To overcome this obstruction and support learning, the process of developing thinking and assessment for learning (Fall) has been implemented into the primary setting. Throughout this essay, Fall and strategies enforced will be critically evaluated and the effectiveness for learners and teachers will be focused upon. ‘At the heart of Assessment for learning is the process of finding out where learners are within the continuum, where they need to go and how best to get there’ (DECALS, Bibb).
Within the primary setting it can be recognized as formative assessment. Despite the implementation of Fall, teachers confuse this with assessment of learning. Teachers have tended to enforce summarize assessment rather than formative assessment. To achieve effectiveness from learners, it should be clarifying whether they are making progress and supporting their next steps. The Education of Scotland (2006) acknowledges that there has been fundamental changes in the way that schools think about the role and nature of assessment.
There is a growing acceptance that where assessments used as a formative element of classroom work, learning and attainment can be significantly enhanced. Formative assessment should be enforced for achievement, schools should choose material, meeting specific needs of the earners and furthering their education throughout their lives. ‘Assessment and testing have a strong effect on the lives and careers of young people’ (Assessment Reform Group, 2003). Therefore, Fall will affect teachers but the effects on learners will have impacts on their adult lives.
During BASE, although Fall is important, it seemed to drive the curriculum rather than focusing on aspects of danger e. G. Emotional and social areas, impacting on learning. These need to be secure first, in order for learners to move forward within their education. One of the main roles of Fall is to facilitate learning. There has been conscious efforts to maximize time spent on formative tasks, allowing learners to benefit taking part in activities, developing them later on in life. This gives opportunities to reflect on the guidance given and assess themselves in future careers.
Learners have opportunities to assess themselves during the day, throughout BASE, traffic light systems with learners pictures was enforced as a behavioral strategy however, for future planning this can be used during a plenary to show how well learners understood what was taught e. G. Green meaning understand ND red meaning needing help. From previous experiences, understanding has been shown through the thumbs up, thumbs down technique, however, the validity is questioned during whole class sessions as learners may feel pressured by others to say they understand. Lindsay and Clarke (2001, p. 5), describe formative assessment building a ‘constructivist’ classroom in which children are involved in ‘creating and reflecting on their learning’. From a Constructivism’s point of view, Fall is effective for allowing learners to become pro-active in building up knowledge they gain from their own experiences. This in turn, allows them to evaluate their own learning, improving confidence and skills as lifelong learners. E. C Wrong, (1993) suggest ‘teachers must develop teaching strategies which not only transmit information, but also encourage children to learn independently and as a member of a group’.
To acknowledge the effectiveness of Fall_, strategies have been implemented that will be evaluated to see whether they have positive effects on learning and teaching. This is essential, there is a variety of strategies to improve learning, however, teachers need to implement these strategies; hinging about abilities within the classroom for them to be enforced appropriately, as some learners process information slower than others and therefore could work better independently rather than in a group, feeling peer pressured.
The four main Fall strategies are questioning, feedback, sharing criteria and self assessment. In this essay, the strategies that will be critically evaluated are questioning and feedback. Firstly the Education of Scotland (2006) suggest that ‘for formative assessment to be effective, teachers need to focus on how children are learning. They need to get inside children’s heads, to connect tit their thinking and feelings Questioning benefits teachers, allowing opportunities to probe further however, it is questioned because how can such thing as ‘ getting inside the children’s heads’ be possible.
It is argued that, you can target questions to the abilities of some learners however, you cannot identify how a child may be feeling or whether any social/ emotional impacts they may be facing could influence how they answer. Teachers need to enforce Fall, being aware of contexts influencing learners to answer correctly and achieving higher than the day before where they may have been at a lower ability due to sack of sleep e. G.
Although, in previous experiences, implementing questioning through the use of lollipop sticks where learners are ‘picked’ at random and questions were targeted at their ability, proved effective for both learners and teachers. Questioning is important and so is allowing enough thinking (wait) so learners have opportunities to think about questions and reflect before giving their answer so they have full understanding. Black et al (2007) found benefits of giving thinking time has shown that answers given are generally longer and responses were more confident.
Also, he found that learners working together improved the answers of others. From BASE, giving learners time to think has been appropriate in achieving a superior answer. However, disagreeing with learners working together improve their learning, as there could be a lower ability learner being influenced by more able learners, impacting on their confidence, making them feel their answer is not as high-quality as others. This therefore affects the validity of targets given as they may not have understood.
Millard and Homes (2002) agree with this ‘highlighting that it is a risk to assume that a pupil understands a model or a concept on the basis of their answer to one question’. This shows that teacher to learner questioning is effective however, it should be appropriate to gain information they want as learners may feel less confident in whole class settings. Although, Harlan (2006) argues ‘as well as questioning referring to those questions asked by teachers’, she also identifies the ‘importance of pupils asking questions’.
This is effective for the implementation of Fall, benefiting learners; allowing them to ask their own questions, giving opportunities to reveal misconceptions and showing the limit of their understanding through their own ideas. It allows them to decide what they ask and provides opportunities to use prior knowledge to construct their question. This benefits teachers, allowing to see what understanding they already have. Further, it demonstrates how learners are achieving and what needs to be done to develop their learning to the next step.
Furthermore, another strategy is through the process of feedback. Feedback should not be grade focused, but should primarily enhance the learners further, showing them that they are able to improve and informing their next steps. However, one of the roles of feedback is peer and self-assessment, allowing them to not only assess themselves but have others assess them. Black and Harrison (2004) identify types of feedback which are ‘essential to formative assessment: the first is from student to teacher, the second from teacher to student.
Learning is effected by alternation between these, in which each contribution responds to the other. Both are effective, giving opportunities to clarify with one another, setting targets for future improvement. During BASE, immediate feedback was appropriate in improving learning. In future teaching, this will be used to develop knowledge and show there is room for improvement, giving positive feedback. Nicola & McFarland-Dick (2006) suggest that, feedback in particular, is promoted as the way of enhancing student achievement.
Feedback should enforce the importance of giving targets to improve. However, it should be immediate so learners know how to improve and have opportunities to correct their work. ‘Feedback given as rewards or grades enhances ego rather than task involvement. Feedback which focuses on what needs to be done can encourage all to believe that they can improve. A culture of success should be promoted where every student can make achievements by building on their previous performance, rather than being compared with others. The quote shows, that teachers can mix feedback with comparing learners with others, this could affect their confidence and therefore may not feel worshiped. This shows feedback is effective in implementing skills to improve. During BASE, feedback was effective in explaining what was wrong, however, the focus in today’s learning should be about promoting achievements. ‘Within classrooms, Fall should drive day-to-day assessment. This frequent and often informal assessment will operate as part of a ‘learning conversation’, to help each learner develop an understanding of his/her own progress’ (DECALS 201 Co).
In conclusion to this, Fall and strategies included are effective for learners and teachers, allowing learners to achieve through appropriate targets, focusing on specific abilities and allowing teachers to keep track, showing how to improve through the use of questioning and immediate feedback. However, the validity is challenged as the focus on education should not just be about driving Fall but focus on other impacts as well. Connors (1995) believes that ‘the golden rule of effective assessment is simple; it must be carried out for specific purpose, using methods suited to those purposes’.
Character Study Of World Of Wonders By
Robertson D Essay, Research Paper Character Study of “ World of Wonders ” by Robertson DaviesThe book World of Wonders by Robertson Davies is a character filled book. It is centered around the development of the characters their personalities, histories, moral features, and defects, and most of all, the manner they react with one another. The characters are divided into two chief divisions ; the book is about a group of people who listen to their visionary friend state his life narrative. There are the people in the world in the narrative ( i.e.
the friends of the visionary ) and those who exist in the history of the chief characters and are described in the history of the visionary, Magnus Eisengrim. The characters are farther subdivided by the grade of importance they have to the book. The first three characters are the true chief characters in the book. Dunsten RamsayThis book is seen all through the eyes of Dunsten Ramsay.
Born in Canada of Scottish descent, he is a changeless stabilizing force in the slightly confusing occurrences of Magnus Eisengrim s narrative. This adult male is a low ( in contrast to Magnus ) and conservative figure who does non endeavor for power and celebrity like others in this narrative. He is content listening to the unbelievable narrative of Magnus life, without acquiring disquieted or fazed by the opinionative position from which the narrative is delivered. Nor does he invariably argue with whatever is said. Basically, he on the exterior, he is a comparatively simple and happy adult male, who strives non for control, but for cognition in and out of his field of history. However, as one delves deeper into the character of Ramsay, one begins to understand what truly motivates him.
Just like the remainder of the characters in the narrative, he has had his life-long bickers and statements. He is non as wholly free from shame as one is originally led to believe. His life-long dissension with the character “ Boy Staunton ” sing events taking up to the premature birth of Magnus, escalates to the point where it looks as if he contributed to the self-destructive decease of Staunton. Overall, Dunsten Ramsay is a character good plenty for the point of storyteller, but truly instead tiring with respects to enrichment of the narrative. Liselott VitzliputzliGenerally referred to as Liesl, this opinionated adult female portions laterality of the characters with Magnus. Turning up in Switzerland, with her rich gramps, she acquired a disease doing one to go extremely big.
Through a series of events, she became unmanageable and wholly barbarian until Magnus, managed through much attempt, to reform her while working for her gramps. The character of Liesl exemplifies the outgoing opinionated, yet soft and understanding female. She can at times be highly obstinate, particularly when covering with fundss ( being really rich ) . Liesl is the “ mistress ” of both Dunsten Ramsay, and Magnus.
The three portion a big sign of the zodiac in which Liesl is clearly dominant. Liesl was the administrative side of the Soiree of Illusions, the antic show in which Magnus starred. Liesl tends to be highly blunt, particularly with those she knows really good ( i.e. Ramsay and Eisengrim ) but can move this manner to aliens, or new friends every bit good ( i.e. the manner she acts toward Roland Ingestree ) .
Overall, Liesl is Magnus Eisengrim s female opposite number. She holds the necessary portion of the skeptic and sits at the side, leaping in whenever she feels it of import, non needfully allow. Magnus EisengrimMagnus Eisengrim is the taking character in this book. He is by far the most dominant of the characters due a class of life-shaping events, some good, some awful. He was born in Debtford, Ontario to a spiritual household 80 yearss prematurely ( due to unusual fortunes sing Boy Staunton ) . Early in his life, he was kidnapped by a 2nd rate carnival magician and forced into sexual, physical, and mental entry.
For old ages inside the great graven image Abdullah, working as the mechanism for the con, he practiced dexterity of manus and the fix of tickers. For eight old ages he toiled in this manner until his capturer fell to his morphia dependence. He subsequently through unusual fortunes ended up in the theatre company of Sir John Tresize, who he instantly adopted as an graven image. His portion was to play that of a stunt double as he looked much the same. He learned to travel, speak and act like Sir John. In a sense he became Sir John Tresize, an histrion of great note.
Through this clip, he began to reconstruct his beat-up self-esteem and self image and one time once more became proud of himself. After Sir John s decease, Magnus became a refinisher of old redstem storksbills for a museum. Finally, he ended up working for the gramps of Liesl, mending the aggregation of old-timer playthings which she had smashed in a tantrum of choler and defeat. Through hours of work, Magnus non merely to repair the plaything, but to humanise Liesl. Following this, he and Liesl formed the Soiree of Illusions and formed it into a successful show. Old ages subsequently ( the clip the book is set ) Magnus portrays the function of Robert Houdin in Jurgen Lind s Un Hommage a Robert Houdin.
This finally consequences in him eventually uncovering his life narrative, in an effort to make a subtext to the movie. Magnus is an highly obstinate, strong-minded adult male. He enjoys the humiliation of others and so will maul them wolfishly and oppress them into entry. The character of Eisengrim is non that of a nice kindly old magician but that of a really refined and proud histrion. Through a series of these metaphorical feeding of people ( intending wholly devouring their character, and taking all the traits to be one s ain ) , Magnus character is multi-faceted. He is Sir John Tresize ; moving as a baronial British histrion ; he is Mungo Fetch, the name given to him while he was in servitude to Willard the mediocre magician ; he is Paul Dempster, a spiritual male child from a little state town in Canada.
All this leads to doing Magnus Eisengrim a really complicated character. Overall, Magnus Eisengrim is an highly convincing dominant character with a really good portraiture of one with such experiences would turn out to be. The three merely mentioned are the major characters in the book. The narrative is centered around their reactions to the happenings in the narrative.
These three characters are farther developed by their relationships to the back uping characters in the narrative. Roland IngestreeThis is the adult male behind the fundss of “ Un Hommage a Robert Houdin. ” He is a superb moneyman and a really disagreeable, obstinate adult male. Throughout the narrative, him and Magnus have a raging statement sing Magnus relationship to Sir John Tresize. Ingestree is able to see what truly occurred between Magnus and Sir John and Magnus does non like it. They further disagree sing certain events in which Ingestree took portion during Magnus clip with the theatre group.
Magnus powerful side is most clearly apparent in his traffics with Ingestree and they invariably fight. This character brings out the most hostile reactions from Magnus as Ingestree is himself a wolf ( non rather to the grade of Magnus or Boy Staunton ) . Whenever these work forces clash, it is up to Liesl or Jurgen Lind to set a halt to the wrangle. Jurgen LindJurgen Lind is the pacificist ( along with Ramsay ) in this group of characters. He seeks merely the addition of his cognition and apprehension of the star of his movie and the motivation forces behind his public presentation as Robert Houdin. Jurgen Lind is a great adult male of forbearance and is a adult male slow to choler, yet speedy to move upon his choler.
Once he has been set off, the piquing party can anticipate to be shut up wholly or confront the wrath of an even more fired up Finnish movie manager. Lind frequently steps in when Ingestree and Magnus go at it and manages to convert the two to halt their squabbling and let Magnus to go on his disclosures. Kingohvn ( no first name given ) Kinghovn has small reference in the book. He is the absent-minded obsessive in this narrative. He knows and cares merely about illuming and related subjects and how to make effects on the screen. He worked closely with Lind and Eisengrim on “ Un Hommage a Robert Houdin.
” Kinghovn frequently blurts into the conversation with some semi-relevant comment, normally holding to make with lighting. This can frequently take to the chilling of the piques of the characters involved in the latest difference by giving them clip to see what they are stating. The concluding set of characters to be mentioned are those from the narrative of Magnus Eisengrim s life. I merely feel it necessary to depict of the people mentioned in the subtext of the movie. Sir John TresizeSir John Tresize was one of the formost histrions of his twenty-four hours.
He dazzled audiences with his unbelievable ability to portray the knightly hero. However as his manner began to melt to newer more popular types of playing, Sir John maintained his stance and held it until he retired. Sir John was one of the most influential people in the life of Magnus Eisengrim and the first Magnus devoured. As Magnus learned to be Sir John on the phase, Magnus besides became Sir John in world. Finally, after a difficult misinterpretation sing a testimonial to Sir John s teacher, he died ( Ingestree speculates that this was due to Magnus eating him, and I tend to hold ) . Sir John was the prototype of the strong, well-bred knight of old.
He maintained his stature in existent life every bit good as on the phase far past the clip when an ordinary adult male would hold failed. His eldritch ability to measure a state of affairs and recognize what was traveling on and what he should make allowed him to convey his message to the audience like none other. Boy StauntonThe character of Boy Staunton is non mentioned ( except briefly at the beginning ) until really far through the book. He is really non mentioned to Lind, Ingestree, and Kinghovn in the inferior, yet his self-destructive decease is debated by Liesl, Ramsay, and Magnus. When Boy Staunton was a kid, he threw a sweet sand verbena with a stone in it at Dunsten Ramsay and missed.
The rock/snowball ended up hitting Mrs. Dempster ( Magnus mother ) doing her to go mentally sick and to hold Magnus prematurely. Ramsay has ne’er forgiven Boy Staunton for this act and to the terminal of the book carries his contempt for him. A life-long struggle between the two is eventually epitomized at the disclosure that Ramsay didn T unduly influence the self-destructive decease of Boy Staunton. The character of Staunton is that of another wolf. He himself devoured those in the manner to his expected way.
This caused his relationship with Magnus to be highly tense as they were both seeking to oppress each other into entry. They invariably grapple in an effort to find who shall predominate. In the terminal it is Magnus who outlives Staunton and Magnus successfully wins their double. Overall, I have found the characters in this book incredibly converting.
The relationships which Davies creates are merely to be created by a maestro such as Davies. The intertwining ends and frights of the characters create an incredibly intense and converting novel. Eisengrim, Liesl, and Ramsay, and all those back uping them, are apt to walk right off the page into world.
Features And Problems Of Japanese Selling Market
Many successful businesses find it hard to break into the Japanese selling market. Companies such as Cost, Burger King and Footlocker, have all found that progress in Japan is much different than other countries and markets. Walter, despite years of planning and research, is facing the same difficulties as those that came before them. The task environment facing Walter is comprised of the forces that have immediate and direct effects on managers and business. These forces are affecting Walter’s ability to obtain resources on many different levels.
For example, Japan has a very expensive distribution system, with distributors only anted to sell to certain wholesalers, creating the need for one or more “middlemen” in the distribution process. Competition within Japan is also fierce. Many larger retailers have begun studying Walter’s efficiency objectives and readily implemented and incorporated new policies and procedures within their own stores to gain a competitive edge against the U. S. Based retailer. Neon sent 368 employees into Japanese Walter’s for the purpose of research I attempts to compete.
Walter is facing a weakened economy, which at the moment is a problem, however it could have future benefits with suppliers. Due to the weak economy, suppliers are in desperate need of more sales, and therefore are starting to “break rank” and sell to retailers that they don’t normally have ties to. Japanese customers are also notoriously “finicky” shoppers which poses another force, however shoppers have noted that prices are lower in Walter than their usually shopping retailers, despite local retailer’s efforts to price comparatively to Walter.
Customers also pay attention to where their products are made in an effort to strengthen the economy. Walter has had to advertise “Made in Japan” products in an effort to increase customer traffic and sales. There are a wide range of forces that effect the general environment as well. Mangers are fighting a continuing battle because forces that effect the general environment effect ongoing decision making and planning. These forces include: economic forces, technological forces, coloratura forces, and demographic forces, as well as, political and legal forces.
The article noted that mom and pop stores make up 58% of the market. This is an example of coloratura forces that are impacting Walter. The Japanese tend to favor local stores rather than national to do their shopping and spend their money. Customers have also come to rely on the sales flyers that are sent out weekly from retailers in order to determine where and when to shop, thus making it difficult for Walter’s “already low prices” or “lowest price guarantee” to be understood in Japan.
A new computer system that will help track products sales by the hour, item and profit margin will aid in overcoming technological forces. This will allow a more “real time” view of profits as well as peak shopping times, and what products customers tend to buy more regularly. Economic forces facing Walter include a “sluggish economy”‘ and generally gig real estate prices for urban areas single story structures are examples of economic forces that are working against the retail giant.
Urban areas within Japan are often over crowed forcing stores to build multi-level buildings, therefore, customers are finding single level stores “cavernous”. Up until recently Japan had laws that restricted store size and hours of operation that had been set in an effort to protect smaller less efficient local retailers. Some of these laws have been changed or lifted giving Walter some ease for with legal forces. In short, there are a variety of forces that are weighing against Walter’s emergence into the Japanese market, there are a few forces that have been found beneficial.
Walter is aware of the challenges that it faces emerging into such closed market. Mangers are taking great steps in making sure to be aware of the global environment, task environment and general environment around this new venture. If Walter’s manager continue to be pressingly aware of all the forces and how they can affect day-to-day business, as well as take the time to research the various factors influencing these forces, success could be a long term outcome of the new business venture.