Attracting Consumers With Blogs, Vigilante And Counter-Blog Marketing Writing Sample

Introduction

Vigilante marketing, blogs, and counter-blog marketing are new marketing tools to attract large audiences of consumers. Modern consumers do not necessarily desire governmental regulation of business and marketing activity; however, the increased intervention will result from the unresponsive business policy. The following articles present corporate responses to consumer problems and the possible implications of a lack of response by the business community. Leighton describes the possibility of increased governmental involvement in the market system as a result of businesses’ delayed response to consumerism. Unfortunately, the time came but business was slow to respond. Consumer needs and wants have been evolving toward safety, health, and self-actualization concerns without many businessmen noticing this. More and more people are concerned with the nutritiousness of their foods, the flammability of their fabrics, the safety of their automobiles, and the pollution quality of their detergents.

Literature Review

In the article “The News Media’s Influence on Criminal Justice Policy” S.S. Beale (2006) underlines that new media demands new techniques and methods to persuade and attract consumers. Thus, new marketing tools have a negative impact on consumers and increase violence in society. “If the media does not change, are there any countervailing forces, or any mechanisms that might counter this one-way ratchet? The most significant force is already operating” (Beale 2006, p. 65)? Many manufacturers have missed this changing psychological orientation of consumers. The market system, according to the theory, is one in which the free interplay of consumer choices will result, over time, in the best product or service winning out in the competitive struggle for the consumer’s favor. In this battle, the producer who best meets the needs of the consumer will be rewarded with success, and the producer of inferior goods will lose out. The consumer casts his ballot in the form of his purchases, and the seller woos his vote by improving his products or services by attractive packaging, by offering more value for money.

Hartley (2005) underlines that blogs and counter-blog marketing are a new approach to traditional marketing mechanisms. The logical approach to establishing blogs and counter-blog marketing appropriations is to determine the marketing tasks required of advertising and estimate the resources needed to fulfill them. This task-objective method suggests that businesses start with an attempt to develop an ideal model, recognizing that the ideal cannot be achieved, that relevant factors must be assessed against imperfect information, and that adequate resources may not be available. In conceptualizing advertising-sales-profit relationships, management may use a general model such as the following, which relates responses over time. This model focuses attention on the maximum profit level on straight-line increases in advertising outlays, on the decline in profits as advertising expenditures continue beyond a certain level, on the saturation limit of the market, on the sales level without any advertising, and on the level of sales and advertising at which profits occur. Blogs and counter-blog marketing results must be measured in communication terms, not just in sales terms. Determining the effectiveness of advertising requires the measurement of overall advertising impact-the matching of inputs with outputs, which conceptually is very simple. Practically, however, this is quite difficult, since advertising is only one element of the marketing mix in affecting demand. Yet some success has been achieved in measuring the responsiveness of sales and profits to advertising.

McDaniel and Gates (2005) explain that vigilante marketing results must be measured in communication terms, not just in sales terms. Determining the effectiveness of Vigilante marketing requires the measurement of overall advertising impact-the matching of inputs with outputs, which conceptually is very simple. Practically, however, this is quite difficult, since advertising is only one element of the marketing mix in affecting demand. Yet some success has been achieved in measuring the responsiveness of sales and profits to advertising. Advertising effectiveness itself is a multidimensional concept. It includes the effectiveness of advertising as contrasted with that of other factors in the marketing mix, with the effectiveness of different campaigns, with the effectiveness of various media, and with the effectiveness of different messages, which in turn is based on an assessment of appeals, themes, copy, layout, headlines, size, frequency, and timing.

All researchers agree that effective market communication (including vigilante marketing, blogs and counter-blog marketing) requires an integrated promotional system that reaches from primary producer to ultimate consumer. Formal channels, however, do not account for all marketing communications. Publicity, which is an integral part of many promotional campaigns and sometimes precedes the advertising and sales effort, lies outside them. Although it can be important in gaining market acceptance for products and companies, publicity, like word of mouth, is often a relatively low-grade communications channel with a high degree of interference, distortion, and noise. Marketing communications serve four basic management purposes. First, the bridge information gaps existing among manufacturers, middlemen, and customers. Second, they help coordinate the promotional activities of the total marketing system to achieve a coordinated thrust. Third, they help adjust the system to customer and consumer requirements. Fourth, they adjust and help in adjusting the product to customer needs.

Kotler and Armstrong (2005) explain that the task of blog and counter blog marketing is to get people or markets to progress from a state of unawareness, or even negative reaction, to one of positive action. The stages in this progression are unawareness, awareness, comprehension, conviction, and action. Opposing the marketing communications in this endeavor are such countervailing forces as competitors’ communications, predispositions, noise, brand loyalty, and habit. Blog and counter blog messages are meeting increasing competition from a plethora of other ads, from other media, from competitors, and from all the activities that vie for a person’s attention. As output swells and communications facilities increase, more claims will be made on consumer time and the cost of marketing communications will skyrocket. Moreover, a saturation plateau may be reached where larger expenditures yield proportionately smaller returns. Another logical approach is to determine the communications functions that must be performed, such as making contact, creating interest, and closing the sale. Then either a predetermined total promotional budget can be allocated among each of these phases, based on executive judgment, or the expenditures on advertising and personal selling necessary to perform them may be estimated. Buyers and consumers need not be the same people. In transactions involving industrial goods, they usually are not. However, by studying consumers as buyers (as individuals and members of groups) and by investigating the forces influencing their purchasing and consumption actions, we can achieve a good base for comprehending both. Actual and potential consumers are the basic component of markets and the hub of marketing action. That the consumer is king or that the consumer guides businesses are a tenet of a market system.

Kumar and Reinartz (2005) and Muniz and Jensen (2007) explain that vigilante marketing, blogs and counter-blog marketing endeavors to fuse consumer wants and needs with the operations of a business organization, which to survive and grow in a keenly competitive, everchanging environment, concerns itself with the mechanisms of corporate adjustment. Such adjustments were discussed in Chapters 10 through 15, focusing on the marketing mix. Assuming that the consumer, in essence, is the reason for corporate existence, marketing indicates a corporation’s other-directedness rather than inner-directedness. In a free-enterprise economy, consumers are relatively free to purchase what they please, limited, of course, by income, socio-economic status, legal business forces, and geographic setting. Manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers thus find that ultimately they are governed by consumer reactions in the marketplace. In a sense, consumers “dictate” to the marketing system the goods and services they want, the prices they are willing to pay and how, where, and when they desire to purchase. Over time, profits are tied inextricably to the satisfaction of consumer wants.

Conclusion

Vigilante marketing, blogs, and counter-blog marketing have become a part of traditional marketing and part of everyday life. Consumers provide the economic rationale for business and marketing activity. The products and services offered for sale, how they are offered, the distribution channels employed, the methods of advertising and personal selling, and every other factor of marketing are all molded by consumer preferences, opinions, habits, beliefs, wants, needs, and desires. In this way, the total business system attempts to meet the desires of consumers. It is essential, therefore, that we analyze the antecedents of consumer behavior, the behavior itself, and the consequences of consumer reactions. From the corporate point of view, however, the total purpose of a marketing program is to capitalize on existing and potential resources and translate them into profitable marketing ventures. To do so, the business attempts to shape, change, and modify consumer behavior in order to bring it into line with corporate objectives and thereby gain competitiveness. Changes in lifestyles and market environment have had a direct impact on goods and services produced, expenditures, and the consumption process. For example, the effect of increased leisure time, suburban living, shopping centers, automatic vending machines, automobiles, television, and widespread geographic shifts on consumer wants and needs is pronounced.

Bibliography

Beale, S.S. 2006, The News Media’s Influence on Criminal Justice Policy: How Market-Driven News Promotes Punitiveness. William and Mary Law Review, 48 (1), 65.

Hartley, R.F. 2005, Marketing Mistakes and Successes (Marketing Mistakes). Wiley; 10 edition.

McDaniel, C., Gates, R. 2005, Marketing Research. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Wiley; 5 edition.

Kotler, Ph., Armstrong, G. 2005, Principles of Marketing. Prentice-Hall; 11th edition.

Kumar, Y., Reinartz, W. 2005, Customer Relationship Management: A Databased Approach. Wiley.

Muniz, Albert M., Jr. ; Jensen, H. 2007, Vigilante marketing and consumer-created communications.(Report). Publication: Journal of Advertising. Web.

Beveridge Report Importance For Attlee Government

Introduction

Clement Attlee, an esteemed war veteran, established first majority Labour’s government in Great Britain. He pursued a sturdy socialist programme and he was the father of the public organisations, which have added more strength to U.K’s economy. His overture to politics was to offer the people the talent and basic-structure to manage their own future, which, after the volatility and extreme anxiety during the war, was what the public required to recuperate a feeling of normality.

Attlee worked for the establishment of the welfare state, which became so significant for those lives trashed by the war years. Attlee’s welfare state policy emphasises how he was in all probability the most poignant post-war Prime Minister since he had to deal with the reliance of the people on him and his government by offering a feeling of security. He fruitfully negotiated the political transition between the years of war, where no prominence was placed on policy but more on the issues of survival, and the post-war period where people anticipated the establishment of a reliable country and the government that was more apprehensive with the struggle of the general public.

His legacy in the kind of the National Health Service on the recommendation of Beveridge Report emphasises his significance as one of the most imperative post-war British leaders. This prominence placed on public ownership helped so many to endure the aftermath of the Second World War since they were extended the support of the government rather than their salary for private services. It is obvious that Attlee’s most outstanding impression remained on politics was the understanding that the lower classes were an integral part of the British electorate. The government intervention line that he adhered still lingers the key to socialist ideas and he was the first British Prime Minister to restore the power back to the people.

Other major initiations perused by Attlee as he changed the shape of Britain and British participation globally, such as setting up Britain’s position within NATO. This facilitated Britain to establish itself as a dominant international leader in the future and Britain assumed a strong part in the defence of the international facade. As the Britain was economically weak due to the debilitating effect of the war, Attlee negotiated to elevate the Britain to a platform of sizeable power despite of its dependence on American support. Another significant progress during the Attlee saga was the commencement of the collapsing of the British Empire. This could be viewed as a feeble surrender from Attlee but this policy virtually absolved Britain from what could have become an arduous clash with foreign countries who claimed their independence from Britain’s rule.. This demonstrates that Attlee was a strong protagonist of freedom and liberty, which has left Britain with the picture of a more tolerant and compassionate country. He did not allow the initiative of the all authoritative British Empire obstruct in the way of enforcing this policy, since he was shrewd enough to apprehend that Britain’s empire could lead to its downfall when the world started to sermonise freedom. The Attlee government transformed the face of Britain. As per Beveridge Report, Attlee enacted laws for the establishment of a new system of social security and a national health service which intended to offer protection for all. No one would deny that the Attlee government was amongst the most influential in modern British history. In the words of Kenneth Morgan, since the passage of the 1832 Reform Act, the Attlee government was “amongst the most efficient of any British government.

Historians have unanimously agreed upon the significance of the post-war Labour government in moulding modern Britain. Labour won a landslide election victory in 1945 and the labour government led by Clement Attlee crafted a series of far-reaching changes, including the introduction of the Welfare State as recommended by Beveridge Report.

Within one and half years after coming to power , Attlee’s Cabinet had performed more than any earlier twentieth-century British government to improve the standard of living of ordinary working people. Welfare reform introduced by Attlee government on the recommendations of Beveridge report like free medical treatment, family allowances, subsidised housing and educational opportunities on a scale not known before.

Beveridge Report’s Background

Churchill as the head of the Wartime Coalition had given an extensive deliberation to post-war reconstruction. This reconstruction measures had been poorly handled after 1918 and there was a general resolution not to permit it to happen a second time.

In 1941, a committee was created to analyse “reconstruction issues”. This committee was headed by Sir William Beveridge who was a Liberal and he was asked to submit a report on to “embark on a survey of the subsisting national schemes of social insurance and allied services and to forward recommendations”.

William Beveridge, a well-known civil servant, was accorded the task of heading a government report on Social Insurance and Allied services in 1942. He went much beyond his remit and developed a report which very much replicated his own philosophy and offered a pro-active scheme for dealing with the main issues facing a modern society.

Beveridge was considered to be a gentleman of substantial ability and prudence and he executed his mission with vigour and vision and submitted a report namely “The Beveridge Report” to English Parliament in December 1942. The Report is esteemed as the most momentous social policy report of the century. Beveridge stressed the necessity to extinguish from life the following five major evils namely

  • Want
  • Ignorance
  • Squalor
  • Idleness
  • Disease

His report famously known as Beveridge report (and not beverage report) mainly suggested the ways and means to get rid off the above evils by a government.

The Five Giants

All three political parties in England in 1945 preferred wide-ranging welfare provision but Labour party had the opportunity to introduce the modern Welfare State. The Beveridge Report of 1942 emphasised the need for the U.K government to assault the “five giants of Disease, Want, Squalor, Ignorance and Idleness”. Thus, the Welfare State conceived of the provision of all-inclusive social services “from the cradle to the cemetery”, through a scheme of health, education, social security and housing.

Beveridge emphasised on the necessity to redress five giant problems namely Disease, Want, Squalor, Ignorance and Idleness He submitted his Report which consisted more than 300 pages which discussed more about Want. The other four problems still had to be solved in the Beveridge report.

  • To find a solution to issue of disease by the implementation of a new health service.
  • Resolving Idleness by the State by focusing on full employment.
  • To enlighten the Ignorance by modernising the educational system
  • To enhance Squalor by introducing new house-building schemes and slum-clearance programme.

Main Proposals of Beveridge

In spirit, Beveridge recommended that all people in employment would defer a single weekly flat-rate contribution into the state insurance fund. Such flat-rate premium would cover all possible risks that might transpire on people throughout their lives. As a token of return on their contribution of health insurance premium, a new Ministry of Social Security would offer people with survival allowance in the form of medical, sickness, maternity, old age, widows, unemployment, industrial injury, orphans and funeral benefits.

Beveridge submitted a detailed scheme of all-inclusive social insurance. It was based on the piecemeal provisions of pensions, sickness and unemployment benefit, which had come into force since 1908. The Plan envisaged the total desertion of the Poor Law attitude which had caused all payments to the sick, old and unemployed to be considered as charitable offerings, while these had to be kept as low as possible so as to dissuade extravagance and idleness.

Beveridge maintained that the scheme was one of insurance-thereby offering benefits of right in return for contributions. He also recommended that there should be non-contributory children’s allowances for each child after the first which was to be paid for out of taxation and not out of insurance contributions In addition, there was to be, a National Health Service to offer every citizen whatever medical treatment that was required. Moreover, Beveridge report recommended that there should be an end to mass unemployment that had haunted Britain in the 1930’s.

The main points of the Beveridge report were summed up as follows:

  • It is comprehensive in nature as it would meet all the social issues of the people from the provenience to cemetery.
  • It is universal as it would be open to all by right irrespective of their means.
  • It is an insurance-based scheme where people would make weekly payments to sponsor their future benefits.
  • It is mandatory for those individuals in employment.
  • It is integrated in nature as it would combine together all the individual plans to be covered by one single payment.
  • It is based on flat rate system as everyone would pay the same premiums despite of their income.
  • It would offer the minimum benefits necessary for food, clothing, subsistence and shelter.
  • It is non means tested as the benefits would no longer be blocked or reduced depending on an individual’s financial means.

Beveridge was attempting to establish a stimulus plan to deal with the apparent causes of poverty rather than retorting to the results as they were viewed. He recognised the five critical problems and endeavoured to deal with them before they occurred.

Retort to the Report

The Beveridge Report echoed the mood of Britain in the latter years of the war. Beveridge report outlined what many perceived for which they were struggling for. The report sold like hot cakes and it became a best-seller. However, the then Prime Minister Winston Churchill dumped the Beveridge Report in the dust bin. This had helped the Labour victory in the 1945 election, despite of the fact that Churchill had a heroic leadership image due to the war effort. On commenting about Churchill defeat in 1945 election, his wife told that it was a blessing in disguise. On hearing his wife’s comment, Churchill commented in lighter vein that blessing was extraordinary in disguise.

The response to the “Report” among the public at large was overwhelmed. People infused much hope the report viewing the report would be the basis for their life after the war. Majority of Labour ministers were whole heartedly supported Beveridge recommendations but Churchill adopted a rather uninterested attitude. Churchill commented that the report did have merit but the public should be more cautious as the priority task was that the enemy had yet to be crushed first. Marwick, a renowned historian viewed Churchill’s indifference to Beveridge Report as a trumping factor in Churchill’s election defeat in 1945. Doctors also opposed the Beveridge Report as they were not keen to be any part of a national scheme for a health service, as they had a fear that not only their autonomy would be endangered but also their salary would be reduced.

Beveridge desired to see the whole system turned to be much more efficient and simple. He strongly believed that insurance should safeguard the people against all the grave hardships of life and advocated that such insurance scheme should extend protection to the whole population of the country. The insurance premium payments he visualised were to be viewed as the rightful due of all, not money to be paid in differing amounts according to a means test. However, he did not believe that payments should be liberal.

As a Liberal, he was an advocate in the principle of people contributing to the savings administered by the state, and if they desired, they make more liberal contribution for themselves and in such cases, he believed that they should avail the services of private insurance schemes. Further, Beveridge did not restrict himself simply to looking at insurance. He advocated that ’the establishment of social insurance should be viewed as one part only of an all-inclusive policy of social progress. Social insurance may offer income security; it is an assault on want. However, Want is only the first element of five giants. The others are Ignorance, Disease, Idleness and Squalor.’ To combat these giants, Beveridge argued that it would be essential to have an appropriate National Health Service, a strategy of full employment and allowances paid to families with children. He commented that his ideas ‘the plan envisaged here is in some means a revolution but in more significant ways it is a natural growth from the past. It is a Revolution of British origin.’

Beveridge report was published in December 1942 and this was considered to be a fitting time because the British Eighth Army had just succeeded in the battle of Alemein and the Russian Army had just succeeded the Battle of Stalingrad and the general sentiment in the country was now that the allies would be triumphant and it was the right time to look forward to the incentives of peace time. Official government corroborated this idea and hinted that post war could be better than pre war. A statement issued by the Ministry of Health referred to ‘mounting reflection for the future and that there could be no revisit to the pre war situation.’ Beveridge Report was overwhelmingly appreciated by the British public.. It became a best seller, selling 635,000 copies in total, more than any other government report, though it was written in difficult and dry language. British subjects envisaged its recommendations to be implemented immediately, or at least as soon as at the end of the war.

An Evaluation of the Attlee Government

According to Kevin Jeffrey’s, the Labour Government fulfilled the promises they had given in their election manifesto, between 1945 and 1951 and the most significant being the establishment of the “Welfare nation”. The Labour government implemented the proposals of the Beveridge Report to initiate the various limited inter-war “welfare” measures and make them universal between 1945 and 1948. The “Welfare nation” which it established offered benefits “from the provenience to the tomb” for all its citizens.

Labour government attempted to fulfil its electoral manifesto promises despite serious issues from the beginning of its government. Due to Second World War, Britain was almost bankrupt and in no position to go ahead with implementation social welfare programme. It has been contended by critics that initial efforts of labour government should have been to build up and re-equip industry before spending money on welfare measures. Alternatively, the Labour government emphasised on the establishment of a fair society, where assistance was available to all citizens irrespective of their ages.

Some historians have pointed out that while majority of nations in Western Europe had augmented their social spending only after 1945 while some other nations focused social spending on their work force, with the sole aim of augmenting industrial efficiency. In Great Britain, social spending was more liberal towards the sick, the old and the poor, which had no direct impact on the economy. Thus, Labour could be witnessed to have shelved the Liberal idea of social reform to boost the nation’s international competitiveness and also national efficiency

When Labour government was ousted out of office in 1951, it had many welfare programs as suggested by Beveridge Report. For the first time in U.K , the young people received free secondary education which had became a right and for the old, elderly persons , pensions was paid which was approximately equivalent to the level of a living income and on the whole , over a million houses were constructed in the six years immediately after the war.

For the first time, by establishing the National Health Service, free treatment to all at hospital and general practitioner services were introduced. However, it would be not prudent to censure Labour government for what it failed to do. Some critics lamented that the government did a lot for people leading towards ‘the nanny nation’, whereas others assert that the Beveridge report was not adhered closely enough thereby loosing a great opportunity for a fairer, better Britain.

Labour government wished to establish a society were those who had suffered so much in the war would never have to afraid of poverty again and get rid of it once and for all. Labour government foremost priority after coming back to power was to make sure the enactment of 1946 National Insurance Act, which was piloted through the Commons by Welshman James Griffiths. Labour extended the erstwhile Liberal 1911 National Insurance Act to extend cover for all adults. The new initiative was based on the principle of universality, in lieu of pre-war confinement, and also introduced for the first time an all inclusive range of benefits to offer insurance against unemployment sickness, and old age. Griffiths forwarded the reform as the “start of the commencement of a National Minimum Standard”.

In 1946, James Griffiths National Insurance Act was enacted. The Act established a compulsory contributory scheme for each employee in return for the weekly contribution from employees as suggested in Beveridge report. Welfare measures like old age pensions for women 60 and men 65, sickness and unemployment benefit, widows and orphans pensions and maternity and death grants. Widows’ gains and maternity gains were also introduced.

Labour government also resolved household poverty by enacting the Family Allowance Act. The family allowance Act was introduced in 1945 which paid five shillings a week to all families for each child born after the first, up to the age of sixteen. Mothers can withdraw the Money directly from the post office and this was to prevent fathers dissipating the money away.

However, these critics failed to understand one important point. The Beveridge report offered a ray of hope to a war exhausted people who expected a novel Britain that would be more reasonable and worth fighting for, and the Labour reforms did much to offer this. After the First World War, there was no return to the ‘normality’ where the forfeiture of the ordinary man was disregarded and circumstances remained as terrible as before the war. Due to efforts of Labour party, the living standards of the poor were elevated and the people looked forward to a time of increasing prosperity and opportunity. The Conservative Prime Minister Harold Macmillan briefed the British people in the 1950’s that they had never had it so beneficial’. Nobody should forget that the affluence and feel-good factor of the 50’s had its fundamentals in the reforms and improvements put into force by Labour. The Labour government had accomplished a makeover of British society in a way that enhanced the lives of millions of British citizens both young and old by 1951. The serious illness, financial uncertainties and unemployment were barred by the welfare state. For the first time a start was initiated in providing decent housing and education for everyone.

The cover under the National Assistance Act 1948 was extended by the Labour government for those who were not covered by the National Insurance Act. This offered provision for those who were unable to pay contributions. For instance, the homeless, disabled people, unmarried mothers were benefited under the National Assistance Act 1948. It also aimed to assist those such as the old aged who required additional benefits to make a subsistence living. However, the National Assistance Act was footed on ‘means tested and many aged people were too humiliated to apply for it. Therefore, it could be said that the disgrace attached to means testing resulted in some disadvantages not targeting those who needed it and not annihilating poverty to the full extent. Also, the compensation paid to aged was often insufficient.

In general, through the National Assistance Act 1948 and National Insurance Act, 1946 inadequate amount was paid as compensation but was successful as it went further than any earlier legislation in attacking the issues.

The Beverage report insisted upon the British government to ensure that there were adequate jobs for all those that sought employment. The government solved the unemployment by nationalising vital industries, which offered the government to increase its revenues to spend for welfare measures. Profits would be employed by the Labour government and in this style, Labour government thought that they could control and administer the economy more efficiently and could maintain full employment.

Labour government also inflicted prohibitions on imports. Hence, manufacturing activities increased and it boosted the British economy. Subsidies were paid to unprofitable industries to keep the people in employment.

Thus, change in the category of economics from profit based to Keynesian economy by offering full employment that helped at the time but raised the problems for later. Nationalising the industries was not only expensive and but at times resulted in bad management. The full employment policy resulted in inflation and balance of payment issues. However the effort to fight poverty due to unemployment could be regarded as a short-run success.

Labour fruitfully attained this with unemployment being about just 2.5% by 1946. This was impressive if one consider the post war economic depression and paucity of materials and goods. However, after the end of the Second World War, veterans have to be offered job and this pushed many women out of jobs. Further, working atmosphere and wages were remained unimproved.

The first post-war Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer Dalton asserted that full employment was “the supreme revolution initiated by the Labour Government.” Another achievement was tackling idleness was the fact that they made it possible under the grave economic problems that haunted post-war Britain. Therefore, it is obvious that Labour government 1945-51 faced effectively with issue of idleness under complicated economic scenarios.

Conclusion

In 1945, Labour won a surprising election victory by trouncing the great Conservative wartime leader Winston Churchill. The British voters felt that the Labour party was the apt party to bring radical social reforms and to construct an enhanced post-war Britain free from impoverishment. As the details of social reform needed in Britain were elaborated in the Beveridge report of 1942 which emphasised that five ‘gigantic perils’ were the root cause of much misery and poverty. These five giants were Disease (bad health), Want (poverty), Idleness (unemployment), Squalor (housing) and Ignorance (lack of education). When the Labour government was in power from 1945 to 1951, the Labour party expedited on a determined course of social reform to tackles these ‘five gigantic perils’. Whether Labour government was really successful in their social reforms 1945-51 in tackling the ‘five gigantic perils was evidenced by continuance of the same by successive British governments as on date.

Many British Prime Ministers have left a long-lasting impact on Britain and the importance of these events can only be ascertained on an individual level relating to one’s own penchant. If the importance of a British Prime Minister is footed upon the impact that has endured the test of time, then Clement Attlee must be viewed as the most influential and famous. His sense of balance between the international stage and domestic front offered the Britain stableness much necessitated after the war. It is mainly the duty of rejuvenating Britain after the conflict and his ability in doing so, that offers a superior significance to his term in office as compared with other leaders. His welfare policies based on the Beveridge Report that integrated the people with public development had set a model for those Prime Ministers who succeeded him. Britain had to be reconstructed after Second World War and Attlee’s assuming as Prime Minister made him to being in power just as British required directing out of the bedlam of the war years. By directing Britain away from these problems he should be regarded as the most noteworthy leader due to directing future British Prime Ministers in the apt direction and imposing anticipation from the people on these future leaders.

Labour government was triumphant in raising the standards of living of the poor through the various acts such as the Insurance against injury Act, National Insurance Act, and Family allowance. These Acts barred the financial precariousness of unemployment and grave illness. Disease was also attacked successfully as the NHS offered free medical care which is still available up to this day. Idleness was also fruitfully handled with as the preponderance of the population was in employment. However, there were some mistakes as regards in dealing with squalor as not as many houses were constructed as had been guaranteed pushing the people being homeless. Also, ignorance was never attacked with efficiently as what was established was a two tier education scheme where those who passed their 11 plus flourished and where as those who failed were entrapped in a world of low hopes and substandard education.

However, in general it has to be acclaimed that the Labour Reforms 1945-51 were productive as they were executed in an occasion of economic uncertainty and offered many a better standard of living than they had ever enjoyed before.

Thus, the Labour government did what they assured and established jobs for almost all. This was an accomplishment with the post war economy. With this achievement it can be expressed that Labour government made successful social reforms on the basis of recommendations by Beveridge.

Hence, the statement “Without the beverage report there could have been no Attlee government” is true.

Works Cited

  1. Adelman, Paul. “The British General Election 1945: Paul Adelman Explains a Major Turning Point in Modern British History.” History Review (2001): 30+.
  2. Beveridge. Power and Influence. New York: Beechhurst Press, 1955.
  3. Bruce, Maurice. The Coming of the Welfare State. London: B.T. Batsford, 1961.
  4. Harris, Jose. William Beveridge: A Biography. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
  5. Parrott, Alec L. “The Great Welfare State Myth.” Contemporary Review 1995: 202+.
  6. Trevor Burridge. Clement Attlee: A Political Biography. Cape, 1985.
  7. Kenneth Harris. Attlee.Weidenfeld and Nicolson,1995.

Commercial Law: Sprod V Public Relations Oriented Security

Introduction

According to contemporary law vicarious liability is regarded as the liability of one person for the torts committed by another person. The wrong-doer is of course, liable to the injured person but another person may be jointly liable with him to compensate the injured party. The law states that where the injured party chooses to sue one of the tortfeasors, he is subsequently prevented from suing the other even if his claim for damages is not satisfied. So it is advisable for the injured party to sue the tortfeasors jointly.1

In this case of Sprod v Public Relations Oriented Security, we find that the plaintiff was found lying in a pool of blood in an unconscious state at the northern side of the Great Western Highway at St Marys, after which he was taken to a hospital nearby and was reported to have had serious injuries. He remained in the hospital for a year then moved to the Westmead Brain Injury Unit where he remained for two months. His injuries which included permanent brain damage are reported to have come up as a result of brutal assaults on his head. We find that plaintiff goes ahead looking for compensations regarding his injuries from the Public Relations Oriented Security Pty Ltd which is said to be the company from which the security guards who are also known as bouncers for the St Marys Band Club were attached.2

In this case, we find that the plaintiff claims to have been injured by the employees of the security company. In this case, we find that the defendant, who is the Public Relations Oriented Security Pty Ltd, denies the fact that his employees assaulted the plaintiff and caused him serious injuries. The defendant goes ahead saying that even if the employees caused the injury then it was done in circumstances where the company could not be held liable.

Relevant Facts

According to the common law, the plaintiff, in this case, has the right to claim the damages from the company since he claims that the guards from the company are the ones who injured him. This is well indicated in the evidence given by Peter Gregory who was at the club on that same day where he saw the plaintiff being held by the bouncers towards the up Great Western Highway in the direction of Queen Street. He says that he was a bit concerned as to where the plaintiff was being taken to and he had the urge to follow but in the process, he was stopped by Cheryl but he continued to watch the two bouncers and the plaintiff where he saw the plaintiff being taken into the laneway which was about fifty meters from the pizza shop.

After some time he saw the first two bouncers walk out of the laneway and walk back to the club and passed him, in the process of them passing him another man asked them what they had done to him one of the bouncers answered, “He won’t be causing any trouble tonight. He just got his head kicked in”. After that Mr Gregory noticed that the plaintiff could not walk by himself this clearly indicates that the guards carried out the assault.

Ratio decidendi

The court made a ruling of this case basing on the concept of vicarious liability which is a liability that arises from the relationship of master and servant when the tort was committed by the latter in the course and scope of employment. This case indicates that the basis of vicarious liability is founded on the rule of common sense as employees are usually people of meagre means and it is, therefore, only fair that the injured person is allowed to recover damages from the employer. Thus the injured person is allowed to recover damages from the employers. Thus where there is a relationship of master and servant, the former is always liable for the torts committed by the latter in the course and scope of his duties. The master or the employer can claim compensation from the negligent employee. 3 So in the case of Sprod v Public Relations Oriented Security, it was concluded that the master who is the security company has a right to ask for compensation from its employees which is the Bouncers.

This is well indicated in the case of; Zoom Enterprises Pty Limited v Zabow 2007, where Zoom a security company was contracted to staff the Clovelly Hotel where it happened that one of its employees punched Mr Zabow who was had been evicted earlier in the evening from the hotel Mr Zabow was reported to have suffered brain damage. In this case, Mr Zabow went ahead to sue the security company alleging that the assault from the guards as a result of vicarious liability.

The courts’ judgment towards this case was made basing on the findings that were factual that the guard and his colleagues had made plans to disperse a group of people including Mr Zabow. As result of the two patrons and Mr Zabow being assaulted by the same guard indicated that the guard was acting in the way of his employment and this led to the security being held liable for his torts.

The law also provides that a master is liable for every wrongful act of the servant if committed in the course of employment even without any express approval by him. It is immaterial that the alleged act was not done for the benefit of the master. But the master is not liable for torts committed beyond the scope of employment unless he has expressly authorized such acts or subsequently ratifies them. 4

So in the case of Sprod v Public Relations Oriented Security, the security company was not found liable for the actions of its employees since the court ruled that the company was not aware of the agreement between the club and the owner of the shop. For the provision of evidence, in this case, we find that there was David Schoer who is stated to be the owner and operator of Dave’s Midnight pizza he is reported to have started operating his shop from the year 1997 where under his operations there have been several reported incidences that are found to have been causing problems in the shop where for one instance he was assaulted by the patrons and also a pot was thrown at his head which almost led him to an unconscious state.

This led the shop owner to come up with an arrangement with the St Marys Club that apart from him giving a discount rate on pizzas and drinks the Band’s uniformed staff and the security guards that the bouncers should be allowed to go to the shop and help him solve the problems that he encounters at the shop.

Courts Decision

There was an act of negligence which according to the common is defined as the breach of a duty caused by the omission to do something which a reasonable man can do, guided upon those considerations which ordinarily regulate the conduct of human affairs. In this case, there existed the case of contributory negligence where the law takes into consideration any act or conduct of the party injured which may have contributed to the injuries he received.

At one time a person who had by his own negligence contributed to the injury he received could not maintain an action against another in respect of such injury. This is well indicated in this case we find that Mr Schoer gave his evidence saying that in many cases the name of the security company P.R.O.S on either the shirt or the tie the guards wear.

He goes ahead and gives his evidence saying that on the 22nd of December he remembers a young who is the plaintiff, in this case, went into his shop and made started pestering him, the plaintiff was said to have been drunk and abusive whereby he made rude remarks to the female patrons that were present and in the process, he assaulted one of the patrons by slapping one of them, therefore according to the law, the plaintiff is not in a position to claim for the damages for the injuries caused by the bouncers. 5

Conclusion

In this case, we can deduce that the bouncers can be regarded as independent contractors where the law states that an independent contractor is one who undertakes to produce a given result without being in any way controlled as to the method by which he achieves that result. He is free to use his own initiative and discretion as to methods appropriate to the nature of the contractual assignment. For the obvious reason that the employer has no strict right of control over the methods used by the contractor, he is not liable for his wrongful acts committed during the execution of his work, therefore the employees of the security firm may not be held liable for their activities since they were carrying out their duties of ensuring security in the area.6

Reference

Aaron L, (2003) Negligence and Tort Law, Law Offices. Web.

Emanuel, S. L. (2004): Fundamental of Business Law, 4th Edition, Educational Publishers New York, pp 12-45.

Gifford, K. (1980) Legal Profession Law & Practice in Victoria Law Book Co, Sydney, pp 35-49.

Jertz, A. and Miller L. R, (2004): Fundamentals of Business Law, 3rd Edition; New York, Macmillan Publisher, pp 47-58.

Penrose, R (2005): Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, New York, Longman Publisher, pp 14-26.

Sprod v Public Relations Oriented Security, (2007). Web.

Footnotes

  1. Sprod v Public Relations Oriented Security, (2007). Web.
  2. Emanuel, S. L. (2004): Fundamental of Business Law, 4th Edition, Educational Publishers New York, pp 12-45.
  3. Jertz, A. and Miller L. R, (2004): Fundamentals of Business Law, 3rd Edition, Macmillan Publisher, New York,
  4. Penrose, R (2005): Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, Longman Publisher, New York.
  5. Aaron L, (2003) Negligence and Tort Law, Law Offices. Web.
  6. Sprod v Public Relations Oriented Security, (2007). Web.

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