Aseptic Technique And Use Of Media Sample College Essay


The purpose of this lab experiment is to equip learners with essential laboratory techniques and skills employed to avoid contamination of microbial cultures by maintaining purity. This experiment will allow us to utilize an aseptic technique to inoculate a pure culture of Lyompholized Escherichia coli to broth, slants, and plate with precision by keeping the samples pure without contamination.


This experimental exercise demonstrates basic laboratory practices necessary for handling and studying various micro-organisms. To prevent contamination of microbial cultures aseptic technique was employed. Lyompholized bacterial culture was reactivated and successfully sub-cultured into the broth and on agar through the application of the Aseptic technique. Aseptic techniques are critical in laboratory experiments and tests involving microorganisms to prevent contamination and ultimate interference of test results.

To illustrate the subculturing and aseptic technique, this experiment utilized Escherichia coli. The experiment aimed at keeping a pure culture (Escherichia coli) i.e. free from any present contaminants. Basic aseptic techniques include disinfection of the working area, instrument transfer and disposal, culture tube flaming, and culture tube inoculation. (Aseptic 2) The first activity was the reactivation of E.Coli followed by aseptic transfer of the activated culture to broth culture. This was followed by the aseptic transfer of the reactivated culture from broth to slant and finally from broth culture to plate. The three separate cultures were incubated exhibiting tendencies of microbial growth in the broths during the period. After a while, cloudiness formed on the surface of the medium and later dispersed into the broth. This action is referred to as turbidity: the uniform cloudiness formed in a previously sterile medium after inoculation of a pure culture.


Aseptic practices are critical in any microbiological practices and experiments’ effectiveness. This is attributed to the fact presence of contaminants in test subjects may compromise the credibility of tests and experiments. The aseptic technique helps maintain purity cultures from other strains or species. Contaminants including unwanted bacterial and fungal microorganisms are brought about by various factors including people, the environment, and work surfaces amongst other sources. Therefore it is important to apply aseptic practices at specific stages of microbiological experiments.

Works Cited

Aseptic Technique. Media, incubation, and aseptic technique.n.d. Web.

Carolina Biological Supply. Aseptic technique and use of media: Investigation manual. Carolina Biological Supply, 2018.

System Implementation: The Health Information Management Systems


The health information system is a system made to manage data in healthcare. It includes collection, storage, management, and transmission systems that deal with electronic records related to medicine. Healthcare facilities, rather than hospitals that are operational and support the health information system, are always overlooking and managing systems according to policies of healthcare in a particular state.

It should be noted that health information systems also cover systems whose prime function is to handle information that is related to activities and services of healthcare providers and the entire healthcare organization. Thus, health information system may be used to improve outcomes of a patient, affect decision-making of specialists, influence policymaking, and inform the researcher on a particular field of study. Security of health information management system is often the fundamental concern in system’s implementation, since system is organized around accessing, processing, and maintaining large and very sensitive volumes of data.

As it stands out, health information systems are organized to be used by everyone in healthcare facility starting from patients, to clinicians and nurses, and even higher to health officials. They often collect and organize it is a formula that can be used to make decisions in healthcare. Some of these information systems include the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) and the Electronic Health Record. Ideally, the Electronic Health Record’s introduction in hospitals was to replace the older version that was paper-focused, in keeping medical history of patients (Sligo, et al., 2017). These records are focused more on patients’ test results, their treatment, and their past medical data.

On the other hand, Practice Management Software, another health information system, helps healthcare providers deal with daily operations such as billing and scheduling. Other systems include the Master Patient Index, supposed to connect individual records of patients across several databases and patient portals, which allows patients to view and access their health data like information about their appointment. The text below is about the implementation of health information system.

User Training

Ideally, planning for training is the initial step that health care providers ought to take to ensure that the information system in the organization is running smoothly and effectively in its performance. Stakeholders ought to know what they are needed to do and how they are supposed to do certain things. This strengthens the skills of evaluation and monitoring of the organization and specific individuals involved. Training itself builds the stakeholders’ capacity to identify data’s needs, organization, technical analysis, and collection. Training also helps the involved parties utilize information in the system to improve healthcare program and make better and informed decisions, thus improving health status and health system. Thus the plan will follow specific measures such as allocation of the task and organization of content.

Capacity building also is essential in organizing and running the organization. Here the curriculum is given and the collaborative creation of materials that will be used for training by several staff members Most of them will have already imparted information from expert colleagues at an institution partnered with a specific healthcare facility. These staff members are termed as resourceful in organization and are used in the regional and even country level for workshops to train both the patients and healthcare providers. Materials they use in training cover several topics to enlighten stakeholders on information system.

The organization of content allows the trainers look presentable when discussing a topic before the other staff members. As introduced above, the Health Management information system collects, organizes, and stores information for both the healthcare providers and the patients, which may be used for decision-making. Thus, content is often designed to capture and provide core and essential data for planning and monitoring the system’s performance.

Ideally, the use of Electronic Health Record (EHR), will be organized to center on healthcare providers’ education on how to keep the patient’s health reports, test results, and other important information of patients, on the hospitals’ servers.

It should be noted that security of this data is one part that the content also stresses. These are the mechanisms and strategies that should be put in place to keep the patient’s record safe from any fraud. In the discussion, specific security mechanisms, like installing servers, with a password or a fingerprint lock to prohibit unauthorized people from viewing the data.

Moreover, specific patient-centered information will be covered in training, whereby, the staff will be equipped with knowledge about the system and how it will be used in the organization. This information ought to help the healthcare providers to help in giving out services.

The content should be organized using stipulated methods of training. It is introduced above, that training will be offered through workshops. Workshops are educational programs made to make the participants familiar with ideas, skills, and practical (Hastuti, et al., 2020). These skills often belong to a specific domain or area and could be used in the physical world. To ensure that the workshop is useful and content delivered is understood, it may last for at least one week, where the trainers will evaluate the specific knowledge to know the understanding level.

Apart from the workshop, seminars will be organized where the stakeholders, together with the staff, will attend it. A seminar is an academic instruction offered by an organization that is either professional or commercial. Its essential feature is organizing people into small subgroups for meetings that recur, but each time the meeting is on, the staff focuses on a specific subject. Everyone in the seminar will be encouraged to participate in the seminar.

The training ought to be carried out in the hospital. It is vital to carry out this hospital task since this is the only place where the equipment is installed. For example, in the case of the Electronic Health Record, it is based in the hospital. Thus, training should be carried out around this device so that those undergoing training will not have abstract knowledge about it. Just as the proponents on education advocated it, any cognitive domain ought not to be abstract, but be made as real as possible. Thus, training also ought to be made to be real. Making this a reality will be possible only when carried out around the equipment which is installed in the hospital. For example, teaching how to install passwords in the electronic health records to keep patient’s information safe can only be effective when the participants are shown experimentally.

The schedule of training will depend on the number of days that the workshop and seminars will last. However, the participants will be introduced to the larger topic on the first day, Health Information System. The core definition whatever it entails and some types of these systems. The continuing days will give a deep scope into the system, analyze its strengths weaknesses, and give the participants how to minimize these weaknesses. This schedule ought to be open and flexible, allowing the necessary breaks in between the day. Such breaks include tea, lunch, and even sapper breaks.

Various resources are required to facilitate the training. One of these resources includes the trainer, who is the resource person in the training process. Various trainers have been equipped with the necessary knowledge about the information system, who may share this information with the rest of the participants.

Another resource that will be used the space or the room. These are the specific environments where the various components of the health information system will be kept. The room ought to be well ventilated and spacious enough to accommodate them. Moreover, the rooms ought to be secure enough to prohibit unauthorized entrances.

Training the staff, who will also help in training others, is very significant. This will involve giving or transferring the knowledge about the operation of the specific systems to other health staff that will also be used to educate their colleagues or the general public. It is attested that the health managers’ training and the health staff are the significant figures for scaling up the Health Management information system. The essence of picking the Health Managers is that they need that knowledge to give technical mentoring to the health staff (Hastuti, et al., 2020). Also, they need the information to help them understand and use the Human Management Information System data to manage appropriately and make informed decisions. Often, training and managing the process may be done in two folds; training the trainers and drilling the staff. A preparation manual ought to strictly be followed.

Conducting the exercise will be done by both the staff members who have just undergone education and possess the necessary skills as well as the specialists in the field. All the training will be procedural in that they from one step to the other. As stipulated above, the first slot will be to train the trainers, while the second procedure will involve teaching the staff. The manual or the handbook will be followed in the training. Moreover, the preparation methods as stipulated will be the use of seminars and workshops that are effective. Lecturing method will be utilized when giving a theoretical information about the systems. Furthermore experimentation will be carried out where the trainees will be allowed to interact with the information system.

Apart from the significant initial training, there will also be continuous training, called the Additional periodic ongoing training, to make the information sink in the staff’s brains. (Kiradoo, 2020). The periodic training is essential since they keep the system up-to-date and formulate a framework for evaluating the information system.

Computer-assisted training will also be beneficial. This includes the use of the projectors to project whatever the speaker is speaking about. The computer-assisted training, like the projectors, will involve the trainer making slides for the presentation. These slides, ought to be visible to the staff under training.

Apart from the projectors, the trainer may formulate some short clips demonstrating how a system works. These demonstrations, however, ought not to be complicated that the staff will not understand. Moreover, these videos ought to be in line with the system at hand. The videos may be displayed using a computer, thus making it a computer-assisted training.

Syste Implementation: Acceptance, Rejection or modification of the project

To implement the Electronic Health Record, several processes ought to be considered as one of the health information systems. The hardware always has an essential role to play in the system. It is confirmed that hardware choice always affects the money and time that the system takes to act. The individual tablets and laptops coined to specific servers save the physicians much time logging and finding the patient’s data. Often the Companies of Information Technology are always at the forefront of making the best system hardware and other equipment that performs best.

There is often one way of ensuring that the health information system is properly working. This is by the use or evaluation of the software. It is often described that the software is like the operation of the system. It controls all the activities carried on the computer (Sulistiadi, et al., 2020). In order to ensure that the RFT guidelines are followed, the evaluation guidelines ought to be followed. One of the evaluation domains ought to be focused on the security of the software. The evaluation guidelines ought to ensure that the security measures are made to not go against the HIPPA. Thus the HIPPA risk assessment is crucial to ensuring the system application works properly and meets the functional requirement.

Other domains to check are the speed or processing. The application ought not to be hanging up when fed with data. It ought to be fast and give immediate feedback when there is a command given to it (Kiradoo, 2020). Working with the health IT vendor also ensures that the software is compliant.

To ensure that data in different systems interfaces and is smoothly run, one ought to ensure that the hardware and the software are firmly connected. All the components of the individual health information system ought to be connected by the use of cables. The cables transfer data and command from one place to another. Thus, to ensure that the data flows in a correct format, the cables ought to be correctly connected.

Conversion testing is a process that transfers data from one format to another. Often clinical conversion requires knowledgeable developers because of its complications. A multidisciplinary approach is one of the processes of data conversion. This is the conversion of data from several different departments that work together. Moreover, the type of data that ought to be considered.

There ought to be intensive and continuous electronic health records testing to ensure that the data is safe and the system is effective (Sulistiadi, et al., 2020). As introduced above, the software or the system does not have to hang when data is keyed in scrutiny into the software may help test the system under maximum load. The ventilation in the room and space allows the system to cool and perform or process the required information correctly. Sometimes, when the system overheats, it shut down in a poorly ventilated room, thus slowing down the optimum working.

The environment is also a factor in the system operation. It should be remembered that the system will stay in a given locality for a very long time operating. The environment ought to be favorable to the system. For example, the electronic health records should be kept in a room that does not have a water flow. The system uses electricity and water may result in burning some transistors in the software.


In conclusion, the Health Management Information System is a fundamental domain in strengthening the health systems. This system is designed to help plan management, collection, analysis, making policies, and making decisions in healthcare facilities. The implementation model precedes planning for training in various domains as a specialist; one ought to know about the Health Management Information System, and delegate training to other trainers through the training trainers program. As seen above, the training may be some using workshops and seminars. One ought to ensure that various parts of the system work properly, including the software and the hardware, as argued in the text above.


Hastuti, D. D., Setyaningsih, Y., & Adi, K. (2020). Design of occupational health and safety management information system at telogorejo semarang hospital. Unnes Journal of Public Health, 9(1), 20-27. Web.

Kiradoo, G. (2020). A study on management information systems role and adoption in managerial decision making. International Journal of Management (IJM), 11(3). Web.

Sligo, J., Gauld, R., Roberts, V., & Villa, L. (2017). A literature review for large-scale health information system project planning, implementation, and evaluation. International journal of medical informatics, 97, 86-97. Web.

Sulistiadi, W., Nurhidayah, S., & Asyary, A. (2020). Evaluating the management information system of integrated medical emergency care in batang regency, indonesia. Web.

Political Sampling: Pros And Cons Of Probability And Non-Probability Sampling


In many parts of the world, politics is an area of interest for many people, given the immense weight that political systems confer over the wellbeing and the governance of societies. Political systems are categorized as part of social systems and are among the major sectors in the world’s governance systems after economic, cultural, and legal systems (Jennings & Wlezien, 2018). Therefore, it is imperative to note that political polling remains the positions of influence and power on which many lives depend. As an analysis method, political enthusiasts and professionals have been reported to use various methods in acquiring trends and information from the populations over the possible outcomes of polls. Several studies have cited two main methods to be critical in the political polling process: probability sampling and non-probability sampling methods (Lauderdale et al. 2020). In this regard, this proposal aims at establishing the advantages and disadvantages of using probability and non-probability sampling as political sampling methods.

Probability sampling

Probability sampling is based on chances. According to Etikan, and Bala (2017), subjects in a probability sampling method have an equal chance of being selected for research information over their opinions on a poll. This sampling method can be achieved through various ways, including through mobile or phone call surveys by following the random digit dialing (RDD) for a set of poll subjects (Jennings, & Wlezien, 2018). Therefore, probability sampling has been the widely used method of political sampling over the decades, based on the ability for random subject selections.

Pros of probability sampling

The probability sampling method is the most easily accessible form of political poll sampling used in many nations worldwide due to its outstanding merits. According to Etikan and Bala (2017), probability sampling is a less costly opinion poll sampling method, making room for more people to be sampled at one time in the process. Etikan and Bala (2017) further note that probability sampling also consumes less time by randomly reaching out to many people all at once within a short period.

Several study findings have also linked probability sampling with better outcomes based on its simplicity and ease of obtaining samples from larger population groups faster and more efficiently (Elfil, & Negida, 2017). Most political polling systems use technical means of achieving outcomes from opinion polls. In contrast, probability sampling methods useless specialized equipment, requiring no technical knowledge on operations (Sharma, 2017). Ultimately, probability sampling is considered better because of the possibility of calculating the sampling error margin from a sample group as a representation of the entire population (Yadav, Singh, & Gupta, 2019). Therefore, probability sampling comes out as an efficient polling system whose ease of use and access elevates its outcomes compared to other sources.

Disadvantages of probability sampling

Whereas probability sampling and its associated vices are all the better to use, some faults in using probability sampling also exist. Different types of probability sampling have their unique challenges. According to Lauderdale et al. (2020), systemic sampling is limited to randomly selecting the sample group. In contrast, the stratified random sampling method is more rigorous and tedious thus consumes more time, especially if larger samples of the population have to be considered. Further, cluster sampling is limited to the homogeneity of the sample population, whereas simple random sampling also consumes relatively more time (Sharma, (2017). Therefore, addressing the aforementioned challenges sets probability sampling as the best sampling method for political polling endeavors.

Non-probability Sampling

In non-probability sampling, the opposite of probability sampling is eminent. For non-probability sampling, the probability of selecting the sample population from the entire population cannot be adequately quantified (Quatember, 2019). In this regard, the non-probability sampling thrives on the decisions made by the researcher, which sometimes may be biased. According to Yadav, Singh, and Gupta (2019), non-probability sampling allows the room for sample subjects to select themselves or join in for a survey as in dial-in polls used mainly by media houses and the internet community. Further, a study report indicated that the time for getting a response from the sample population was faster with non-probability sampling due to the participants’ enthusiasm and excitement to participate in the process (Sharma, 2017). A similar study also revealed that non-probability sampling allows for faster access of information besides being more cost-effective than probability sampling (Lauderdale et al., 2020).

Pros of Non-Probability Sampling

According to Sharma (2017), non-probability sampling comes out as the most cost-effective and less time-consuming poll sampling method when compared with probability sampling. In cases where the poll population is tiny, non-probability sampling is considered the best method to use as it allows for the chance to sample even smaller populations (Jennings & Wlezien, 2018). In the recent past, primary survey information collection practices have resorted to non-probability sampling methods as they are less expensive (Sharma, 2017).

Cons of Non-Probability Sampling

According to Etikan and Bala (2017), non-probability sampling does not allow the researcher to know how effective the chosen sample out of the general population represents the views and the feelings of the entire population. Etikan and Bala (2017) further note that with non-probability sampling, it is close to impossible to accurately determine the confidence intervals and margins of error in the sampling process. According to Sharma (2017), non-probability sampling exhibits some difficulties in providing estimates for bias in information relay, limiting the validity and quality of the poll data. Non-probability sampling also limits the generalization of research data findings owing to the tiny population sample that the method uses (Elfil & Negida, 2017). Finally, the non-probability sampling also presents with sample population challenges as a huge part of the populations’ views remain uncaptured, thus limiting outcomes of the process (Sharma, 2017).


In conclusion, political opinion polls are an important part of the political process that acts as a prediction tool for the possible outcomes of a political contest. Probability and non-probability sampling methods remain the widely use methods of sampling. Cost-effectiveness and time efficiency are some of the factors of utmost consideration in polling methods. However, the best sampling method ought to be the one that allows for the collection of more accurate data within a short period at a lower cost. In this regard, probability sampling is the best possible sampling method that can be considered for more precise and cost-effective sampling. Accuracy and consistency of data findings is one massive concern over political opinion polls, as they bear the capabilities of defining and redefining outcomes of the political process. Non-probability sampling remains the best and the widely used opinion polls method based on its simplicity and wide sample calculations for margins of error.


Elfil, M., & Negida, A. (2017). Sampling methods in clinical research; an educational review. Emergency, 5(1).

Etikan, I., & Bala, K. (2017). Sampling and sampling methods. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 5(6), 00149. Web.

Jennings, W., & Wlezien, C. (2018). Election polling errors across time and space. Nature Human Behaviour, 2(4), 276-283. Web.

Lauderdale, B. E., Bailey, D., Blumenau, J., & Rivers, D. (2020). Model-based pre-election polling for national and sub-national outcomes in the US and UK. International Journal of Forecasting, 36(2), 399-413. Web.

Quatember, A. (2019). 42. The representativeness of samples. In Handbücher zur Sprach-und Kommunikationswissenschaft/Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science (HSK) (pp. 514-523). De Gruyter Mouton.

Sharma, G. (2017). Pros and cons of different sampling techniques. International journal of applied research, 3(7), 749-752.

Yadav, S. K., Singh, S., & Gupta, R. (2019). Sampling methods. In Biomedical Statistics (pp. 71-83). Springer, Singapore.

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