The appropriate development of individuals throughout all stages of their lives is critical as it guarantees their effective functioning in the future and the ability to live in society, communicate with its members, and engage in collaborative or successful relations. For this reason, much effort is devoted to the in-depth investigation of this aspect and formulation of the essential needs peculiar to every age. At the same time, assessment of children during periods of their formation is fundamental as it helps to determine if they evolve according to the accepted patterns and eliminate problems if they occur. Examination of school-aged children’s needs can help an investigator to select tools that can stimulate an individual’s further growth and formation.
Needs of Children
The existing guides outline the following needs peculiar to children between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. First of all, the need for socialization should emerge. In this period, they should enjoy playing with peers in groups and rule-based games (Decker, 2015).
Children also have the need for conflict resolution without adults’ interference to cognize their growing independence and ability to cope with challenges that emerge during their development (Decker, 2015). They should have the desire to develop self-awareness and acquire some privacy. First romantic feelings might appear (Decker, 2015). A child can demand more physical activity to investigate new functions of his/her body. In such a way, all needs are related to the peculiarities of the growing individuals and evolving conscience.
The physical aspect of children’s development also demands the increased attention as it is the guarantee of their successful functioning in the future. The physical assessment differs regarding the age and developmental stage. The techniques that help to analyze the basic locomotor skills are applied. However, the results should be considered depending on the age. For instance, a six-year-old child should be able to catch a small ball with one hand and use a pen or a pencil with a correct grip (Decker, 2015). As for the older individuals, at 12 years they should be able to use some adult tools such as hammers or saws, perform all hygienic activities on themselves (Decker, 2015). It means that different criteria and scales should be applied to take into account development peculiarities.
For the application of various assessment techniques, a boy of 12 years was selected. His emotional, physical, and social development can be considered appropriate for his age as typical developmental stages can be observed. For instance, he has acne evidencing the start of puberty. At the same time, he looks awkward because of the alterations in his body. The boy is ashamed of his parents’ affection, especially when it is demonstrated in public. There is a certain girl who sparks romantic interest in the participant, but he tries to conceal these feelings. He is very physically active and prefers games that can help to assert himself among his peers and a competitive element is very important.
Applying the Erickson theory of development, the body passes the stage of competence. It is characterized by the increased awareness of themselves and recognition of the need to learn new skills. In this regard, the assessment of a child should include questions about his vision of the future and how he plans to act (Psychology Notes, 2017). At the same time, the spheres of academic interests should also be assessed as they become critical for this age. The cooperation can be aligned on the basis of mutual respect as individuals of 12 years appreciate this attitude (Decker, 2015). Results of the assessment can show if there is a need for intervention to help the child determine his skills, talents, and future interests and promote his further growth.
Decker, C. (2015). Child development: Early stages through age 12 (8th ed.). New York, NY: Goodheart-Willcox.
Psychology Notes. (2017). Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. Web.
Global Governance: Formation Of The Nation-State And The International Institutions
Expanding the principles of democracy as the foundational concepts of the nation-state could be seen as a viable approach toward creating international institutions, yet the process of building the latter might be more intricate. The formation of the nation-state can be described as the introduction of the principles that enhance the homogeneity of a particular community, whereas international institutions strive to maintain the environment in which the threat of global conflicts is reduced to its barest minimum.
On the one hand, one might assume that the integration of nation-state principles into the global society could cause a gradual increase in the security levels, thus proving the connection between the foundational factors of both phenomena. On the other hand, while often tending to intersect, the premises of the nation-state and the international institutions seem to address different aspects of global security. Therefore, while having certain common aspects such as the connection to global governance, the specified principles may differ significantly in the values and intentions based on which they were developed.
The factors that defined the formation of the international institutions at present are significantly different from the ones that determined the development of the nation-state. However, the general propensity toward the principle of exogenous cultural construction and, therefore, multiculturalism can be seen as the factor that makes the formation of the nation-state and the international institutions share similar characteristics.
Particularly, the focus on the exogenous influences that enhance the development of international institutions and the nation-state should be seen as the driving factor behind the international institutions of the 20th and 21st centuries, yet it has become more pronounced in the 21st century due to the promotion of multiculturalism ideas and values (Mitrany 361). Thus, the temporal aspect of the phenomena under analysis also needs to be taken into consideration.
While the link between the nation-state and international institutions may have been rather loose in the past, at present the focus on reducing conflicts and defending the rights of minorities appear to be loosely interrelated.
The phenomenon of the nation-state used to be restricted to the promotion of nationalist ideology and the enhancement of nationalist viewpoints that could be defined as rather toxic to ethnic minorities. For example, Geary explains that the phenomenon of the nation-state can become a rather shallow notion when represented from the perspective of the dominant culture (16).
However, when pursuing the needs of ethnic and national minorities, it elevates itself to the status of a movement for protecting the rights of oppressed minorities and preserving their culture by shielding it from the destructive impact of powerful states that may be dismissive of their plight (Geary 17). Particularly, Geary explains that the concept of the nation-state as it was perceived at the Age of Revolution has undergone drastic alterations to advocate for the political autonomy of ethnic minorities to produce “independence movements” (Geary 17).
However, nowadays, the phenomenon has evolved to a more multicultural one, encompassing the ideas that allow building a platform for the peaceful coexistence of people with different philosophies within the setting of a specific state. As Roeder explains, “nation-states are among the most important institutions of political life; they establish fundamental parameters of both global and domestic politics” (4). Therefore, it is critical for nation-states to uphold the current standards of multicultural communication and shift toward a more advanced method of intercultural communication.
Therefore, the modern nation-state phenomenon has evolved to address some of the current issues associated with intercultural communication and the issues that national and ethnic minorities may face in a foreign setting, including assimilation. The specified changes reflect the principles based on which modern international institutions are built, including the need to implement the principles of democracy on a global scale and recognizing the agency of every citizen.
Exploring the world-societal development, one should focus on the extraneous factors that have shaped it, including the tendency to follow the concept of the isomorphic change (Meyer et al. 152). Specifically, the evolution from empire-oriented tendencies in the global political environment to the ones that are driven by nation-state principles needs to be exampled (Wimmer and Min 868). According to the existing evidence, the ideas based on which both past and modern international institutions were based aligned at least partially with the transfer from imperial ideas to the nation-state principles as a more sensible approach toward building international relationships.
Particularly, Wimmer and Min posit that the factors such as political instability, the threat of a war that may reach a global scale, and economic imbalances have been the driving force behind the design of international institutions both in the past and at present (869). The specified argument aligns with the idea behind the nation-state as of its latest definition. Moreover, it shows that the factors by which the creation of a state-nation as a notion was defined have also affected the design of international institutions.
International institutions, in turn, are also based on rather profound concepts of security and safety of every member of the global society. The specified tendencies became particularly explicit and impactful after the end of the Cold War when the significance of promoting world peace increased exponentially compared to less strenuous international relationships before the global conflict (Mearsheimer 5). While the concept of peacemaking is rather close to the idea of maintaining the intercultural dialogue, claiming that the premises based on which international institutions are built are quite similar to those of the nation-state philosophy.
The idea of promoting key democratic principles and encouraging a peaceful resolution of the conflicts emerging between representatives of different nations can be seen as the platform for the creation of international institutions.
The heterogeneity by which the early nation-state could be characterized may have also sparked the creation of international institutions. However, in the specified case, the notion of heterogeneity may be seen as twofold since it encourages unity yet sets rigid boundaries for citizens. Specifically, Przeworski et al. explain that religious heterogeneity implies a rather weak influence on the state population, although it plays a rather important role in the context of a presidential system (133). Therefore, in some instances, the factors that drive the development of nation-states hamper the progress of international institutions’ development.
The rise of the influence that the liberal institutionalism theories have had on the development of international collaboration can be analyzed from different theoretical tents, which will help to define the role of nation-state foundational premises on the development of the 20th– and 21st-century international institutions. Mearsheimer explains that the realist perspective allows seeing international institutions as the entities of a lesser impact on the promotion and control of world peace and, instead, being the product thereof, while institutionalists argue that the opposite can be observed in the global society (7).
Therefore, the stability of the global political environment and the state of world peace does not hinge on international institutions and their efficacy, from Mearsheimer’s perspective. Consequently, the connection between the nation-state and international institutions may be rather tenuous. However, while being evidently well-argued, the specified viewpoint seems to omit several key factors that shape the development of both nation-state and international institutions.
Therefore, claiming that the current concept of international institutions is derived from the same principles as the philosophy of the nation-state would be a rather inaccurate statement. In order to determine the connections between the international institutions of the modern era and the nation-state philosophy, one will need to extrapolate the trends in the development of the nation-state as a notion. While the specified phenomenon may be interpreted as the enhancement of the dominant political and cultural power within the society, it can also be rendered as the platform for promoting the agenda of ethnic and national minorities.
In the latter case, the contemporary international institutions should be deemed as related to the phenomenon of the nation-state. Particularly, both thrive on the same principles of democracy and the principles of equity that have become principal to maintaining global peace and encouraging a multicultural dialogue. Nonetheless, the fact that modern international institutions can be represented as lacking in the actual impact on the attitudes and moods in the society indicates that the link between the specified notions may become unnoticeable with time.
Geary, Patrick. “A Poisoned Landscape: Ethnicity and Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century.” The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe, Princeton University Press, 2001, pp. 15-41.
Mearsheimer, John J. “The False Promise of International Institutions.” International Security, vol. 19, no. 3, 1994, pp. 5-49.
Meyer, John W., et al. “World Society and the Nation-State.” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 103, no. 1, 1997, pp. 144-181.
Mitrany, David. “The Functional Approach to World Organization.” International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), vol. 24, no. 3, 1948, pp. 350-363.
Przeworski, Adam, et al. “Democracies and Dictatorships.” Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950-1990, Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 13-137.
Roeder, Philip G. “Who Gets a State of Their Own?” Where Nation-States Come from: Institutional Change in the Age of Nationalism, Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 3-37.
Wimmer, Andreas, and Brian Min. “From empire to nation-state: Explaining wars in the modern world, 1816–2001.” American Sociological Review, vol. 71, no. 6, 2006, pp. 867-897.
HIV Criminalization: From A Bill To A Law
- The issue of HIV criminalization has been affecting the lives of numerous residents of the U.S. Because of the current standards reinforced in the U.S., particularly, the necessity to disclose one’s HIV status, a patient may suffer significant emotional distress and be ostracized even when undergoing appropriate treatment (Center for HIV Law and Policy, 2017). Thus, actions must be taken to ensure HIV patients’ security and safety.
- Despite the fact that the current legislation is admittedly legitimate from the perspective of the community and its members’ safety, it jeopardizes the security of HIV patients. Because of the exposure that the disclosure of their disease entails, social ostracism becomes dangerously probable for them (Lee, Yamazaki, Harris, Harper, & Ellen, 2015). The identified scenario is especially unfair for the HIV patients that take respective medications and, therefore, do not pose a threat to their partners. Thus, a change in the current rigid standards is strongly recommended.
- The issue of criminalizing HIV has been affecting the U.S. population, in general, and the residents of Florida, in particular, causing around 106,5000 people to experience significant social pressure (Turner, 2015). The identified phenomenon leads to a steep rise in the number of mental health problems among patients with HIV, including stress, anxiety, depression, and even suicidal tendencies (Adeboye et al., 2017). Thus, it has to be managed appropriately and addressed within the shortest amount of time possible.
- Has there been similar legislation introduced and/or passed in other states? If so, include it. It should be noted that some of the states have altered the existing standards for HIV disclosure and reduced the level of criminalization significantly. For instance, in North Carolina, patients undergoing respective treatment and taking antiretroviral drugs are allowed to keep their HIV status private (Turner, 2015). Similar changes need to be done in the local community as well.
- The suggested change is not going to cause the local healthcare authorities to suffer massive financial expenses. However, certain costs must be taken to ensure the safety of all participants involved, including vulnerable populations. For instance, one will have to reduce the price of rapid HIV screenings. The identified step will encourage people to take HIV tests and thus prevent the instances of HIV contraction by their partners. Furthermore, retroviral medications and related medicine will have to become readily available to HIV patients.
- Among the people that will support the bill, HIV patients and their families should be listed. Since it is in their interest to promote the bill, they should encourage it as an important step in regaining their rights and freedoms. Healthcare practitioners may also encourage the promotion of the bill since it will lead to a drop in mental health issues among HIV patients. Particularly, the instances involving stress, anxiety, and depression will be reduced.
- People that are unaware of HIV-specific information may oppose the bill. Driven by fear, they will insist on HIV criminalization. Although the specified response to the change in the current legislation is understandable, it needs to be altered since it deprives people with HIV of their indefeasible rights (Lee et al., 2015). Therefore, community members and other people that may be against the enactment of the bill will need to be educated about HIV.
The specified problem is of high urgency; thus, it needs to be discussed as soon as possible. It is desirable to address it within a month. Therefore, an appointment should be due within a week. With the further discussion of the issue and the introduction of adequate changes to the existing regulation, one will be able to introduce a positive change to the community. As a result, a steep rise in the level of patients’ well-being is expected.
Adeboye, A., Ross, M. W., Wilkerson, M. J., Springer, A., & Ahaneku, H. (2017). HIV vulnerability and coexisting psychosocial health problems among Tanzanian men who have sex with men from the perspective of an African syndemic model. Journal of Health Education Research and Development, 5(234), 2-10. Web.
Center for HIV Law and Policy. (2017). Florida. Web.
Lee, S., Yamazaki, M., Harris, D. R., Harper, G. W., & Ellen, J. (2015). Social support and human immunodeficiency virus-status disclosure to friends and family: Implications for human immunodeficiency virus-positive youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(1), 73-80. Web.
Turner, A. (2015). Lost to care: An ethical expansion of the public health uses of State HIV registries in the United States. The Internet Journal of Public Health, 3(1), 1-9. Web.