If ever a man was destined and dedicated to work in musicology, it was Lomax. Lomax was born in the family of John Avery Lomax, who initially worked as a banker. His father was a well-known archivist under the cowboy songs and Southwestern American folklore, who was born on January 31, 1915, in Austin, Texas (Cohen, 2010). As a young lad, Lomax listened to his discoveries while still growing up in Texas until he eventually came to support America’s music fully. Young Alan frequently served as an assistant, and on numerous expeditions with his father and his siblings John, Jr., Bess, and Elizabeth, he also gained first-hand knowledge of his trade (Szwed, 2012). During this period, Lomax signified himself as a person of interest in the documentation of music and culture. During the HiFi/Stereo article Review that occurred in the1960 and was later reprinted in Rounder’s 1997 edition of The Alan Lomax Sampler Collection, Lomax explained his preceding significant Library of Congress recording project (Cohen, 2010). Therefore, it is crucial to analyze Lomax’s Legacy and contribution to music and other works as explained by different authors.
Lomax’s career officially began in 1933, when John A. Lomax was appointed to the Library’s Music Division as a special consultant in the Archive of American Folk Song. It was in 1937 when Alan had a job appraisal in Library as an assistant-in-charge, where remained ever since taking over the majority of the day-to-day management of the facility. Alan Lomax, as a Folklorist, is appreciated for his contribution to the preservation of the country’s cultural heritage and customs more than a century after his birth (Szwed, 2012). Compared to other pioneering folklorists, scholars, and documentarians who have their works preserved in the Library of Congress, Alan Lomax is most appreciated and highly classed (Cohen, 2010). This appreciation and respect arise from the breadth and caliber of his collections and the impact of his discovery on American culture.
Alan’s achievements arose due to his constant traveling, either by himself or with his father, while toting a portable disk recorder and, frequently, a camera. His earliest recordings of traditional music can be traced back to Louisiana, with Cajun music being one of the first (Szwed, 2012). Despite such, Alan also recorded ballads and fiddle tunes from the Appalachian Mountains. In Mississippi Delta, he recorded the first sample of blues music. Furthermore, during his famous field trips, Alan made numerous records of European ethnic communities, American south culture, and music.
Through a collaboration with his father, Alan is also famous for records such as Huddie “Lead Belly” Ledbetter and McKinley “Muddy Waters” Morganfield. Most of his musical recording was done when he was in the Library of Congress (Cohen, 2010). Such included the landmark series of 193, which comprised the recordings of Jelly Roll Morton. Even during the war, he was actively documenting music and culture. For instance, in World War II, Lomax visited the Library of Congress several times, gathering and researching folk culture. Many of the songs he recorded there became enduring symbols of American culture. His recordings include “Bonaparte’s Retreat,” “Rodeo,” and “House of the Rising Sun.”
Despite numerous contributions, Alan Lomax did numerous projects that are still remembered today. One of the most ambitious and contentious projects in music and science that Alan Lomax ever made was the Cantometrics Project. Lomax’s “cantometric” has a classification of 1,800 songs (Alan, 1971). Furthermore, it involved 148 populations with 36 features within its elements that have since sparked a heated debate (Alan, 1971). Even with significant success and contribution, Lomax has faced huge critics; however, while he responded to some criticisms, he never thoroughly explained his conclusions or gave evidence that backed his developments in music documentation, which has released huge concern about his reputation in music. As Patrick and Cohen (2018, 2004) explain, what is appreciated is that his Cantometrics, as well as Lomax’s related projects in dance, music, pedagogy, and activism, have gained attention even after he died in 2002.
Even after his death, Alan Lomax’s impact is felt. For instance, through its significant influence, the Alan Lomax Collection could not go unnoticed, leading to its purchase by the American Folklife Center (AFC) in 2004 from the Library of Congress. This collection is documented to be an exceptional ethnographic record that the renowned folklorist gathered over a period. The collection is highlighted to have works of more than 60 years, which consist of 5,000 hours of sound recordings, and 400,000 feet of motion picture film (Cohen, 2004). In addition, this pile also includes 2,450 videotapes and a collection of 2,000 academic books and journals (Szwed, 2010). Apart from these records, this documentation is also highlighted to have hundreds of photographic documentation, databases, and more than 120 manuscript materials (Cohen, 2004). The transfer of this documentation was made possible through AFC and the Association for Cultural Equity (ACE) agreeing to propose the move of the records from Hunters college. However, the main stakeholders for this successful acquisition were members of the Madison Council (i.e., Lillian and Jon Lovelace).
Due to a lack of funding, Lomax left the Library of Congress in 1943. After enlisting, he went to the Army till World War II ended. Despite so, he continued with his expedition work by interviewing Sonny Boy Williamson and Big Bill Broonzey to learn about the blues’ genesis. Furthermore, he also hosted the folk music program in 1948 (On Top of Old Smokey for the Mutual Network). He later joined Decca Records, attaining a senior position as folk music director, stoking the flames of the burgeoning folk music revival. In the Columbia Records World Library of Folk and Primitive Music (1951 to 1957), Lomax worked as the editor (Szwed, 2012). Even with such massive success in music, Lomax spent most of the 1950s in Britain, learning and documenting discoveries on British Isles folk music. He eventually released his findings through a ten-disc collection titled “Folksongs of Great Britain” (1961).
During his documentation of African-American culture in the Deep South, Lomax discovered the Mississippi bluesman, Fred McDowell. This was a big success as it later turned out that Fred McDowell shot to the top of the list of burgeoning rockers worldwide. Lomax had many similarities to his father, one being a very sought-after lecturer and having a strong interest in visiting scholars (Szwed, 2012). However, of all these hobbies, Lomax occasionally received offers to record as a solo artist. Still, all the albums he made for Tradition (1958) and Kapp Records (1963) with his voice and guitar received unfavorable reviews.
Apart from contributing to the free society, Lomax was also able to continue his travels and record music in numerous prisons in Spain, Africa, France, the Caribbean, etc., due to numerous grants. Despite his success in music documentation and recording Lomax began experimenting with film in 1966 and gathered enough data for several documentaries, including footage for the 1990 PBS series America Patchwork (Szwed, 2012). To make it easier for people to study different musical and dance traditions, Lomax became the pioneer in the development of a Global Jukebox, an online database that connects these traditions from all over the world. Sadly, the Association for Cultural Equity, which pursued this idea, altogether ceased operations.
Despite the numerous honors and awards Lomax garnered throughout his long career; he also had his critics. Among those who have criticized Lomax’s techniques is renowned rock author Dave Marsh. But unlike many of his contemporaries and critiques, thousands of performers he recorded would only have had the opportunity to share their songs and cultures if he had sought them out. Further proof of Alan Lomax’s contribution can be identified through his discussion with Rounder Records and how it affected artists’ lives in an interview from 1991. And his explanation ever since and the playback of this material to the audience influenced a positive change in every one of them.
Different publishers today classify Alan Lomax as the only person who was more conscious of how fragile music and culture were hence being determined to protect what could be lost easily (1915-2002). As the long-standing and exquisite folk musical traditions continued, Lomax understood the risk of losing these ways and was aware that such a course could not last indefinitely. As a result, he spent years traveling nonstop, primarily through the South, while toting every preservation tool imaginable. Lomax did not want to leave any stone unturned. Through his decisions, humanity enjoyed enough collection to create a “global jukebox” that everyone could use as he wanted to record everything.
The ideas and dreams of Lomax have finally come to life with Technology finally catching up to his imagination ten years after his passing. Just as he had imagined, his extensive collection of materials is being digitized and is accessible online. This means that students, scholars, and musicians can access 5,000 hours of sound recordings, 400,000 feet of film, 3,000 videotapes, 5,000 photographs, and piles of manuscripts, which may have been lost and unstudied are now freely accessible to society. Furthermore, it is expected that more than 17,000 music tracks will also be included in this collection, which they will be made available for purchase as CDs or digital downloads.
Although Lomax’s mania, obsession, and relentlessness have long been known, his accomplishments’ true scope and significance have only recently come to light. With Mississippi Fred McDowell being one of his well-known “discoveries,” Lomax is primarily highly characterized and praised by the general public outside the musicological community for his outstanding “finds” and musical discoveries. His patriotic nature and lack of discrimination are other legacy he appreciates. Alan Lomax is denoted to conducted fieldwork with black colleagues throughout his career, something no other folklorist of the 20th century did (Szwed, 2010). Lomax collaborated with Zora Neale Hurston and Worth Long on significant collecting initiatives in the American South.
Moreover, Alan Lomax was the only folklorist to honor black artists’ musical legacy and lives through books, movies, and recordings (Szwed, 2010). Jelly Roll Morton, Leadbelly, and Muddy Waters are a few of these musicians. Alan Lomax’s passion for Technology allowed him to record songs and adapt to new developments. At first he and his father initially made recordings on aluminum discs using a portable recording device that weighed 500 pounds (Szwed, 2012). Later, he engraved acetate discs with a lighter machine. However, his ability to adapt allowed him to pick a new generation of lighter and better-quality recorders. Lomax was able to air people’s voices to the larger society, specifically the oppressed minority. Therefore, he managed to eliminate the dominant and persistent cultures of neglect and forced silencing of people due to discrimination and status.
Not only was Lomax passionate about the blues worlds described in Land Where the Blues Began, but it is essential to remember that his Mississippi recordings served as the creative cornerstone that pillared a career that lasted more than 60 years. Apart from his previous recordings, Lomax is classified to make a recording in Texas and the British Isles. Furthermore, Lomax collaborated with Charles and Ruth Crawford Seeger, Archibald MacLeish, Carl Sandberg, Eleanor, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Additionally, he influenced the musical careers of up-and-coming folk singers like Pete Seeger and Bob Dylan. As the nation’s archivist of American folk music, Alan Lomax is becoming more widely known. He was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1986 by President Ronald Reagan. Today classrooms, libraries, museums, and television and film productions use Lomax’s books, field recordings, and films. His music has influenced every aspect of our culture, and this legacy will only increase over time. Alan Lomax celebrated the lives of ordinary people by reaching out to them. Although Alan Lomax made huge impacts as a writer, radio presenter, and producer, the Mississippi field recordings will be his most lasting accomplishment.
Cohen, R. (2004). Alan Lomax: Selected Writings, 1934-1997. Routledge.
Cohen, R. D. (Ed.). (2010). Alan Lomax, Assistant in Charge: The Library of Congress Letters, 1935-1945. Univ. Press of Mississippi.
Lomax, Alan (1971)’Song Structure and Social Structure in Readings in Ethnomusicology. Ed.D.McAllester. New York: Johnston Reprints, pp. 227-251
Lomax, Alan. Folk Song, Style, and Culture: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/mono/10.4324/97802033791844/folk-song- style-culture-alan-Lomax
Savage Patrick (2018) Review of Lomax’s Cantrometrics
Szwed, J. (2010). Alan Lomax: The Man who recorded the world. Penguin.
Szwed, J. (2012). The Man who recorded the World: A Biography of Alan Lomax. Random House.
Best Bike Supply Chain Analysis Sample College Essay
Best Bikes Company is a global leader in designing and manufacturing high-quality bicycles. The company has implemented a range of operations management concepts and has taken steps to manage and mitigate the risks associated with its supply chain. The company has also implemented a range of value-adding activities and innovative solutions to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of its supply chain.
To improve operational efficiency and effectiveness, Best Bikes Company should consider implementing a system of predictive analytics and machine learning to identify potential supply chain disruptions and take steps to mitigate them. The company should also invest in advanced technology to improve the production process’s accuracy and efficiency and implement a tracking and tracing system to ensure that the products arrive safely and on time. Additionally, the company should invest in renewable energy sources and the recycling of materials to reduce the company’s environmental impact, and collaborate with suppliers to ensure that they meet the company’s standards for quality and sustainability. Finally, Best Bikes Company should develop a customer service and support system to ensure that customer demand is met.
As such, by implementing these changes, Best Bikes Company can ensure that its operations are efficient and effective, and that customer demand is met. In doing so, the company can remain a cycling industry leader and be profitable and successful.
This report aims to identify the risks associated with Best Bikes Company’s supply chain and analyze the innovative solutions that the company has implemented to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of its operations. The report will also provide recommendations on changes that the company can make to its operations and supply chain to improve operational efficiency and effectiveness.
Best Bikes Company is a global leader in designing and manufacturing high-quality bicycles. Founded in 2000, they have quickly become one of the world’s most respected and trusted brands in the cycling industry. They produce a wide range of bikes for all terrains and riders, from the casual commuter to the weekend warrior.
Best Bikes Company has a team of experienced and passionate engineers that have designed and developed a wide range of bicycles for everyone from the novice to the professional athlete. Their range of models includes mountain, road, electric, and hybrid bikes to meet the needs of any rider. Their bikes are designed with the highest quality materials, components, and craftsmanship.
This report will cover the risks associated with Best Bikes Company’s supply chain, the innovative solutions that the company has implemented to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of its operations, and the changes that the company can make to its operations and supply chain to improve operational efficiency and effectiveness. The report will also provide recommendations on the changes that the company should make in order to remain a leader in the cycling industry and ensure that customer demand is met.
Supply Chain Analysis
Operation Management Strategies
Best Bikes Company has implemented various operations management concepts in its day-to-day operations. Operations management is the art and science of making decisions and managing processes so an organization can efficiently produce goods and services. Operations management is critical to any business’s success, and Best Bikes Company has taken full advantage of this.
The first concept Best Bikes Company has incorporated into its business is process design. Process design involves the design of the entire production system, from the raw materials to the finished product (Palma, 2020). Best Bikes Company has taken the time to carefully assess the production process and design an efficient and effective system. This includes the use of high-quality materials, the appropriate machinery and equipment, and the implementation of safety protocols.
Best Bikes Company has also implemented capacity planning. Capacity planning is the process of determining the number of resources needed to meet customer demand. This involves ensuring that the organization has the right amount of labor, materials, and equipment to meet the demand for its products (Banerjee, 2020). Best Bikes Company has carefully planned out its capacity to ensure that it can meet customer demands without incurring too much cost or wastage.
Best Bikes Company has also implemented inventory management. Inventory management is tracking and managing inventory levels to ensure enough stock is always available to meet customer demand. Best Bikes Company has implemented a system that tracks inventory levels and ensures that the right amount of inventory is in stock at all times. This ensures that customers always receive the products they need in a timely manner.
The fourth concept Best Bikes Company has implemented quality management. Quality management involves ensuring that the products and services the company produces are of the highest quality. This includes using high-quality materials, implementing quality control protocols, and regularly testing products to ensure that they meet the company’s standards. Best Bikes Company has taken the time to ensure that its products are of the highest quality, which has paid off in terms of customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Finally, Best Bikes Company has implemented a schedule. Scheduling is the process of planning and organizing the activities that need to be done in order to accomplish the organization’s objectives (Palma, 2020). Best Bikes Company has taken the time to plan the production process, from the raw materials to the finished product. It has implemented a system that ensures that all activities are completed promptly. This has allowed them to produce high-quality products quickly and efficiently.
By implementing these various operations management concepts, Best Bikes Company has been able to streamline its processes, improve its products and services, and ensure that customer demands are met. Best Bikes Company has taken the time to carefully assess and implement these operations management concepts, allowing them to become a leader in the cycling industry.
Best Bikes Supply Chain Risks
Best Bikes Company is a global leader in designing and manufacturing high-quality bicycles. With such a large, complex supply chain, companies must manage and mitigate the risks associated with their supply chain (Wieteska, 2020). Supply chain risks can significantly impact the company’s bottom line, and Best Bikes Company needs to understand the potential risks and take steps to mitigate them.
One of the most common supply chain risks is the risk of disruption. Disruption can occur when there is a breakdown in the supply chain, such as when a supplier fails to deliver materials or components on time or when a factory fails to deliver finished products on time (Wieteska, 2020). Disruption can also occur due to natural disasters or political unrest. Best Bikes Company has implemented a system to identify and address potential supply chain disruptions quickly.
Another common risk is the risk of product quality. Poor quality components or materials can lead to faulty products, which can negatively affect the company’s reputation and bottom line. Best Bikes Company has implemented a system of quality control protocols and regularly tests its products to ensure they meet the company’s standards.
The essential risk that has highly affected the firm’s sales is the risk of counterfeiting. Counterfeit products can be hard to distinguish from genuine products and negatively impact the company’s brand and customer loyalty. Best Bikes Company has implemented a system of serial numbers and other security measures to ensure that its products are genuine.
The next risk is the risk of theft. Theft of materials, components, and finished products can significantly impact the company’s bottom line (Wieteska, 2020). Best Bikes Company has implemented security measures to reduce the risk of theft, such as CCTV surveillance and the use of secure online payment systems.
The other risk is the risk of supply chain delays. Delays in the supply chain can cause significant disruption to the company’s operations and lead to customer dissatisfaction. Best Bikes Company has implemented an effective system to identify and address potential supply chain delays.
The risk of fraud has impacted many companies globally. Fraud can occur when suppliers or customers attempt to defraud the company. Best Bikes Company has implemented an effective system to identify and investigate potential fraud.
Natural disasters are another major risk that has affected the company. Natural disasters, such as floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes, can devastate the company’s supply chain. Best Bikes Company has implemented a system to identify potential risks and take steps to mitigate them.
By understanding and managing the risks associated with its supply chain, Best Bikes Company can ensure that its operations run smoothly and efficiently. By taking the time to identify and address potential risks, Best Bikes Company can ensure that its supply chain remains reliable and that customer demand is met.
Supply Chain and Value-Adding Activities
The company’s supply chain consists of a range of activities, from acquiring raw materials to delivering finished products to customers. The company also engages in various value-adding activities to ensure that its products meet customer demand and expectations (Tuczek, 2022). The first activity in every company’s supply chain is the acquisition of raw materials. Best Bikes Company sources its raw materials from a range of suppliers around the world. The company has implemented systems to ensure that the suppliers meet the company’s standards for quality and sustainability.
The second activity in the company’s supply chain is the production of components and finished products. Best Bikes Company operates a network of factories worldwide producing components and finished products. The company has invested heavily in advanced manufacturing technology and automation to improve productivity and efficiency.
The third activity in the company’s supply chain is the components and finished product distribution. Best Bikes Company ships its products to customers around the world. The company has implemented a system to ensure that the products arrive in good condition and on time.
The company’s fourth supply chain activity is delivering finished products to customers. Best Bikes Company has developed a system to ensure that customers receive their products in good condition and on time. The company has also implemented a tracking and tracing system to ensure that the products arrive safely and on time.
In order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the supply chain, Best Bikes Company has implemented several innovative solutions. The company has invested heavily in advanced technology, such as automated systems, robotics, and artificial intelligence, to improve efficiency and accuracy. The company has also implemented a real-time tracking and tracing system to ensure that the products arrive safely and on time.
To ensure that customers receive the highest quality products, Best Bikes Company has implemented a quality control and testing system. The company tests its products at every stage of the production process to ensure that they meet its standards. The company also has a tracking and tracing system to ensure that the products are delivered in good condition and on time.
Best Bikes Company has also implemented a sustainability system throughout its supply chain. The company has implemented a range of measures to reduce its environmental impacts, such as using renewable energy sources and recycling materials. The company has also implemented measures to ensure that its suppliers meet its quality and sustainability standards.
By implementing a range of innovative solutions, Best Bikes Company has improved its supply chain’s efficiency and effectiveness. This has allowed the company to remain a leader in the cycling industry and ensure that customer demand is met.
In conclusion, Best Bikes Company is a leader in the cycling industry due to its innovative supply chain and value-adding activities. The company has implemented a range of operations management concepts and has taken steps to manage and mitigate the risks associated with its supply chain. The company has also implemented various innovative solutions to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of its supply chain. By taking the time to understand and address potential risks, Best Bikes Company has remained a leader in the cycling industry and ensures that customer demand is met.
To improve operational efficiency and effectiveness, Best Bikes Company should consider implementing the following changes to its operations and supply chain:
- Implement a system of predictive analytics and machine learning to identify potential supply chain disruptions and take steps to mitigate them.
- Invest in advanced technology to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the production process.
- Implement a tracking and tracing system to ensure that the products arrive safely and on time.
- Implement a quality control and testing system to ensure that the products meet the company’s standards.
- Invest in renewable energy sources and materials recycling to reduce the company’s environmental impact.
By implementing these changes, Best Bikes Company can ensure that its operations are efficient and effective and that customer demand is met.
Banerjee, A. (2020). Agile supply chain management. Supply Chain and Logistics Management, 1722-1740. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-7998-0945-6.ch084
Palma, J. (2020). Methodology to support supply chain integration a business process perspective. Supply Chain and Logistics Management, 203-216. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-7998-0945-6.ch010
Tuczek, F. (2022). Enhancing supply chain resilience through incorporating business continuity management systems. Supply Chain Resilience, 77-86. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-95401-7_7
Wieteska, G. (2020). The impact of supplier involvement in product development on supply chain risks and supply chain resilience. Operations and Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 359-374. https://doi.org/10.31387/oscm0430276
Big Data Analysis For Electricity Consumption Essay Example
Understanding and acknowledging data analytics’s roles in modern industrial systems is good. There is also development in information and communication technology. There is an added layer for the conventional electricity consumption and distribution network, especially for data collection, analysis, and storage. Currently, there is a lot of comprehensive installation of sensors and smart meters. The bests known application of big data and data analysis has its application on smart grids (Das et al., 2018). Big data and smart grids have a wide range of data collection. They are a prelude in discussing and illustrating possible merits and motivations associated with implementing advanced data analytics. This paper will discuss and explain the advanced application of varied data analytics in the smart grid. The electricity network is known to deal with a mammoth amount of data. Big data brings benefits in electricity consumption, and a lot of benefits have also been brought to help the existing power system (Das et al., 2018). Big data and analytics have also brought customer service and social welfare improvement. In the advanced application of data analytics and big data when it comes to real smart grids, issues like awareness, techniques, and synergies, among others, need to be overcome.
Cloud computing and digital technologies are fast developing. Much data is being processed daily and produced via digital equipment and sensors. Computers and smartphones are examples of advanced measuring infrastructure. The company activities can be improved by the existing rational and efficient data analysis where huge values and benefits can be enjoyed (Das et al., 2018). Big data is not a new term and has essential concepts meant for discovering valuable information from the large collected data, especially in commercial operations, to help with the knowledge to make business decisions. It is a tool for business intelligence. A lot has been achieved through the internet, like a reduction of time and cost in data acquisition (“Clustering of electricity consumption behavior dynamics towards big data applications,” 2018). Human society needs to be electrified, and it has been made possible by a smart and super grid which are reliable sources of renewable energy replacing the traditional fossil fuels, which are being depleted and facing challenges of de-carbonation. The smart grid is replacing the traditional electricity meters in the distribution systems, which generally had a small amount of data that would have been collected manually and analyzed for billing motives. Data analytics is needed as the smart grid needs a lot of data being mined and extracting valuable information for billing purposes and the state of the electricity network. The collected or mined data can be used to analyze the customer’s behaviors, optimize energy generation, and forecast demand. It is through data analytics that predictive maintenance and detection of faults can be noted (“Clustering of electricity consumption behavior dynamics towards big data applications,” 2018). The advanced metering infrastructure is essential to the power system’s security. An embedded information layer in the energy network helps produce a mammoth volume of data. It includes the measurement and control of the instructions in the grid for collection, transmission, analysis, and storage purposes. There are many opportunities that the smart grid brings on, especially in the data analysis platform.
The smart grid and big data for electricity consumption
The smart grid’s big data is uniformdespite lacking a standard definition. The big data in smart grid is an emerging technical challenge caused by data sets of mammoth volume .there are varied categories and complex structures that need a framework and some critical techniques to be able to excavate essential information effectively (“Clustering of electricity consumption behavior dynamics towards big data applications,” 2018). The big data definition is determined by the ability of data mining algorithms and the following hardware equipment to deal with large data sets.ICT technologies and the sizes of data, the smart grid is a string system embedded with a more uniform layer that permits two-way communication between the local actuators, central controllers, and the logistic units to correspond digitally for physical elements or urgent situations. According to the European Union, the smart grid is defined as the electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to the electricity(Das et al., 2018). It combines the consumers, generators, and the two to efficiently deliver a more sustainable, secure, and economical electricity supply. According to the US definition of the smart grid for the future in a way that incorporates digital technology to improve the reliability, security, and efficiency concerning the electric system through information exchange, it touches on the distributed generation and solid resources for a complete automated power delivery. There is a call for green energy that is efficient, reliable and causes no harm to the environment, and it is replacing the traditional power system (Divina et al., 2021). Distributed generators are more widespread due to their ability to give clean energy as a resource. The distributed generators are also causing tremors and shaking up the hegemony position, especially in a large centralized Power plant. It causes the conventional centralized control strategy to be less efficient due to the unidirectional flow of lower.
Small-scale power generation connection, common to the public, distribution of the grid needs a two-directional operation and the distribution grid control (Das et al., 2018). Small-scale power generation has challenges with increased complexity in control and protection strategies. The challenge causes a need to enhance the conventional electro-mechanism electric grid with the assistance of innovations present in the ICT, which helps overcome the cost incurred in the case of a power outage or quality disturbance. With the SGAM, which represents the Smart grid architecture model in place, it is possible to assess the smart grid. The model is a three-dimensional framework combining the domains, layers, and zines. The conventional structure of a power system can easily be noted in the transmission, generation, distribution, distributed energy resources, and customer premises. Zones representing the layers of powers system management include the station, the field, the operation, the market, the process, and the enterprise.
The 5Vs in big data and smart grid
Big data is always broad and revolves around collecting, analyzing, processing, and storing data. Features or characteristics of big data is also experienced in smart grid. The features or characteristics of big data in electricity consumption under a smart grid follow the commonly known 5 Vs. in the big data model. They include veracity, volume, value, velocity, and variety.
Volume is a term about the large amount of data generated and makes the set of data too big to be stored. The analysis of it is via traditional database technologies. The result of a possible solution to the challenge is the way the system is distributed to store the data in separate locations (Misra & Bera, 2018). The data from varied locations are connected via the network, where they are brought together courtesy of the software. From the smart grid and the electricity consumption, it is true that the smart meter application and the advanced sensor technologies can harvest or bring on large amounts of data.
Velocity-velocity in a smart grid refers to the speed at which data is being generated and the speed at which data is being moved around. Curtsy of h technology in place, the real tie exchange of data is tremendously increasing (“secure data learning scheme for big data applications in the smart grid,” 2018). Studies show that the current sampling rate stands at four times an hour. A million installed sat meters in the smart grid will possibly result in about 35.04 billion records, which equates to 2090 tele bytes when quantified.
Variety-in smart grid, the variety in big data also manifests in the form of variety; it shows the types of data ready for usage. Traditionally we used to depend on structured data that would easily fit in tables and rational databases (“secure data learning scheme for big data applications in the smart grid,” 2018). . The current technologies relating to begging data call for the ability to handle varied types of data that are unstructured. Most data come from social media, messages, digital images, voice recordings, and sensor data (“secure data learning scheme for big data applications in the smart grid,” 2018). The technology can bring in board various data together and combine them with structured data. Data comes in different formats and dimensions as the data are diverse in structure.
Veracity –veracity is characteristic is big data used to show the trustworthiness or the extent of mess present in data .large amount of data, in most cases, can not be trusted, and technically it is true today that the accuracy and the quality are less trusted (Misra & Bera, 2018). The outcomes of the mined data can be doubted since smart grids can mine a lot of data simultaneously and may come in different formats. There are a lot of imperfections in the devices used, and there are also a lot of mistakes in the way data is retransmitted in the smart grid, and it is true to say that the errors are always present in the smart grid (Misra & Bera, 2018). There is a need to have secure and more efficient power system operations and to depend on the assessment of data and the way they are estimated.
Value-value is a characteristic of big data, and it is not an exemption in the smart grid for electricity consumption. It refers to the ability and capability to extract valuable information from a mammoth amount of data and get a clear understanding of the value it brings. Mammoth data sets have a lower or decreased density of valuable information (“secure data learning scheme for big data applications in the smart grid,” 2018). The intelligent devices are improving, leading to the adoption of the smart grid, translating to an increase in data value in analytics from the many applicants.
Sources of data
The smart grid is part of artificial intelligence. A smart grid is an important information source covering electricity generation, consumption, distribution, and transmission data. Their data sources include the electrical data from the distribution station, electricity meters, distribution switch station, markets, and regional economic data, , which comprise the non-electrical information (Das et al., 2018). Analysts of the collected data help the power plants schedule, subsystems operations, vital power equipment maintenance, and understanding the market behaviors. The data sources mentioned can effectively be sorted into three essential classes: business data, measurement data, and external data. Installed sensors and smart meters are the ones that measure most of the operation parameters, and they are the ones to show both historical and current system status (Das et al., 2018). Smart meters cannot measure the weather conditions and events conducted socially, but the two can impact the operation planning in the power system. Marketing strategies and behaviors of a rival are the business data.
Data mining techniques
The smart grid is known o use a variety of collection techniques. The smart meter can collect and transmit data. The data is usually energy-related and gives information to customers and utility companies. For residential customers’ energy consumption, the smart meter reading is likely to go up .there are also emerging components that are consuming electricity in eh market. They include electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid EVs which are becoming more popular with the movement toward electrification in the transport sector and artificial intelligence (“Data mining techniques for segmentation,” 2019). The normal operation status was initially controlled at the distribution system, which the DSO used to depend on primary substation measurements. The typical smart meters have their measurements in node voltage, power factor, feeder current, total harmonic distortion, and reactive power, among others. There are techniques used in data communication in smart grids, including the HAN, NAN, and WAN as a network. Some essential communication technologies can also be used, and they are wireless and wired infrastructures. The wireless technologies allow the data center to gather information on measurements from the smart meter at a relatively low cost and simplify the connection, which may face electromagnetic challenges (“Data mining techniques for segmentation,” 2019). Power line communication is an example of wired communication technology ad has modulated carrier signal that the power cables implemented in the power system
The big data in electricity consumption is something interesting in the market. There are smart meters that are vital in measuring consumption and the status of electricity usage. The mechanism used in data mining also goes hand in hand with the 5vs as characteristics of big data. Increased connection and the emergence of electric vehicles are also increasing energy consumption. A smart grid can be a tool used to mine data and serve as a reliable source of information.
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