Aseptic Technique: Review Free Essay

I took part in the performance of two endoscopy procedures; esophagogastroduodenoscopy or EGD and colonoscopy. The procedures involve the passage of a camera either down the esophagus or into the colon respectively. Endoscopy is a diagnostic and exploratory procedure intended to identify abnormalities which caused the patient to seek medical attention. I was surprised to learn that the procedures are normally performed under aseptic technique and not under sterile conditions. This prompted me to choose an article on aseptic technique so that I could learn more about the technique. This paper will begin with a summary of an article authored by Anne Azizi and published in the British Nursing Journal titled “Variations in aseptic technique and implications for infection control.” It will end in a reflection on my experience.

Healthcare acquired infections (HAI) remain a great challenge to healthcare providers (Aziz, 2009). It is estimated that the United Kingdom spends more than one billion pounds annually on HAIs (Aziz, 2009). It has been reported that healthcare acquired infections cause between 5,000 and 15,000 deaths every year in the United Kingdom (Aziz, 2009). The number of healthcare acquired infections does not appear to decline even with increasing budgetary allocation. The high number of healthcare acquired infections can be partly explained by lack of a unified and standardized aseptic technique (Aziz, 2009). There are a number of different guidelines on aseptic technique. This has led to variation in its application. The aseptic technique in use varies from hospital to hospital and within a hospital. Individual healthcare providers are likely to apply a technique that reflects when, how and where they were trained. Most guidelines list the procedures that can be done under aseptic technique. The guidelines recommend that two nurses should perform a procedure requiring aseptic technique (Aziz, 2009). However, this is no longer possible in most settings owing to staff shortage and increasing number of patients. Therefore, to reduce the burden of HAIs, national healthcare systems and hospitals should adopt a unified and standardized aseptic technique such as the aseptic non-touch technique (ANTT) (Aziz, 2009). In addition, healthcare providers should be trained and assessed on the new standardized technique.

Endoscopy is an invasive procedure that increases the risk for infection. In order to reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality, it is necessary that all invasive procedures be done under aseptic technique. Knowledge of aseptic technique is mandatory for all healthcare practitioners who participate in the execution of invasive procedures. Nurses who are part of the endoscopy team should ensure that patient safety is guaranteed at all times. The information obtained from this article will shape my nursing practice. This is due to the fact that a number of procedures require application of aseptic technique. Correct application of the technique will aid in reducing morbidity and mortality ascribable to HAIs. The article also highlighted the need for nurses and other healthcare providers to be aware of hospital policies on aseptic technique. This aids in the realization of consistent results.

It was an honor to be part of this experience. It has significantly changed the way I view aseptic technique. It was especially satisfying to be a member of the endoscopy team. This brought to my attention the importance of infection control measures in the hospital environment. The experience gave me an opportunity to reflect on the possibility of advancing my career in an area that will allow me to participate in diagnostic and investigative procedures like endoscopy.

Reference

Aziz, A. (2009). Variations in aseptic technique and implications for infection control. British Journal of Nursing, (18)1, 26-31.

Three Different Categories Of Deceptive Marketing Practices

Marketers tend to implement deceptive practices that force the customer to believe they gain more profit than usual. Typically, these practices tend to provide misleading but appealing information about the product or service being offered. Even though deception is a commonly used method to attract more clients and increase sales, there are serious economic consequences that affect both traders and consumers. Marketing deceptive strategies are divided into pricing, packaging, and promotion.

The first deceptive strategy is promotion comprises a variety of advertising practices that are aimed towards affecting the decision-making of a client. Such situations occur when some specific features of the product are misinterpreted or mispresented. However, this practice attracts a lot of people who are ready for a bargain, when, in reality, the product is out of stock. Channels such as newspapers, radio, the Internet, TV, catalogs, or shop signs are usually the source of deceptive advertising.

This method is mainly represented through intentional oral, written, or visual misinterpretations that are prone to promising something grand when the product does not correspond to the demonstrated features in real life. For instance, the marketers usually present a product with free delivery included, though it actually involves some charges.

Another practice is called deceptive packaging and implies a row of actions concerned with product-packing, which is supposed to confuse the customers. Frequently, the manufacturers or traders use misleading labels, terms, vague design, wrong size, or fill only half of the package. Deceptive packaging is the method used for some reason. Firstly, the company may incur some rising costs. Therefore, it has to reduce the amount of the product in the package in a way that is not evident to the customer’s eye. Another reason is conditioned by the shape and the size of an item produced. Moreover, the exaggeration of the contents helps the manufacturer make a sales profit.

Deceptive pricing includes a number of practices related to false advertising concerning, for instance, the manufacturer’s sudden price reduction due to the ‘going out of business’ or clearance. Despite these reasons for the price reduction, there are still hidden fees the buyer has to pay. False advertising impacts people’s choice-making in a split second. The decision changes because the customer is assured that they can acquire a product or service at a lower price, whereas in reality, they have to pay as usual.

The deceptive pricing may include bait-and-switch strategies. Therefore, when a buyer intends to buy a product at a lower price presented by the manufacturer, they have to make sure the product is available in the store and of decent quality. Sustainable marketing does not correspond with poor quality, so when the buyer is unhappy with the product purchased, they can spread this information, which is likely to influence the manufacturer’s reputation. This practice’s goal is to pay attention to clients and raise sales.

To sum everything up, it is clear that deceptive promotion, packaging, and pricing are the technologies that mislead the buyer. These practices tend to violate consumers’ rights and trust, which can result in the disruption of profitable business relations. Thus, one deception can make the customer choose a more reliable manufacturer. Marketers assume that the deceptive methods are no longer in the run as they are not sustainable. The implementation of deception in marketing is restricted and, in some instances, leads to financial penalties.

Denial Of Service Attacks And Countermeasures

Introduction

Online threats remain a reality for today’s businesses, especially those relying on the internet. Active and passive attack incidents are escalating every day and network administrators are having a daunting task of detecting, controlling or minimizing the effects of such attacks. Stewart, Tittel and Chapple concur in that one of the common methods to secure the facility includes “the common access control and auditing procedures” (23). Perimeter systems that are sensitive to intrusions can be set up to boost physical security. An intrusion detection system (IDS) is one of the tools in the organization’s network security armory that also includes a firewall and an antivirus. According to Magalhaes “the IDS will compliment a firewall to ensure desirable network security for any organization” (1).

The approach of layered defense-in-depth policy procedures and tools is well accepted as best practice for information security. The pressure for return on security investment (ROSI) has further exacerbated the difficulty of implementing technology. Since the September 11th attacks, security has been elevated to an area of critical liability for many business continuity providers. Based on this approach, service and business continuity providers such as Cisco have questioned how to protect the integrity of mission-critical operations without limiting the flow of business. Corporate information security officers have for a long time now been asking this question.

As computer networks continue being more complex the security of such systems has become a process not just a product. Formerly, a router’s access control lists provided necessary protection to keep out most threats. At the moment firewalls, authentication, web filtering and imposition detection, and avoidance form pieces of the puzzle.

Physical security is normally enforced to counter threats posed by humans, weather, nature or equipment. The implementation of the control mechanisms affecting physical security will cover administrative, technical, and physical controls. While establishing and maintaining control as well as physical security over computer networks and the internet, perimeter security controls are very important. Methods to secure the facility include the common access control and auditing procedures. Perimeter systems that are sensitive to intrusions can be set up to boost physical security. Other methods can also be established to check technical access. Typical in this category are like dry contact switches, pressure mats, photometric detection systems, passive infrared detection systems among others.

Based on these findings today’s best practices for any internet based service providers such as the university’s online registration and cashiering system can include the following:

  1. Security guiding principles written down approved as conditions for employment. These must be regularly appraised and updated.
  2. The enforcement of general security practices involving ‘deny all’, unless explicitly allowed.
  3. Encryption of all sensitive data transmitted across public connections using protocols such as IPSec, secure socket layer (SSL) and WEP
  4. Controlling traffic across all borders physical ~ external – internal, external – DMZ, DMZ – internal wireless, logical ~ HTTP services – database services; file transfer protocol (FTP); Telnet; Java-; ActiveX
  5. Properly configuring network access regulations across internal and external boundaries.
  6. Role based authentication and approval that includes dynamic passwords normally produced by hardware or software tokens. These can also be sent for instance, to mobile devices for network administrators, remote users (virtual private network (VPN), Citrix, wireless, modem users), employees or business partners accessing critical information.
  7. Filtering local as well as remote content that is likely to cause network vulnerabilities for example e-mail attachments, hacker tools and viruses, legal liability (pornography, criminal skills, anonymizers, and cults) and poor network availability resulting from MP3 content.
  8. Third party standard inspections and assessments.

Executive summary

Michigan State University is currently exploring the benefits of online computing. They have implemented and are using a registration and catering system for the last one and a half years. Since this is a web based system, certain threats to the system are likely even though the management has not laid down serious considerations during their initial operations

Due to the nature of the processes carried out by the system and the work involved, the university system has recently succumbed to one of the common online threats today; the denial of service (DDoS) attack. This attack has been initiated and implemented because the university has not laid down a suitable policy on intrusion detection and prevention. The DDoS attack has rendered the university system inoperable and the CIO has launched an investigation to determine the genesis and cause of this incident. The CIO has established the cause of the attack and written a report whose content is summarized here.

The genesis

The lack of a well defined LAN security policy has exposed the vulnerabilities within. The absence of concerted investment in network and host based intrusion detection systems has provoked the attack. The attack has been investigated and found to originate from within the university LAN, a clear indicator that the attack was carried out by one of the staff who had some ulterior motive. The person concerned was well aware of the system’s internal working and knew the computers on the network to target. The attacker must also have been technically advantaged in order to set up the attack. Having gained access to one of the controlling computers, the attacker was able to use this unauthorized access to implement the attack.

The Attack

Because the system within the university LAN lacks any intrusion detection systems, the attacker has used packet sniffing technique to capture the passwords to critical system components like the university LAN servers. The intention of this procedure was to gain unauthorized access to these servers. On gaining access to these university servers, the attacker has progressed on to cripple the processing at these servers by flooding them with internally generated and fictitious hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) requests. This flooding has jammed and crippled the server operations thereby causing the system to fail to address any genuine requests. Due to this, the registration service offered by the university’s LAN servers has been shut down to any genuine requests and processes. In that perspective, this is an intrusion threat that has caused a denial of service.

The Countermeasures

Since intrusion detection systems (IDS) have become a necessary investment for any company, the university will have to design and deploy such a system.

The IDS will carry out the following:

  • Detect any security breaches and attacks on university LAN
  • Prevent such intrusions
  • Document any intrusion attempts on the university’s network and isolated suspect network activities.

Whether to choose a host based (HIDS) or network based (NIDS) intrusion detection system depends on the university’s requirements. However, some points of comparison between the NIDS and HIDS must be carefully considered. It remains true that both the NIDS and HIDS can effectively protect the local area network (LAN) from attacks. However, over time HIDS have been known to be more versatile and affordable compared to the NIDS. It is also known that the NIDS unlike the HIDS will utilize network bandwidth, which is one of those expensive network resources. However, the NIDS can adapt well to cross platform networks, which is not the case with HIDS. In order to offer an effective intrusion detection system (IDS) for the university, the NIDS is considered suitable because it will be able to offer a comprehensive solution as a multi segment detection system. Based on its functionality, the NIDS will check for intrusions on network backbones, operating systems, or applications. Network based IDS uses network packets it captures to detect any intrusion. This type of IDS can be deployed in a stealth mode operating in a passive manner. This type of detection system is therefore recommended to secure the university LAN against internal based intrusion threats such as the one encountered. It is important to realize that though HIDS are comparably cheaper; these types of IDS are vulnerable to denial of service attacks and therefore unsuitable to secure the university LAN.

Conclusion and recommendation

The implementation of a suitable intrusion detection system (IDS) at the university will result in a more secure LAN and well protected university information and resources. The deployment of this system will be effective if it is carried out on the network and host levels. This intrusion detection system type can be deployed on a number of computers as well as servers in critical departments of the company.

An illustration of how the Denial of service (DDoS) attack occurred
An illustration of how the Denial of service (DDoS) attack occurred

Works Cited

Magalhaes, Roberson. Host based versus network based IDS. Windowsecurity.com, 2010. Web.

Stewart, James, Ed Tittel, and Mike Chapple. Certified information systems security professional study guide. New York: Wiley, 2003. Print.

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