In this term paper, the many ways of asphalt pavement recycling, as well as the advantages of recycling, such as saving the cost, conserving aggregate and binder and preservation of existing pavement, geometries of the pavement, environmental conservation, and resource conservation, are discussed. In addition, less user delay and less energy are benefits of recycled asphalt following the initial introduction of asphalt pavement recycling. A guide on selecting a recycling process is offered and the applicability for a variety of recycling procedures. The structural design of these recycled asphalt pavements is also covered.
The concept of recycling or reusing pavement material is simple yet effective. Existing pavement materials can be recycled to create new materials, saving time, money, and energy (Krupa & Prof. Ashok, 2018). At the same time, recycling existing materials aids in the solution of disposal issues. Pavement geometrics and thickness can also be preserved during construction due to the reuse of existing material. Traffic description may be less in some circumstances than for other rehabilitation strategies. The following are some of the specific advantages of recycling:
- Lower construction costs, preservation of aggregate and binders
- Maintenance of current pavement geometrics
- Protection of the environment
3. PROBLEM STATEMENT.
The need for aggregate has risen in recent years due to infrastructure growth and improved facilities in roadway structures. Because aggregate is limited, asphalt pavement recycling is the best alternative for producing good results with benefits. While cost savings and environmental benefits are the most important, several variables drive the usage of recycled asphalt pavements. Aggregates make up the majority of the material used in bituminous concrete pavements. Because aggregate is a natural material, it is quickly consumed, resulting in a scarcity of resources needed for rapid infrastructure development.
On the other hand, new construction trends have resulted in the development of solid waste in demolished structures. Science and technology now should invent recent cost-effective and environmentally beneficial trends. Recycling helps to limit the quantity of building debris in landfills. Recycling asphalt conserves natural resources while also extending the life of the asphalt pavement. Recycled aggregate can be obtained from old
Demolished concrete constructions (RA). This can be utilized efficiently in conjunction with natural aggregates in various infrastructure needs in order to achieve a balance between demand and supply of construction materials, hence lowering environmental impact. This study will be aiming to recover aggregate and optimize natural resources, the demand for aggregate to construct pavement is increasing. To address the issue of dumped items, recycle them, and protect natural resources. To reduce negative environmental effects as much as possible.
- To study various Asphalt Pavements Recycling Techniques.
- To study the benefits of recycling asphalt pavements.
- To study multiple structural designs of recycled asphalt pavements.
5. LITERATURE REVIEW.
5.1. Recycling as a Method of Rehabilitation
Asphalt pavements can be rehabilitated in various ways (E-L & Plescan, 2015). Recycling is just one of them. The severity of the pavement distress, laboratory and field evaluations of the existing material, and design characteristics influence the chosen rehabilitation strategy. The choice of rehabilitation method is also influenced by the preservation of geometrics and original pavement thickness, notably in under-passes. On the other hand, recycling provides some advantages that other forms of rehabilitation procedures don’t have. Recycling, for example, can save money, aid in natural resource conservation, and keep pavement geometry and thickness consistent. Many recycling technologies are now available to address specific pavement degradation and structural concerns. Many recycling processes are now available to solve particular pavement degradation and structural needs due to traffic and environmental conditions (Abdalrhman Milada & Nur, 2020). To keep the pavement in good shape, rehabilitation is required. Repair may be necessary if the ride quality is poor due to significant pavement distress. It may also be needed if the coefficient of friction between the tire and the pavement is reduced or if the structural capacity or capacity to carry expected traffic loads is insufficient.
5.2 Methods and Procedures for Recycling
It can be categorized as hot mix asphalt recycling, hot in-place recycling, cold in-place recycling, or full-depth recycling, depending on the procedure used to recycle the bituminous mix.
Hot mix asphalt recycling
Reclaimed asphalt pavement components are blended with fresh ingredients, sometimes coupled with a recycling agent, to make hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures in hot mix asphalt recycling. Batch and drum-type hot mix units are employed to make a recycled mix.
Milling, ripping and crushing operations can obtain recycled asphalt pavement material.
The tools and processes for placing the mix and compaction are the same as standard HMA.
Hot in-place recycling
This technique involves heating and softening the existing pavement before scarifying/milling it to a set depth.
Cold in-place recycling
The term “cold in-place recycling” refers to the reuse of existing pavement materials without the need for heat.
Except for any recycling agent, there is usually no need to carry materials, and aggregate can be added, so hauling costs are minimal.
As a recycling agent or binder, an asphalt emulsion is typically used.
Full-depth recycling is described as a recycling procedure that involves treating the entire asphalt pavement section and a predefined portion of the underlying base material to generate a stabilized base course.
It’s essentially a cold mix recycling process in which various additives, such as asphalt emulsions and chemical agents like calcium chloride, Portland cement, fly ash, and lime, are added to obtain a better base. These recycling techniques provide a multitude of benefits, including the following (Administration, 1997):
Allow for the reuse of existing materials while eliminating disposal issues.
Changes to the aggregate or asphalt binder could improve the asphalt mix.
It is possible to improve the ride by correcting the pavement profile.
Cost savings over traditional rehabilitation approaches are possible.
5.3 Recycled Pavement Structural Design
The parts of the design that provide the proper strength or stiffness to the pavement structure are considered in pavement structural design. The design process has evolved from engineering judgment to primarily mechanistic or semi mechanistic techniques. Pavement materials can be classified based on their robust modulus and fatigue characteristics. “Structural numbers” can classify different types of pavement materials based on their strength and structure.
Pavements produced with recycled asphalt components can be as good as or better than those made with traditional hot mix asphalt.
The enormous variety of features of recycled mixtures coming from variances in material and building procedures must, however, be taken into account during the structural design of recycled pavements.
The coefficients for both recycled surface and recycled base courses were more significant than the coefficients for conventional mixtures in the AASHTO Road Test. According to the AASHTO handbook, there is no significant difference between hot recycled and virgin HMA material. The structural rehabilitation analysis approach (for conventional mix) is likewise suggested for the design of recycled pavements. However, because long-term performance data for recycled compounds is not accessible, engineering judgment should always be used when designing such blends. (AASHTO, 1986)
The AASHTO handbook presented an overlay design technique based on the structural number, underlying layer thickness, and drainage factors.
Recycling Asphalt is a new technology that allows for the construction of bituminous pavements at a lower cost by repurposing old bituminous pavement materials. It also ensures resource optimization and promotes long-term development. The optimal percentage of material relies on the bituminous material’s composition and the sort of layer to be applied. Numerous transportation agencies have recycled asphalt in unbound base and sub-base layers for many years. The Asphalt use specifications adopted by various transportation agencies have a general lack of uniformity.
AASHTO. (1986). AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures,. Washington DC: American Association of State American Association of State.
Abdalrhman Milada, A. M., & Nur, I. M. (2020). A REVIEW OF THE USE OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENT FOR ROAD PAVING APPLICATIONS. Jurnal Teknologi, 35-44.
Administration, D. o. (1997). Pavement Recycling Guidelines forState and Local Governments, U.S.
E-L, P., & Plescan, C. (2015). ASPHALT PAVEMENT RECYCLING. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov, 265-270.
Krupa, S. S., & Prof. Ashok, P. (2018). Recycling of Asphalt Pavements. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 1242-1244.
Aunt Jennifer’s Poem Sample Paper
According to the narration or the flow of the poem, it describes a lady is Jennifer. The poet asserts that aunt Jennifer does all about embroidery on a piece of cloth, where the decoration is designed with tigers which are beautiful. Depending on the intention of the poet, several styles and organizations are employed in the poem which gives the poem a systematic flow of narration. Through the designs of the tigers, the poets illustrate that one can project the desire for aunt Jennifer’s freedom, where she asserts that it might not be possible for Jennifer t achieve the freedom, she requires throughout her lifetime. Despite all, symbolisms, genres, and styles are displayed in the story which brings about the full context of the poem.
However, in the poem after the first stanza which was dealing with the embroidery of Jennifer, the second stanza entails that the fingers of the lady trembles because of the fear of her husband. She finds it hard to pull the ivory needle and the poet explains that Jennifer is very dependent on her husband. Besides the first two stanzas, the third stanza is that when Jennifer is dead her hands tend to lie(MICHAEL JAMES et.al 63-66). Through her work of decorating tigers, it shows that she had a wish to live; a life that was fearless where after the occurrence of death, her ring will remain on her finger. Furthermore, the narration of the poem shows that under all the works that she did, Jennifer lived a life of being too much submissive to her husband.
Consequently, throughout the narration of the poem, various symbols are used to illustrate the certain idea. Symbolism in a poem play is of significance because it enables or allows the writers to display and express ideas that are complex while on the other hand giving the reader a visual with a sensory experience. According to the poem, the poet uses some of the tools to illustrate ideas with their actual meanings(Robert et.al 377). For example, in the first part, symbolism is portrayed whereby the poet uses aunt Jennifer’s tigers which moved across a wall with bright colors. Under the creation of the tigers by Jennifer, it symbolized her dreams. However, her dreams were actually to live a free life dominated by freedom and free from oppression since she had a lot of fears about this. She used tigers because always they are re bold enough hence Jennifer wanted to be as brave as the tigers, furthermore, the submissiveness that she gave to her husband made Jennifer divert her thoughts fully.
Another sense of symbolism that is portrayed in the poem is that Jennifer’s fingers tend to flutter all through her work while working on the wool. Also, it was difficult for her to pull an ivory needle, through the fluttering of their hands it was significant because Jennifer would generate beautifully decorated tigers. During his wedding, the band that was offered to her by the uncle became too heavy on her hand. Indication of this heaviness was that her marriage was not pleasant because the marriage was a burden to her(Robert et.al 380). The assumption in Jennifer’s state of marriage is that it is not easy to overcome such kind of a situation. she feels that there is subjection to the marital bond which is a huge burden to her. Hence this image shows Jennifer was heavy-hearted all her life just because of her husbands’ commands.
Allusion n the ant Jennifer’s poem is portrayed in several ways. The allusion is a particular set of the poem is of importance because it often creates a simple metaphor which helps in the intensification and it vivifies the message of the poet by either suggesting or hinting a meaning to the reader in-depth(Pratt et.al63). However, the poem alludes to “the tiger” which has a description of a bright tiger, whereby the poet illustrated in a further way that Jennifer would be brave where she makes the story pretty neat when referring to herself to be a tiger. furthermore, the poem illustrates that Jennifer is a silenced woman and is dominated by the superiority of the male feeble and indecisive.
Genre however is another factor that is ought to be considered in the poem. according to Jennifer’s poem feminism is literary the genre of the poet. Whereby Jennifer talks full control of the illustrations and actions in the poem. For example, in the women and fiction of Woolf, also the imagery of animals is used to inject the power of feminists like the vision of Jennifer where she trebly focuses on her life(Pratt et.al 63). Besides the genre that is found in the poem, some styles are employed in the poem like personification. Justification of personification is achieved where the tiger is personified as a human being which is a reference to aunt Jennifer. where it is described that the tiger is brave enough to be fearless. Also, hyperbole is used which is an exaggeration of a statement like the description of the massive weight of the uncles’ band during the wedding.
In conclusion, the poem’s intention about the story of Jennifer was to represent the life of a woman. this aunt Jennifer plays a significant role and is an example to the feminist group through her characteristics of being brave and enduring all that she went through in her marriage. However, the main theme in the poem is that aunt Jennifer’s tiger tends to relate to the issue and domination in society. Under the theme, it tries to elaborate on some of the conflicts that emerge in various marriages and which face specifically a woman in chauvinisticity of the opposite gender in society today.
MICHAEL JAMES, RIZZA. AUNT Jennifers Tigers. July 2017.
Pratt, Annis. “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers: Notes toward a Preliterary History of Women’s Archetypes.” Feminist Studies, vol. 4, no. 1, Feb. 2018, p. 163, 10.2307/3177634.
Robert. The fate of Good Poems. 2020.
Australian Indigenous Education Free Essay
The current education system in Australia faces constant comparison of its student attainment standards both nationally and globally with high levels of testing in that various comparable nations have initiated a significant component of the educational terrain. Subsequently, education is highlighted and exemplified as a vital constituent of eliminating socioeconomic marginalization. Nonetheless, the focus on educational achievement, quality, and high standards usually strive to transform the features and results of educational non-performance associated with different social classes elaborated by race, ethnicity, gender, location, and class (Gaias et al., 2020). Matters surrounding race and ethnic education, especially racial and ethnic exclusion of the indigenous students, create a high level of concern in the education system, demonstrating a more comprehensive social issue on the rights and welfare of the native population of Australia.
The existing education system is oriented toward the Anglo-centric motives and objectives or a valued initiative dependent on the whiteness due to the colonial virtues. Educational attainment is today a consequence of effective assimilation into the system by actualizing specific trends of understanding and studies perceived as the norm. Maintenance of the norm does not vary the white experiences and concerns. This places whiteness as the ensembles of regional phenomena sophisticatedly entailed in the psychic, socioeconomic, and socio-cultural interrelations at the considerate center. Embedded frameworks into the whiteness perspectives and the individuals coordinating the frameworks can incur the variation in the inhabited space and avail remedies for the marginalization (Gaias et al., 2020). The white concept and experiential thus quietly prevails significantly and core while minimizing chances for the external personalities of the white value to undertake change, voice, and power. This paper, therefore, analyses mechanisms through which white superiority impedes indigenous educational prosperity and suitable mechanisms of mitigating the disadvantage.
The indigenous populations of Australia, particularly in New South Wales, are severely marginalized according to a series of socioeconomic parameters that significantly relate to pre-market attributes. Specifically, educational achievement is vital resulting from input in the labor market excellence and minimizes the risk associated with various impeding social impacts, including substance abuse and criminality. Educational marginalization potentially begins at a younger age and is influenced by school mechanisms and family systems alongside racial and ethnic factors (Moodie et al., 2019). The native minority populations appear to be greatly spatially distributed, mostly living in remote societies or solidified in a specific urban region which is the typical picture of the native Australians. An estimated half of the working native population resides in the remote or rural regions as the urban native Australians are frequently concentrated in the lower revenue residential regions.
The spatial settlement manifests specific challenges regarding educational principles as the native Australians are usually educated in situations that significantly vary from other Australians. Moreover, English remains a second language for most indigenous kids, particularly for remote and rural children, possibly enhancing the marginalization of learning in a relatively disadvantaged school. Studies reveal that native students attain markedly lower performance in literacy and numeracy examinations at an early age of ten years than non-native students (Moodie et al., 2019). During this period, the native students are approximated to be a year behind national benchmark standards on numeracy and literacy performance. The revelations demonstrate that educational marginalization is influenced by prior achievement effects that capture prior school and family impacts together with endowed personal mental capacity.
The critical race theory is suitable for the Australian perspectives both to access the potentiality of its more excellent implementation in the New South Wales State and advance an involvement in this theory offering insights into race and ethnicity in education exceeding the disadvantaged dominant structures. The critical race theory was initiated in the United States in the 1970s, heavily impacted by the critical legal studies movements that denounced the neglect of ethnicity and race within the legitimate frameworks of the 1960s and focused on determining norms and values hidden within the policy (Crawford, 2018). Besides, critical race theory involves critical theory in feminine, ethnic, sociology, and historical studies. The theory borrows from several traditions and is associated with preparedness to move over epistemological margins.
The critical race theory engages in the complicated matters of ethnicity and racism, starting mainly with visualizing the issues and reinforcing them in debates and discussions. Increasing racial awareness is the emergence of white supremacy and whiteness ideology which is the single most aspect of critical race theory adoption. The aspect is particularly critical in investigating Australian education perspectives as it manifests the potential to conceptualize the indigenous educational experiential. Critical race theory endeavors to reveal the white supremacy context and assess the relevance of whiteness to power, oppression, and racism (Crawford, 2018). The theory provokes the traditional declaration that educational organizations advance towards equal chances, color-blindness, objectivity, race neutrality, and meritocracy. The critical race theory is not concerned with the objective truth but with social construct truth formulated to align with the intentions of a significant group or class.
The discourses surrounding the indigenous Australian educational disadvantage encompass the five oppression faces: violence, powerlessness, exploitation, cultural imperialism, and marginalization. One challenge frequently encountered during the involvement of inclusion and equality issues is the analysis and conceptualization of difference. The difference ideology is usually neglected as rejected ted or negative with a mandate of ascertaining all persons have similar provisions and opportunities. The five faces create a mechanism for internalizing oppression and, subsequently, justice through processes that focus on mitigating the complication of difference (Moodie et al., 2019). Oppression is also a structural ideology and acknowledges its outcomes on social demographics inclusive of individuals.
Populations behave within socio-historical perspectives that advance determinate impacts on cultural and physical vicinity, streamlining future trends in a particular pattern. The consequence is a circumstance in which a group of individuals undergoes systematic risk of deprivation as others incur opportunities for exercising and developing capacities. Structural inequality recognition is critical; nevertheless, accounting for the production and reproduction of these patterns is essential. Cultural imperialism is the paradox experiential of an individual as invisible and concurrently marking one as invisible. Cultural imperialism manifests upon the neglect of difference, fostering privileged persons to prevail as universal and different. The difference, structural inequality, and group oppression in the social justice system assist in demonstrating and describing certain complexities in the mechanisms through which indigenous Australian students are perceived in the education frameworks (Moodie et al., 2019). The concept creates a theoretical anchorage for assessing the complicated matters of oppression encountered by the native students in the educational setup. This allows one to inquire about truth and race complexities by facilitating different considerations within specific groups and specific truths.
Multicultural education laws considered in Australia argue that official state law struggles to represent the globe in factual perspectives to enable the natural flow of certain aspects of practices. The naturalization mechanism is framed and mandated by inquiry arising from modernist policies and social science, formulating a seemingly impartial, seamless, coherent reality that lures the ordinary consciousness. Through this process, official laws master-narrate a legal concept of the world strengthened by the existing social misconceptions. Following the government’s closing the gap principle, indigenous information narrations are uncertain about veering from the well-worn content of deviation and disadvantage from the norm (Brown, 2018). Counteracting the normalized circumstances are the conflicting stories that can be advanced as recoding and decoding resources and otherwise collaborating or clashing with the official policy. Inside the Australian indigenous-mandated education principle, the educational disparity has been normalized through colonial mechanistic strategic severance facilitated by representations that classify disadvantage as an inherent component of Aboriginality.
Marginalization is therefore portrayed through a process of disconnecting its historical origin, focusing on situating it as not just as external to the social environment of the non-native Australians but as an entire burden and a challenge of the native populations. Scholarly studies have recognized the previous implications of the Australian indigenous students asserting that chronological principles of settlement and assimilation hindered adequate education for the Aboriginal populations, resulting in an intergenerational trauma legacy and marginalization that impedes educational success for the current native students (Brown, 2018). In official debates, there has also been minimum consideration for the educational consequences of forced child removal. Therefore, it is mandatory to recognize the implications of colonialism and progressive racism as a precaution to scoring elevated educational results for native Australians.
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Action Plan, 2010-2014, is one of the formulated policies to mitigate the indigenous Australian students’ disadvantage. The Action plan recognizes the gaps between the educational attainment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students and various students, with evidence all over Australia revealing that significant remoteness of a community leads to poor student performance. The policy further acknowledges that with sufficient experience, educational attainment advancements in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders learners emanate from partnership action with a remedy to the local demands (Teasdale, 2018). Evidence of the native populations taking part in the consultation, review, and planning process is a critical component toward vital inclusion of the native individuals, obliging to the concerns of the indigenous population and calling for advanced policy formulation.
The action plan elaborates on approaches adopted at the local, national and systemic levels. The strategies include schools focusing on fostering contextual, linguistic, and cultural amenities that students embed in the learning process alongside promoting and advancing pedagogies sensitive to and involving the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students’ cultures and languages. Nationally, within the policy, the Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority ascertain minimal cultural biases of the National Assessment Program for Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) against Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander learners (Teasdale, 2018). The Australian government and curriculum providers also collaborate to promote family numeracy and literacy initiatives, such as multilingual family initiatives. Evidence prevails on associations between societies and learning institutions being advanced that allude to significant involvement and collaboration.
Informed Action as a Teacher
As a teacher, the adoption of comprehensive multicultural principles within classrooms to encourage the integration of racially disadvantaged groups is essential, which has been a factor of consideration in Australia since the 1970s. Education is one of the critical institutional sectors preferred to effect the policy transformations. Nonetheless, antiracism programs and initiatives were not broadly integrated within the New South Wales multicultural education until the 1990s, when the Department of Education incurred mechanisms and policies to handle antiracist motives in public schools (Forrest et al., 2017). The multicultural education framework develops a broad series of approaches toward obtaining two objectives: to provide every student with values, knowledge, and skills essential in successful involvement within a culturally vast community; and to foster the particular necessities for students with a non-English speaking background.
Education administrators in Australia are focused on ascertaining that schools and classrooms are safe surroundings for students to learn freely without bullying or discrimination, which is a mandate of the classroom teacher. The teacher should integrate the new National Curriculum in Australia that entails Intercultural Conceptualization as a constituent of the seven overall capacities taught from preschool to senior secondary school. Despite the lack of universality in adopting antiracism and multicultural education within learning institutions, New South Wales remains committed to this obligation at the state level (Forrest et al., 2017). The Multicultural Programs Unit2 fosters multicultural education within the country’s Department of Education, develops teaching amenities, policies, and campaigns, and avails regional tutors to provide in-service workshops to teachers to implement antiracism principles and multicultural education.
This paper has struggled to elucidate some significant conceptual strategies to investigate the existing educational laws in Australia to construct a critical internalization of the native educational marginalization. The paper sought to highlight the potentiality of mitigating challenges of fairness and race that are established through a commitment to discomfort and disruption, listening, and encouragement of responsibility and difference. The theoretical strategy involved uncovers suppositions and silences that regularly impact efforts to attain educational fairness for the native Australians. The indigenous learners are commonly perceived as deficient, with a possible remedy to the deficiencies thought to be exhibiting a significant component of the attitudes and behaviors of the non-native students. To conceptualize the equity matters of Australian native students, it is critical to carry out broader insights into the educational curriculum alongside its dominant objectives and values. Investigating policies associated with education for every student foresees educational attainment to be commonly determined and evaluated per the white norms. However, schools must advance a neo-liberal initiative, which is broadly supportive of sameness and standardization, and not feasibly tolerating difference. Teachers are potential agents of this transformation by embracing antiracism and multicultural education to promote cultural inclusivity.
Brown, L. (2018). Indigenous young people, disadvantage and the violence of settler-colonial education policy and curriculum. Journal Of Sociology, 55(1), 54-71. https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783318794295
Crawford, C. (2018). The one-in-ten: quantitative Critical Race Theory and the education of the ‘new (white) oppressed’. Journal Of Education Policy, 34(3), 423-444. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2018.1531314
Forrest, J., Lean, G., & Dunn, K. (2017). Attitudes of Classroom Teachers to Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education in Country New South Wales, Australia. Australian Journal Of Teacher Education, 42(5), 17-34. https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2017v42n5.2
Gaias, L., Duong, M., Pullmann, M., Brewer, S., Smilansky, M., & Halbert, M. et al. (2020). Race and ethnicity in educational intervention research: A systematic review and recommendations for sampling, reporting, and analysis. Educational Research Review, 31, 100356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2020.100356
Moodie, N., Maxwell, J., & Rudolph, S. (2019). The impact of racism on the schooling experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students: A systematic review. The Australian Educational Researcher, 46(2), 273-295. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-019-00312-8
Teasdale, J. (2018). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education: An Introduction for the Teaching Profession Kaye Price Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, 2012. Australian Journal Of Environmental Education, 34(1), 80-81. https://doi.org/10.1017/aee.2018.15