of hormones and possible problems with other body systems (Kingsberg & Woodard, 2015). Finally, psychological tests should be ordered to check the mental condition of the patient.

Labs and Studies

In many cases, women with sexual desire and arousal problems have normal findings. Kingsberg and Woodard (2015) admit that laboratory evaluation can be rarely helpful in this type of diagnosis. Still, it is necessary to pay more attention to patient history and the presence or absence of psychological and physical changes. Some therapists may suggest checking prolactin levels and testing the thyroid function (Kingsberg & Woodard, 2015). Though androgen levels do not have a real effect alone, they can be applied to analyze the testosterone level.

Differential Diagnoses

Differential diagnoses for women who have sexual desire and arousal disorder may vary. For example, non-sexual mental disorders like depression or anxiety can be diagnosed because of behavioral changes and decreased interest and energy. Substance abuse may explain sexual arousal. Poor interpersonal relationships and stress because of domestic violence or work-associated problems should also be identified and treated. Finally, urinary tract infections can be the reason for decreased sexual desire.

Plan of Care

Regardless of the reasons for the chosen sexual dysfunctional disorder, the patient has to be provided with an effective plan of care. In this case, education, regular counseling, and medications have to be prescribed. Nurses are responsible for sex education and counseling for the female patient. The age of the woman presupposes the possibility to have a baby. It is necessary to be ready for regular sexual intercourses and to demonstrate an appropriate sexual response. Antidepressants like Prozac may reduce sexual desire, and patients should carefully choose medications to deal with depression or anxiety (O’Loughlin et al., 2018). Antibiotics can improve the condition of the patient after cases of violence. Therefore, the plan of care must be mainly based on communication and discussion of sexual fantasies so that the woman can remember her sexuality and deal with her domestic problems.


In general, patients with sexual desire and arousal disorders have a variety of options to be chosen for treatment. Some women suffer from this condition because of physical abuse. Some patients have to survive considerable personal or professional traumas and concerns. In any situation, communication with a healthcare expert is the solution to be made. The sexuality of women is a complex subject, and associated disorders have to be treated in a timely manner.


Graham, C. A. (2016). Reconceptualising women’s sexual desire and arousal in DSM-5. Psychology & Sexuality, 7(1), 34-47.

Kingsberg, S. A., & Woodard, T. (2015). Female sexual dysfunction: Focus on low desire. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 125(2), 477-486.

O’Loughlin, J. I., Basson, R., & Brotto, L. A. (2018). Women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder versus sexual interest/arousal disorder: An empirical test of raising the bar. The Journal of Sex Research, 55(6), 734-746.

Youngkin, E. Q., Davis, M. S., Schadewald, D., & Juve, C. (Eds.). (2013). Women’s health: A primary care clinical guide (4th ed.). New Jersey, NJ: Pearson Education.

Supply Chain Integration In The Oil And Gas Industry

The First Article

Critical Analysis of the Article

The article by Ahmad, Brito, Rezaei, and Tavasszy (2017) examines factors that influence the sustainability of the supply chain of companies in the oil and gas industry. Given that the oil and gas industry deals with the non-renewable form of energy that has negative effects on the environment, sustainability practices of the supply chain are critical in alleviating them. Ahmad et al. (2017) propose an integrated framework that incorporates the triple bottom line (TBL) approach to sustainability of the supply chain in the oil and gas industry because it offers a comprehensive solution. The TBL approach focuses on social, environmental, and economic dimensions of sustainability. In this view, the article outlines the framework, which elucidates the contextual factors and their interrelationships in influencing the sustainability of the supply chain. The upstream operations, such as exploration, production, and refining, and downstream processes, for instance, transportation, storage, package, distribution, and sale, determine the sustainability of the supply chain.

The conceptual framework defines the external and internal factors that influence the sustainable management of the supply chain. As the oil and gas industry experiences intense sustainability pressure, the external environment has a marked influence on its operations. Shareholder pressure, competition, economic stability, regulations, political stability, and volatile markets are the external factors in the business environment that influence the achievement of the TBL in the supply chain (Ahmad et al., 2017). The findings of the article provided a comprehensive way of promoting the sustainability of the supply chain in the oil and gas industry. According to the findings, the management of logistics, suppliers, production processes, and product stewardship offers an integrative framework for a sustainable supply chain (Ahmad et al., 2017). As aspects of the supply chain, the interactions of logistics, suppliers, production process, and product stewardship enhance the sustainability of the supply chain. Evidently, contextual factors in the internal and external environment of a company contribute to the sustainability of the supply chain.

Connection and Importance to Operations Management

The article relates to operations management in the oil and gas industry for it examines how an integrative framework would improve the sustainability of the supply chain. Moreover, the article is important to operations management because it stipulates four ways an organization can improve the sustainability of its supply chain. To develop an integrative framework, organizations in the oil and gas industry ought to manage logistics, suppliers, production processes, and product stewardship (Ahmed et al., 2017). Logistics management entails the adoption of green logistics through the collaboration of companies and minimization of risks that are prone to unstable jurisdictions.

The management of suppliers is essential to ensure that they satisfy the social, environmental, and economic dimensions of the TBL. In the aspect of suppliers, a company should adhere to labor laws, consider employee welfare, participate in trade fares, undertake corporate social responsibility, protect the environment, and generate substantial profits to promote sustainability of the supply chain. The findings of the production process require a company to use green strategies of waste reduction, utilize renewable energy, and differentiate its products to meet the diverse needs of customers. Product stewardship is an important aspect of the supply chain because it involves monitoring and assessment of products during production, transport, storage, distribution, sale, and consumption (Ahmad et al., 2017). Thus, the integration of logistics, suppliers, and production processes of the supply chain promotes product stewardship.

Recommended Applications

The article provides novel findings that are important to the improvement of the supply chain management in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC). Prajogo, Oke, and Olhager (2016) argue that the integration of the supply chain enhances the competitiveness of organizations. The findings can improve the quality, delivery, cost, and safety of the supply chain in the oil and gas industry. Logistics management is a recommendation of the article that aims to reduce costs and improve safety. Collaboration between ADNOC and other companies would reduce costs due to cost-sharing and economies of scale. Since ADNOC operate in risky markets, controlled logistics and the adoption of green strategies would improve the safety of products. The management of suppliers in the supply chain would enable ADNOC to reduce costs, improve the quality of products, and enhance the timely delivery of products. The recruitment of suppliers that comply with the prevailing regulations of labor, environmental protection, safety precautions, and good business practices would prevent the occurrence of accidents (Ahmad et al., 2018). Moreover, the recruitment of established suppliers is critical in improving quality and enhancing the timely delivery of products.

As the production process determines the quality of products, ADNOC should adopt green strategies and differentiate products. Green strategies such as waste management and the use of a renewable form of energy would enable ADNOC to provide quality and safe products. Differentiation of the product allows ADNOC to create quality products that meet diverse customers and markets. The implementation of product stewardship has a positive impact on the quality, delivery time, cost, and safety of products. Essentially, product stewardship permits ADNOC to monitor and assess its products from the production to consumption and applies feedback information in the creation of superior products and improvement of the supply chain.

The Second Article

Critical Analysis of the Article

The article by Shinkevich, Farrakhova, Shinkevich, Pavlova, and Vyukov (2016) explores the application of an integrated management model (IM) to the supply chain (SC) management of petro-products to increase customer value, enhance the sales process, and reduce operational costs. The model entails the integration of material, fiscal, service, and knowledge into internal or inter-firm logistics. The study involved a systematization of the drivers of integrated management of petro-products SC’s in Tatarstan based on industry data. The results associated increases in the market share, profitability, and turnover of integrated value chains.

Integrated SCs were also shown to add customer value. The use of the IM model was associated with lower costs, improved productivity, and better product quality (Shinkevich et al., 2016). Thus, IM leads to the functional integration of value chain activities, including the processing and selling of petroleum products, across different suppliers. Using this model, Tatarstan’s petrochemical complex was able to supply Russia with about 17% of processed oil products, including diesel and tires, and accounts for 6.5% of shipment by volume of Russian producers and refineries (Shinkevich et al., 2016). As a result, its diesel and oil exports grew by 14.2% and 19.4%, respectively, in 2013 compared to 2012 (Shinkevich et al., 2016). Thus, geographical integration, i.e., creating a single SC or engaging in joint activities from deep hydrocarbon processing to marketing can enhance the efficiency of partner firms.

IM was also associated with reduced ambiguity in the SCs. It streamlines critical steps in the deep processing of oil to provide quality at a lower cost. The elements of a general SC in the petrochemical industry include research, extraction, processing (primary and secondary), marketing, and consumer (Shinkevich et al., 2016). Integrated management of SCs among Tatarstan’s enterprises has led to increased industrial production, export volumes, higher producer price index, and profitability growth (11.7% in 2013 vs. 0.5% in 2012).

Connection and Importance to Operations Management

The article has theoretical significance and conceptual links to operations management. Integrated supply chains in the petroleum industry have been shown to yield competitive gains for Tatarstan’s petrochemical complex, including reduced costs (Shinkevich et al., 2016). Oil firms can adopt IM in inventory planning to reduce production costs. For example, due to supply chain integration Tatarstan’s enterprises produce 6.5% of the Russian firms’ petroleum shipments – mainly tires, heating fuel, and diesel – to Russia (Shinkevich et al., 2016). Integrated SC management allows these organizations to deliver low-cost oil products for export.

Transportation/logistics efficiency is another area of operations management tackled by the article. It helps reduce the delivery time of shipments. The article shows that the export share of the firms forming a part of the complex grew by up to 8% for oil due to supply management (Shinkevich et al., 2016). An intermodal transportation network that is transnational helps decrease the time required to deliver shipments to Russian regions and reduce costs at train terminals. Efficient logistics also ensure the safety of the oil products shipped to foreign depots and piped to homes.

At every phase of integrated supply chain management, specific operations are done that require interactions with different service providers. For instance, quality seismic and geophysical studies, extraction, oil refining, and industrial processing involve the integration of financial resources, skills, and information. The premise is that integrated SC management supports efficient supply chain planning to remove capacity constraints (Gunasekaran, Subramanian, & Rahman, 2017). Tatarstan’s enterprise complex worked with service providers in secondary processing activities, such as deepening, refining, and alkylation, among others (Shinkevich et al., 2016). This integrated approach ensured the quality of products for the international market and the safety of oil processing.

Recommended Applications

The article’s ideas have significance and practical applications to the use of integrated SC management in the oil processing industry. ADNOC could utilize the integrated management model in its supply chains. This approach would cut costs related to inefficiencies or inadequate drilling or processing capacity. For example, ADNOC could engage in the joint processing of crude oil with local firms to improve their efficiency and cut costs. Complete integration would require the company to establish a single supply chain and sharing information, R&D, and management functions.

Integrated supply chain management could also be applied in the distribution of its petroleum products. Downstream outlets and independent contractors experienced in different geographical markers could be involved in distributing petro-products to these areas. Through mergers and local partnerships, ADNOC can build an efficient distribution system in the Gulf region. Further, using integrated SCs that include cross-border third-party logistics (3PL) providers could reduce transportation costs, optimize inventory flows, and ensure timely delivery. The decoupling of processing from transportation requires coordinated planning to realize the benefit of cost minimization.

The Third Article

Critical Analysis of the Article

Since the supply chain encompasses series of operations from production to consumption of products, the integration of these operations is critical. In their article, Ebrahimi, Koh, Genovese, and Kumar (2018) demonstrated the role of supply chain integration (SCI) strategies and organizational structure (OS) in improving operations management and boosting overall performance. Essentially, the interaction between SCI strategies and OS dimensions mediate operations management and organizational performance. Ebrahimi et al. (2018) sampled 181 companies in the oil and gas industry and applied the contingency approach in determining the relationship between the supply chain strategies and organizational structure dimensions. The SCI strategies comprised customers, internal operations, and suppliers, whereas the OS dimensions constituted formalization, centralization, and hierarchical relationships. The structural equation modeling was used to establish the nature of relationships and causal links between SCI strategies and OS dimensions.

The analysis of findings provides important information about the supply chain and operations management in the oil and gas industry. The findings of the article show that OS dimensions, namely, formalization, centralization, and hierarchical relationships, have negative impacts on the performance of organizations (Ebrahimi et al., 2018). These findings imply that the nature of OS dimensions determines the operational performance of an organization. Further analysis of relationships revealed that SCI strategies mediate the negative effect of OS dimensions on the performance organizations (Ebrahimi et al. 2018). Therefore, the findings of the study recommend the application of SCI in alleviating the negative impacts of OS on the performance of organizations in the oil and gas industry.

Connection and Importance to Operations Management

The article connects to operations management since it demonstrates how OS and SCI interact and influences the performance of organizations in the oil and gas industry. OS and SCI are important factors in operations management for their interactions cover diverse aspects of the supply chain. The formalization, centralization, and hierarchical relationships are OS dimensions, which describe the nature of an organization. Highly formalized, centralized, and hierarchical forms of operations management have negative impacts on organizational performance because it reduces the flexibility and innovative ability of employees. In essence, employees perform their duties and responsibilities by adhering to strict rules, guidelines, protocols, and hierarchies. Thus, dimensions of OS fall in the operations management for organizations use them in improving their performance.

The aspects of SCI are not only important to the supply chain but also operations management. The article examined how the integration of customers, internal operations, and suppliers into the supply chain mediates the effect of OS on organizational performance (Ebrahimi et al., 2018). The interaction between customers, internal operations, and suppliers promote coordination of processes in the supply chain. Fundamentally, integration empowers organizations to streamline operations and activities of the supply chain to provide optimal synergy (Lee, Seo, & Dinwoodie, 2016). Thus, the process of integration is an aspect of operations management aimed at improving coordination and synergy of operations in the supply chain.

Recommended Application

As the findings demonstrated that OS and SCI have significant effects on the performance of organizations, ADNOC ought to apply them in managing its supply chain and obtain optimal performance. Reduction of the extent of OS would enable ADNOC to improve lead-time in logistics, enhance the quality of products, and reduce costs. An organization that with low levels of formalization, centralization, and hierarchy perform well because employees, the management, and customers interact freely, resulting in customer and employee satisfaction (Ebrahimi et al., 2018). In this view, employees come up with innovative strategies to advance the quality of products, increase their performance in logistics, and reduce losses associated with poor motivation. In the aspect of SCI, ADNOC should ensure that there is effective integration of customers, suppliers, and internal operations. Ebrahimi et al. (2018) assert that the interactions of suppliers, customers, and internal operations improve lead-time, boost the quality of products, and reduce costs. A seamless interaction between customers and suppliers allows organizations to get vital information essential in improving internal operations and processes of the supply chain.


Ahmad, N. K. W., de Brito, M. P., Rezaei, J., & Tavasszy, L. A. (2017). An integrative framework for sustainable supply chain management practices in the oil and gas industry. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 60(4), 577-601. Web.

Ebrahimi, S. M., Koh, S. C. L., Genovese, A., & Kumar, N. (2018). Structure-integration relationships in oil and gas supply chains. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 38(2), 424-445. Web.

Gunasekaran, A., Subramanian, N., & Rahman, S. (2017). Improving supply chain performance through management capabilities. Production Planning & Control, 28(6), 473-477, Web.

Lee, H., Seo, Y., & Dinwoodie, J. (2016). Supply chain integration and logistics performance: The role of supply chain dynamism. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 27 (3), 668-685. Web.

Prajogo, D.I., Oke, A., & Olhager, J. (2016). Supply chain processes: Linking supply logistics integration, supply performance, lean processes and competitive performance. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 36(2), 220-238. Web.

Shinkevich, A. I., Farrakhova, A. A., Shinkevich, M. V., Pavlova, A. V., & Vyukov, M. G. (2016). Integrated management flows in petroleum products supply chains in the field of hydrocarbons deep processing. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 6(2), 523-528.

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