As A Developed Sport In Germany Essay Sample For College

Germany has 82,500,000 residents, 91,000 sports clubs, 27,500,000 affiliated individual members, 7,500,000 volunteers working in sports, and 555,000,000 hours of volunteer work in sports per year (Blood, 2015). This speaks volumes to the value of sports in this country. The general structure of sports in Germany is crucial to its success. Germany self-governs its sports, meaning they have a non-governmental structure. Their cooperation of sport organizations and public authorities are critical for the structure of the government body for sports.

Sports in Germany are autonomous; sporting authorities finance themselves from their revenues. The German government uses the principle of subsidiarity. For example, the central authority should only act on tasks that cannot be performed at a more local level. The German government distributes funding directly to the German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB), national sport governing bodies (NGBs), high performance training centers and sports academies/schools, sports infrastructure and facilities development, sport science organizations, disability sport and other sport initiatives. The DOSB is the central organization of 16 regional sports confederations (one in each provincial region or state), 62 national (sport-governing) federations and 20 sport associations.

The public sports administration has three different levels; nation, regional, and local. The national level deals with federal ministry of the interior, regional level deals with the sixteen federal states, and the local level deals with towns/ districts/counties. The local level has municipal/ district sports federations where sports clubs are self-governed. The next level (regional) has sixteen regional sport confederations with the next step being the 61 national sport federations. The highest level (national) deals with the German Olympic Sport Confederation.

The Federal government Ministry of the Interior (BMI) is the government department responsible for the development and promotion of sport in Germany. They handle promotion of high-performance sports including the significant funding of federal central training centers, federal training bases and Federal achievement centers as well as assist with the construction for sports facilities with the state and municipal governments (German Sports Systems, 2016). Lottery funds, state governments, and private sources help with funding for high performance sports, especially the German Sports Assistance Donation Fund. This body is basically the “welfare association” for high performance sports that provide athletic financial security with an estimate of 12 million Euros. The German high-performance program is well structured since Germany takes great pride in their elite athletes as well as the facilities to have the best possible training conditions. German authorities harp on health care, social support, and financial security as essential keys for success.

The State government consists of 16 states that are responsible for supporting mass participation in sport (not including maintenance of Olympic bases). The local governments are responsible for funding sports in Germany. They subsidize sports club as well maintain sports facilities such as sports fields, sports halls, and swimming pools. Approximately EUR 3.1 billion in municipal funding is spent on sport each year (German Sports System 2016). The sport system in Germany is built on a system of clubs and a great participant base based under the German Olympic Sport Federation (DOSB), prior known as the German Sports Federation.

This is the largest sport federation in Germany with 27 million memberships and 91,000 sport associations. According to the Clearing House for Sports, every year, there are about 2.7 million volunteers that donate 500 million work and practice hours towards these sport associations The DOSB supports the interests of members at the federal, state, and municipal level such as planning, controlling and assessing high performance sports programs. The German sport federation finances itself from member contributions, funds for high performance sport from Federal budget, lottery receipts, and marketing licenses.

The members of the German sport federation (Bundestag) are 16 national sport federations (state associations), 55 central associations (NSOs), 11 sport federations with special setting of tasks 6 federations for science and education, and 2 promotion federations (German Sports Systems 2016). The DOSB has an essential role in controlling high performance sports as well as Olympic preparation under four different divisions. The summer haven, winter sports, new generation and sport science, and base system and sports medicine/physiotherapy are the four divisions under this association. Their main goal is to achieve the highest standing of world sport for Germany. The German Sport University based in Cologne, Germany is an example of the extent this country wishes to implement excellence in sports dedicating a University to education just for sport disciplines.

The German National Olympic Committee (NOK) is an independent organization within the self-government of German sports. It is funded by its own means such as membership fees, lottery funds, granting licenses as well as pursuing projects with Federal government funds such as the promotion of sport in developing countries and for sending teams to the Olympic Games. The main objectives of the Olympic Committee is to cooperate with the IOC and help with tasks for the IOC, promote of the Olympic Movement, send teams to the Olympic Games , work on eligibility rules for Olympic Games , protect the Olympic symbols, take after German participants in Olympic Games , and cooperate with other NOCs (German Sports System 2016). There are currently 20 bases in the Olympic cycle in Germany that are funded primarily by the Federal and State governments, but also receive assistance from the German Sports Assistance Donation Fund, municipal governments, state sports associations and corporate sponsors.

Public spending involves the Federal government, which estimates to 127.2 million Euros, €70.4 m directly to high performance, €8.5 m for IAT and FES, €800,000 for anti-doping laboratories, €300,000 for prevention measures, €8.5 m for World Cup Soccer organization and safety, €11m for cultural support programs accompanying World Cup. The state governments use about 688 million Euros while municipal governments use about 3.1 billion for clubs and facilities (German Sports Systems 2016).

All levels of government are responsible for funding sports in Germany, as shown the federal government is mainly concerned with funding high performance sports (with help from state government). The municipal government is the basic provider for funding sports in Germany, but is mainly associated with local sports infrastructure and bottom-up participation (subsidizing sports clubs along with building and maintaining facilities). Private spending is used to sustain the elite system. Clubs and elite athletes are very dependent on non-government support such as national lotteries, regional and nationwide sports assistance funds, and corporate sponsorships. These lottery funds help with club system in Germany, for example 530 million Euros were redirected to sports in 2004. The German Sports Federation received majority of lottery money. The German Sports Aid Foundation is a private non -profit organization that helps funding for elite athletes in Germany

Dallmeyer, Wicker, & Breuer developed a study in August 2017, examining the relationship between various types of public expenditures and individual sport participation in Germany to evaluate the allocation of resources to core public services such as education, healthcare, and transportation within the 16 Federal states. This data was crucial to the understanding of the various types of government spending can have on individual sport participation. As discussed, the federal structure shapes the distribution of powers and functions in Germany. The German legislative function is mainly focused on a federal level unlike the United States where it is concentrated on a federal and state power.

The states have the most administrative power in Germany, so they have the most responsibility for culture and education, as well as public administration of sports. These federal states can autonomously decide their budget. It is important to recognize that there is not a binding law between the government and finances for sports, but instead there is a joint voluntary effort in the federal government that mainly focuses on elite sports and the promotion of youth and grassroots sports (Dallmeyer, Wicker, & Breuer 2017). In all, this study divides public expenditures into four categories and examines the causal relationship of the impact on individual sport participation. The findings in this study give implications for policy makers and allocations of public funds. This is critical because government should promote sport engagement which has shown the potential to generate greater social benefits such as health, education, social interaction and spending on sports infrastructure will be very promising in the future.

Social Groups Germany

The German middle class is tiny. About 75% of Germans fall into the lower class. It includes the working class and the under class (factory workers and jobless people). The upper class contains just about all very wealthy people, much more than 1%. The middle class is for those who are in between upper and lower and usually work for the upper class. Germans value hard work, thriftiness, and industriousness. They manage their time carefully, and they respect schedules.

They try their best to be perfect, and never admit their mistakes. They don’t hand out compliment often, but they also achieve more. At first they will seem unfriendly, but they are just perfectionists. Foooooood Germans consume more pork than other meats. Schweinshaxe and Saumagen are common dishes. Bratwurst is a form of sausage and is associated with german food. Cabbage, beets, potatoes, sauerkraut, and turnips are included in many meals. German alcohol is mostly beer, and many types of beer originate in germany. They have a purity law that only lets them brew from barley, hops, and water. They must use the yeast in the air to ferment it. Arts and Literature Germany has a huge part in classical music. The many composers include Johann Sebastian Bach, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Johannes Brahms, Richard Wagner and Gustav Mahler. They have a large woodcut and engraving industry.

They have architecture from throughout history. One important place is Brandenburg Gate. Holidays Germany celebrates Christmas and Easter. German influence caused the Christmas tree to be added to Christmas. Ultimately Christmas as we know it today mostly started in Germany. The differences are mostly because of the United States’ optimism. Mistletoe was originally to ward off harmful spirits( and still is in Germany). The 12 nights were a time to be especially careful of bad spirits.// Additionally Germany has German Unification Day and Oktoberfest. Oktoberfest starts on a saturday in september and ends 15 or 22 days later on the first sunday in october. Language Germany mostly speaks Standard German. In second place is Low German. Low German is closer to English, French, and Spanish than Standard German. Upper and Lower Sorbian make up 0.09 % of the population. Frisian takes 5th place.

Romani speaker make up 0.08 % of the population and Danish speakers make up 0.06 %. Religion About 60% of Germans are Christian. Only around 30% of German Christians are Catholic. 4.4% of German residents are Muslim. The other 36% of the population are atheists or religions other than Christian and Muslim. Forms of Government Germany is a Federal Republic. It elects a president and a chancellor. They make a cabinet. The judicial branch works just like in the US, but they have a term of 12 years. The Bundestag and Bundesrat are the Legislative branch. Parliament elects the chancellor and Judicial branch, while the public indirectly votes for the rest. Economic Systems Germany uses the euro like all the other UN countries. It is the world’s third largest exporter and is the euro dominator. This means that Germany generally makes money. It is the reason the euro is worth more than the US dollar.

Country Report On Potential Business Partner

Country Overview

Germany has two millennia of history, with its general location in Central Europe and borders nine other countries. These countries include; Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Poland, and Switzerland. As well as bordering two seas, The Baltic and The North Sea. The capital city of Germany is Berlin, which is located in the North Western part of the country. Germanys population is currently estimated to be about 80.9 million and has a 0.4% growth rate (Frankfurt). Germany is approximately 137,846 square miles, which compares in size to the U.S. state of Montana. Montana is approximately 147,040 square miles, making Germany just a bit smaller. According to the BBC, the primary language of Germany is of course, German.

But about 0.09% of Germany speaks Sorbian, which is mostly in the Eastern parts of Germany. And in Nordfriesland about 10,000 people (or 0.01% of Germany) speak North Frisian (Languages – Languages). Christianity is the predominant religion in Germany with about 70% of the population following the religion, but other religions include Lutheran-Protestantism, Roman Catholic, and Calvinism (Religion in Germany). Germany has many more unmentioned religions, as do most countries, but they are not considered the majority – therefore, not worth discussion. And lastly, an important thing to note is that Germany uses the Euro for its currency. As of right now, one euro (€1) is worth about one dollar and twelve cents ($1.12.)

Industries & Markets

Germany is an extremely world-renowned business and manufacturing location. From the automobile industry like BMW and Mercedes-Benz, to engineering, chemicals, and even innovations from the digital world. Germany has constantly been right there on the front lines of industrial countries (Hartig). Germany’s largest cities are spread out mostly across the whole country. Berlin, of course being the first largest with its home to over 3.2 million. Hamburg next with a little more than half of Berlin’s population at 1.7 million, Munich just a few hundred thousand people less at 1.4 million, and lastly Cologne with its 1 million people.

A lot of the bigger cities have millions of people in them, and while these may be smaller numbers compared to the U.S. there are still millions of people that could possibly enjoy JHAL’s services. Germany is home to many large companies that are well known across the world, and even have some of the largest producers. To name a few, Germany has BSAF Corporation (which is the second largest chemical producer in the world), Allianz (world’s largest financial services providers), Siemens, Volkswagen, and as I mentioned before, BMW (Hintereder).

Government & Political Environment

Much like the U.S. Government, Germany has a Federal Republic. Though the U.S. is a Constitution-based Federal Republic, it has a strong Democratic tradition. Whereas Germany has a Federal Republic is as well but has more of a Republican ideology. Germany elects is leaders very similarly to the U.S. The literal meaning of the word, “republic” means, “a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader rather than by a king or queen” (Federal Republic). If you take a glimpse at a map comparing the U.S. to Germany, you can of course see that the U.S. has fifty states while Germany only has sixteen. As stated before, Germany is a lot smaller than the U.S. in terms of size, including its population. Germany has a constitution, as well as a Judicial Branch and a Legal System.

However, Germany has an Executive Branch Chief of State as well as an Executive Branch Head of Government, which differs from how it is in the U.S. We have one person that does this in the U.S. which is known as the President. Which Germany has a president as well, but they also have a Chancellor. Currently, Germany’s President is Joachim Gauck, and the Chancellor is Angela Merkel. A challenge when it comes to exporting our products to Germany, is that the German Government and its regulations offers a degree of protection to its established suppliers that are located locally within Germany (Doing Business in Germany). It is said that foreign companies should beware of exporting to Germany due to the fact that Germany has high standards when it comes to products. Germany has the products tested and certified in order to be sold in the country (Doing Business in Germany).

Business Norms

A normal work week in Germany is much like it is here in the U.S., where the average work week is between 36 and 40 hours a week for full-time jobs. The larger portion of full-time jobs have 7 or 8-hour workdays, 5, days a week with a lunch break that usually lasts 30 minutes or one hour. Germany’s labor laws say that employees cannot work more than 48 hours per week. Overall the average workday does not exceed 8 hours per day. Germans workers with six-day work weeks have a mandatory minimum of 24 days of vacation per year, and for workers with five-day work weeks get 20 days of vacation (Doing Business in Germany).

Germany also has what is called the, “Ladenschlussgesetz” (translation “Store-closing law”). This law means that on Sundays only restaurants, transportation, and museums are open on Sundays. The Ladenschlussgesetz forbids stores in retail and other non-essential stores from operating on Sundays. Germany also has one national holiday where all workers receive a day off on October 3rd, which is celebrated as German Unity Day. German Unity Day is a ceremonial day of the anniversary of the German Unification in 1990, when West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) unified with East Germany (German Democratic Republic) for the first time since 1945. On this day, Germany became a single German State and has been celebrated since (“German Unity Day”).

Customs, Traditions and Etiquette

Germany celebrates a lot of the same, if not extremely similar holidays that the U.S. celebrates. With the exception of their “national” holidays like German Unity Day, while here in the U.S. we have the Fourth of July (which of course Germany does not celebrate). But for the most part, Germany and the U.S. celebrate similar holidays due to mostly Christian backgrounds. Also, as mentioned previously, a lot of stores and businesses are closed on Sundays in Germany due to Ladenschlussgesetz.

This may not raise a concern for JHAL though, because once again a lot of U.S. businesses are closed on Sundays as well. Most German workers also receive the more typical Holidays off like Christmas, New Years, Easter, Father’s Day, Mother’s Day, Groundhog Day, etc. Collectively, the holidays equate to give German workers 10 days off. Though some German holidays differ from holidays in the U.S., most of them are fairly similar. However, we will need to be cognizant of these differences if we choose to do business with any German company. There may be days when here in the U.S. we are doing business as usual, but in Germany they may be celebrating Erntedankfest which is Germany’s Thanksgiving. Though this should not be an issue for JHAL, since we will communicate very thoroughly back and forth with our future German business partners.

German businesspeople are typically very well with communication and find it to be one of the most important parts of business. German businesses find punctuality to be extremely important. Arriving at a meeting late, or even coming into work a few minutes behind schedule is considered extremely rude. German businesspeople also expect projects and work to be completed on time and completed error-free. Peter Hintereder from Deutschland.de, as an article on Business Etiquette in German culture.

The publisher FAZIT Communication GmbH, and Frankfurt-am-Main who writes for Deutschland.de, reports that hierarchy is also extremely respected in Germany. They wrote that, “the chain of command is closely followed when it comes to workplace decisions. Defer to your direct manager when it comes to decision-making. He or she will bring your question up to the next level of management if needed and so on” (Hintereder). This is extremely important to note because it is very similar to how it is here in the U.S. We all report to someone who is above us in our jobs, and that person then reports to someone even higher up in the chain. In America there are many “manager” titled jobs that manage smaller groups of workers, and then above them is another manager that manages them, and so on and so forth.

Now this may differ in smaller companies, but this is an important factor to note. Frankfurt-am-Main also reported that titles are very important in Germany. Often times you will see this on business cards, but Germans use a person’s title and surname for in-person and e-mail communication (Hintereder). If this is not used it may look ignorant not to recognize a German businesspersons’ title, as well as the fact that they may have a lot of power in the business. As mentioned before, respect of the chain command is extremely essential when working with German business partners. Also, when interacting with German businesspeople face-to-face eye contact is a key factor. Frankfurt also mentioned that a short and firm handshake is the most typical greeting, and you are to do this with everyone upon entering and leaving a meeting. It is also important to note not to shake someone’s hand with one hand still in your pocket, as this is seen as “edgy” and awkward. Non-verbal communication is also important when working with German businesspeople.

Coupe Olli from BusinessCulture.org, says that you want to make sure you stay an arm’s length away from each person, always maintain eye contact with the person you are speaking to, or the person whom is speaking to you. Also, make sure never to put your hands in your pockets when talking with someone (Olli). There are some gesture’s that the Germans find as rude, such as the “okay” sign, and never point your index finger at others, both are seen as rude or insulting. Olli also suggests that businessmen should wear dark-colored, conservative business suits with ties, and a white shirt. Businesswomen should also dress in dark suits and white blouses or conservative dresses. This attire is seen as proper and is for every season. Also, you want to make sure never to remove your jacket or tie before your German colleagues do (Olli). Lastly, when it comes to giving gifts to German business partners, these gifts should be small and good quality and not overly expensive. The most acceptable gifts to give at business meetings are office equipment, quality pens, or liquor with your company’s logo on it. Be aware of giving red roses since they symbolize romantic intentions, and if you were to give flowers they should be given in uneven numbers and unwrapped (Olli).

An initial meeting would be handled as follows; start off by being on time to the meeting. Germans often time use 24-hour time, and meetings are typically held between 10:00 am and 1:00 pm, after lunch between 3:00 pm and 5:00 pm. Upon entering, shake hands with each and every person in attendance to the meeting whilst maintain eye contact. The meeting will consist of mostly managers, so be sure to be aware that you are speaking with people who are most likely higher up in the “chain”. Be sure to address each person by their proper title, and if they do not give it use, “Herr” for “Mr.” and “Frau” for “Ms.”, followed by their title and family name. German businesspeople typically don’t use first names unless they are around close friends or family. German businesspeople may also seem unfriendly at first and may not want to have “small-talk”, they prefer to get right into the meeting. Be sure to follow instructions and listen to what your potential future German business partner is saying.

Looking into Mr. Gestland’s spectrum for the four cultural communication barriers, you would see that the U.S. and Germany are fairly close together in most cases. German business culture is what Mr. Gestland considered to be “deal focused”. German businesspeople are task oriented, direct, and are often times blunt unlike the “relationship-focused” countries. When it comes to the formal and informal side of business, the U.S. and Germany are on opposite ends. Germany has a very hierarchical culture and differences in rank matter in terms of expertise, as well as gender.

They always use appropriate titles, and often times ages can affect status. While here in the U.S., your age, your rank, gender, as well as expertise are less important. Luckily when talking about time and scheduling, the U.S. and Germany are in the same boat. We are what is called “clock and schedule worshippers”, or monochronic. Time matters in monochronic culture, scheduling is firm, agendas are tight, and few if any interruptions are preferred. And lastly, at the end of the spectrum we have the reserved and expressive cultures. Which again our two countries are fairly similar when it comes to this topic. German businesspeople are more reserved, while the U.S. sits right in the middle of being reserved but often times expressive. But this shows that we can be reserved, and often times we (Americans) are. We let each other talk, and we respect the higher up. Reserved cultures find interruptions to be rude, there tends to be very little conversation or “overlap” in meetings and are at ease with longer silence. Overall, the U.S. and Germany are very similar when it comes to the cultural communication barriers. There aren’t many barriers between our two countries and doing business with German businesses would be fairly easy for JHAL to do.

Conclusions & Recommendations

In conclusion, I believe that the German business environment is relatively similar to what JHAL is used to, and doing business with German companies would be favorable to JHAL. We currently get a lot of our goods imported from China, Japan, and Korea. Now, with that being said it would not be wise for the company to attempt to do business with those specific countries. I believe that most Asian Companies may not see it as beneficial for them to purchase products from JHAL, when these companies could buy straight from manufacturer and avoid additional transportation costs from JHAL. I think that in their eyes it would make little sense to have the products be produced in their home country, be shipped here, just to be shipped back.

I think that we are better off targeting other countries because it would be a waste of our time, budget, as well as resources. That is why, I have chosen to target Europe as a potential business partner instead. Specifically, Germany. After all of my research on Germany and German Business Culture, I would recommend that JHAL continue exploring this country as a potential sales territory in our future. Germany has an extremely low level of unemployment, and they also are one of the largest manufacturing companies in the entire world. Additionally, I believe there is a lot of potential in Germany for JHAL. As far as moving forward into expansion into Germany, there are a lot of positives as you may have read throughout this report. From the fact that Germany’s government is fairly similar to the United States, even to the fact that Germany is home to some of the world’s largest producers. Some barriers that we may need to hurdle over, are the tests and certifications that the German government requires for goods being exported into its country.

Though some of you may see this as a risk, fortunately our company’s products are a lot simpler than most and I do not believe that JHAL needs to worry about these testing’s and certifications because we offer such simple products. Our products do not pollute the air or have emissions to worry about as much as other companies like, Ford Motor Company. We are a very competitive company at JHAL, and we are great with our customers providing a service like no other. Also, I do not believe there are many company’s like us in Germany. The only thing that possibly could make doing business with Germany undesirable would be the biggest obstacle of having our products being shipped here from China, then being sent to Germany. It does make things a little more difficult, but I believe we can overcome this, as well as have a lot of business in Germany.

I would recommend that we should take the time and resources to look into current businesses in Germany that are similar to JHAL. Before we travel into Germany, I think that we should once again look into other companies that may want to use or buy our products. I think we should get into contact with them as soon as possible. But before arrival in Germany I think we should train the said employees that are being sent, so they know how to properly interact with German businesspeople. I would really consider that we look further into this, do more research and invest our time into working with German businesses. Upon approval, I will immediately be taking action and contacting businesses in Germany for a potential partnership opportunity with JHAL.

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