Australian Soldiers Fighting On The Kokoda Trail During WW2 Essay Example

Why was it so difficult for the Australians to fight on the Kokoda Trail in 1942 during WW2? The battle of the Kokoda Trail occurred from July 1942 until January 1943 and is known as one of the most important battles of WW2. Located in Papua New Guinea, the Australian soldiers fought against the Japanese army in order to protect Australia. The Kokoda was the ‘bloodiest’ of all battles in WW2 and included great involvement from the Australian soldiers. It was very difficult for the soldiers to fight in the battle.

They had to rely on the Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels for help while they were struggling with the conditions and illnesses that the battle had to offer. The Kokoda Trail was a very difficult battle to be involved in and the Australian soldiers looked to and relied on the Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels for help and assistance. The Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels were the indigenous people of Papua New Guinea. The Australians gave them their nickname because of their crazy and fuzzy hair. As the war was very difficult, the Fuzzy Wuzzys got involved and helped out the Australians as much as they could.

As there was no time to help the sick and wounded, the soldiers had to rely on the Fuzzy Wuzzys to treat them. They would turn into ‘human ambulances’ and carry the wounded back to their village where they would then treat them and make them feel better (Ham, 2004, p. 211). When the Australians were injured they would take off the bandages and rub their wounds with bush medicine or give them what they needed to have a fast recovery. The Fuzzy Wuzzys would be there at every call at any time of the day or night to assist the patients.

Considering they knew nothing about the war until the troops started moved through their area, they were very generous and kind-hearted. P Ham stated “The men were not the only ones helping; the woman would carry the food too” (Ham, 2004, p. 211). The Fuzzy Wuzzys also helped the men come to terms with the conditions and what was happening during that time. If it wasn’t for the Fuzzy Wuzzys the conditions and circumstances would have been far more difficult to deal with.

While the battle was taking place, the soldiers formed a close friendship with the Fuzzy Wuzzys and the relationship they had made them even more determined to keep on fighting. Because the soldiers had formed a good friendship with the Fuzzy Wuzzys, they knew that they could count on them to be there when the soldiers needed them the most. They usually needed them the most to help and mend the sick and injured, deliver food to them while fighting or help protect the frontline from the enemy (Lindsay, 2009, p. 62).

The Fuzzy Wuzzys saved hundreds of soldier’s lives and Australia has hailed them as heroes’ for their brave commitment. Without them, the soldiers wouldn’t have been able to win due to the difficult conditions. Throughout the battle of Kokoda there were many problems that the soldiers had to overcome due to the difficult conditions such as shortages in food, ammunition and equipment that they required. Apart from the difficult fighting, half of the men died from the harsh conditions such as exhaustion and lack of food and water. The soldiers were fighting every minute and it became very exhausting.

The terrain was undulated to the extreme and there was no short cut. There was only one way and that always meant they had to climb the steepest mountains. Bill James stated “A modern day bushwalker could walk the same distance in one hour that it took the soldiers all night to do” (James, 2006, p. 53). This proves that the conditions of the track made it very difficult to survive especially when they were exhausted and some wounded. Along with the difficult conditions, the soldiers had to carry all of their belonging on their back.

They were required to carry 25-30kg of food, ammunition and equipment. ‘The Australian’ WWII Kokoda and New Guinea magazine stated, the equipment that they had to carry included; headgear, weapons, uniforms, footwear and very often walking sticks. Carrying all of this made everything far more difficult. The Australians struggled with food and ammunition because it was so difficult to get the supplies up the track due to the conditions. Sometimes, by the time the food and materials reached the soldiers it was either wet from the rain or half of it got lost on the way.

Dealing with the food and ammunition shortages, the track conditions they also had to deal with the weather. While fighting on the Kokoda it rained almost every day. Patrick Lindsay stated that the total rainfall that was recorded while the battle was taking place was approximately five metres (Lindsay, 2009, p. 55). The rainfall along with the other conditions made it extremely difficult for the Australians to fight. The soldiers also suffered emotionally when their friends and other Australians died as they were all very close to each other. Some statistics from the Field Guide to Kokoda howed that there was over 400 Australian soldiers killed due to the fighting and sicknesses and 1600 wounded. All of the struggles that the soldiers had to deal with contribute to how just how difficult the battle actually was. At the battle of Kokoda, the conditions were so difficult and beyond imaginable that it caused many illnesses and diseases that the soldiers had to overcome. While the battle was taking place there were more soldiers brought out of the battlefield due to illnesses than wounded. Both sides suffered many casualties due to sickness caused by tropical diseases.

Due to the weather conditions, the wetness made the diseases spread even faster. The most common tropical diseases were malaria, parasitic infections and diseases caused by insects and mosquitoes (The Kokoda Trail). As these diseases were spreading around the soldiers, some of the time they had to call in doctors to operate. Saying this, the doctors could not operate near the front line due to the atrocious conditions and the continual attacks from the Japanese. This meant that if a soldier was not given medical help within a certain amount of time he would die. This happened in some cases.

Men with serious wounds would get little treatment to ease the pain. McKinlay stated that they needed eight men to relieve the wounded and eight men to carry the stretcher (McKinlay, 2004, p. 45). Carrying a wounded soldier was a very difficult task. Through some parts of the track a stretcher had to be passed hand over hand up hill. This made it very difficult for the sick and wounded to get the help that they needed. Not only did the wetness cause the tropical diseases. Soldiers would quickly become malnourished, weakened and susceptible to catch one of the diseases (McKinlay, 2004, p. 5). Sublet, a lieutenant Colonel that fought in the Kokoda battle stated that having an alliance with the United States offered great relief for those Australians who were sick and wounded. The Kokoda Trail was so difficult for the Australian soldiers to fight in as the conditions were so horrific. The soldiers were faced with supply shortages, illnesses and wounds along with the help from The Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels. The Kokoda Trail was an important part in Australian history and all of the soldiers are to be remembered and honoured as heroes for protecting our country.

Struggling For Change

            Since time immemorial, people from different parts of the world have been struggling and fighting different battles to achieve change. There have been many movements that were initiated to foster transformation in the society, some of them were brought to fruition and are currently flourishing while others are still in their struggle up to the present time. Social movements, which are a type of group action, are carried out by informal groupings of individuals or organizations focused on specific political or social issues.  Movements have become feasible through a wider dissemination of information, education and increased mobility of labor due to industrialization and urbanization of societies. The unprecedented number and range of various social movements throughout the course of history were founded because of the attained freedom of expression, edification, and because of the relative economic independence that are prevalent in cultures.

            One of the many conflicts that people have been facing is their struggle for achieving their essential rights as citizens to their respective nations. The fight for gaining Civil rights, the yearning of the people in having the right to be treated equally, regardless of their race, gender, or religion, have been apparent numerous times in different places. One concrete example of a group that have wanted attainment of civil rights is the African Americans, or the blacks, of the United States and their struggle was dubbed the Civil Rights Movement.

            Civil Rights Movement in the United States was a social, legal and political struggle to achieve full citizenship rights for black Americans and to achieve racial equality. There have been many forms of resistance by the blacks early on even after the abolishment of slavery in the 1860’s yet even after many years they were still treated faultily. The blacks lived in a society where there was a system, the “segregation”, which the white Southerners established to separate the races in every sphere of life and to achieve supremacy over the blacks. In other words, they were kept separate in public places including at theaters, restrooms, schools and even in transportation. Such system that promotes discrimination piloted the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909 to push for civil rights. One event that involved a black woman’s arrest, said to have strengthened the initiated Black Movement and propelled NAACP’s advocacy against segregation. Rosa Parks, a member of NAACP in Montgomery, Alabama, was arrested in December 1,1955, when she refused to give her seat in a city bus to a white person. Montgomery’s black community headed by Martin Luther King, Jr then organized a boycott that ended successfully, with virtually unanimous support from the 50,000 blacks in the said community. The boycott lasted for more than a year and such display of audacity sensationalized to the American public the determination of blacks to end racial segregation.

The Montgomery boycott made Martin Luther King, Jr. a national figure. He became the president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, an association that aimed to complement the NAACP legal strategy by encouraging the use of nonviolent, direct action to protest segregation that incorporated marches, demonstrations, and boycotts. SCLC’s greatest contribution to the civil rights movement was a series of highly publicized protest campaigns in 1960’s. These protests were intended to create such civic disorder that local white officials and business leaders would end segregation in order to restore normal business activity. Some of the protests caused immense turmoil that President John F. Kennedy decided to propose civil rights legislation. The national civil rights leadership then pressured both the Administration and the Congress to pass the civil rights legislation by executing a March on Washington in August 28, 1963. More than 200,000 women and men from all over the U. States converged on Washington, D.C. for the peaceful civil rights demonstration and showed support for a broad civil rights bill. During the demonstration, Martin Luther King, Jr., addressed the crowd and described his dream for equality and unity in America.

For many activists and some scholars, the civil rights movement ended in 1968 with the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. Some, especially blacks, argue that the movement is not over yet because the goal of full equality has not been achieved. Although full equality has not yet been reached, the civil rights movement did put fundamental reforms in place. Legal segregation as a system of racial control was dismantled and blacks were no longer subjected to the humiliation. Public institutions, like schools and universities, were also open to them and the blacks also achieved the right to vote and the influence that went with that right in a democracy.

Another group that has been trying to achieve rights in America is the Gay Community. The struggle for gay rights has taken on many forms and from the 1950’s to the present many organizations have surfaced to devote to the cause of homosexual liberation. The movement calls for equal rights for gays and entails the abolishment of all anti-homosexual laws, as well as the inclusion of all rights accorded to heterosexuals, such as marriage.

The Mattachine Society, established in the early 1950’s, was the prime example of a gay rights organization that strove to create equal civil rights for homosexuals. The said group laid many vital foundations for the gay civil rights movement but with the surge of the new, more radical groups, the Mattachine shrunk and eventually became nothing more than a counseling center. Because of increase in harassment of gays in public, homosexuals became to see themselves as an oppressed minority group, inciting a new attitude demanding acceptance and not tolerance, employing minority-group politics to attain goals. Such change in scope and attitude triggered a new sense of gay pride, one from which homosexuals drew strength and the willingness to stand up and have their voices heard.  Inspired by black and feminist civil rights movements, the new gay groups rejected the typical approach of the 1950’s in favor of an activist ideology focusing on equal rights and direct protest. Various groups emerged such as the Gay Activists Alliance (GAA), a political pressure group that aims on breaking the invisibility of the gay community caused by fear and bringing gays into the public. The GAA strove to be an active force in politics, worked for tax benefits and fair employment, urged gays to vote, and publicized political candidates’ stances on homosexuals, and even sought to improve the public opinion of gays in the media. Another group, the Gay Liberation Front, surfaced which is a revolutionary group formed with the realization that complete sexual liberation for all people cannot come about unless existing social institutions are abolished.  In essence, this organization was convinced that they do not need to fit into American society, but rather that society itself was what needed to be cured and transformed, for it is the society that unjustly oppresses.

Aside from the homosexuals, the women also have their share of struggle in the society, a force emerging, demanding for social change. The momentum of the feminist movement of the earlier decades of the 20th century had waned in the post-World War II decades but work for women’s rights actually continued by core organizations, yet becoming almost an underground resistance to a nearly devastatingly negative media blitz that insisted on proclaiming the death of feminism. However, an event in 1957 brought about the rise of feminism. The Soviet Union demonstrated a challenging superiority in space technology when it launched the first man-made space satellite. Such event triggered the U.S. and the Soviet Union space race, and the demands in the U.S. for skilled and educated workforce rocketed to the point where even women and other minorities constituted the traditional reserve labor force. The National Manpower Council published in the same year a study that illustrated a comprehensive look at the experience of women in the labor force, their employment needs, and the implications of both for education, training, and public policy. The analysis pointed out women being important workers and recommended that the Secretary of Labor establish a committee to review the consequences and sufficiency of existing laws that have a direct bearing on the employment of women. By 1961, President John F. Kennedy was open to pressure to establish a President’s Commission on the Status of Women. The demands came from a variety of sources and were successful for a variety of reasons. Esther Peterson, Assistant Secretary of Labor and director of the Women’s Bureau, the highest-ranking woman in the Kennedy Administration, wanted such a commission. Along with equal pay legislation, it had long been on the agenda of women labor movement and it was in that movement that Peterson’s working career had been concentrated. Peterson, along with the other notable women’s organizations, finally realized the Commission with the help of Eleanor Roosevelt. The Commission set up seven study committees on education and counseling, home and community services, women in employment, labor standards, security of basic income, women under the law, and women as citizens. Two special consultations were also organized by the Commission on the problems of black women and women’s depiction in the mass media.

            Manifestations of social movements in various forms have been apparent through the course of time. America in the late 20th century witnessed the emergence of liberalistic, civil rights movements, political pressure groups and even radical, revolutionary movements that seek to completely transform society. While pioneers and advocates to these movements struggle for civil legal rights, and equality and might even accomplish them, they will not liberate fully those who initiated these movements.  Society itself is the problem that needs to be addressed, not gender, race or sexual preference.  Until society is altered, homosexuals, blacks, women, and other minorities, will never be truly free.

Works Cited

A Century of Social Change.  ;http://www.;

            (Accessed 24 December 2006)

Another Revolution, The Feminist Movement.  ;;

            (Accessed 24 December 2006)

The American Gay Rights Movement: A Timeline.  ;;

(Accessed 24 December 2006)

Timeline of the American Civil Rights Movement.  ;;

(Accessed 24 December 206)

24 December 2006 ;;

24 December 2006 ;;


Of Mice And Men Persuasive

A Great Book Many books in the USA are banned in school curriculums. A couple of those books are currently active on our community. The school board wants to take our some of these books due to lack of meaning or offense to readers. One of these books is Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck. This book contains valuable lessons for young readers and should therefore be kept in the school curriculum. However, it does have some negative diction that could offend a young reader. Although, there are many strong qualities of this story and the book being elaborate is one of them.

Due to the complexity of the book, it increases comprehension and analytical skills. These skills can help a student in school by giving them the skills to read with more attention. Also to really think about what they are reading. This is important to the curriculum because it gets students to not only analyze the characters, but to look for motifs and other important attributes to the novel. These skills can really improve someone’s understanding of not just this book, but many others to come. This is due to the examples placed within Of Mice and Men and people will allude back to it when reading other books.

Another example would be the maturity level of the book. Due to the maturity of the book, it requires a lot of understanding and thinking. Getting a reader to think about the book further expands his or her knowledge on that book by leading to questions and meaningful class discussions about the novel. Of Mice and Men has many underlying meanings, and in order to find and value them one must have the ability to analyze or even learn to analyze the piece. Finally, the diction in the book is what makes the book what it is.

Without comprehension of the words and what they are supposed to mean, it would be hard to understand this book let alone get the themes it’s trying to compose. The complex diction used to describe the characters helps the reader get a more specific picture of the character. This all ties to what the characters are capable of and how they match up to what happens in the story. All in all, this book is important to our curriculum because of its awesome ability to get us to think and analyze all of the elements of writing Steinbeck uses to create this wonderful story.

Nevertheless, this book does have some negative motifs that can give a negative connotation to the book. However, Steinbeck’s use of characterization allows the novel to maintain a great plot throughout the story. The characterization is what makes this story so interesting and basically what it is. First, the diction that Steinbeck uses to describe each and every character is unique. For example, how he describes Lennie as “slow in the head” gives the reader a sense of what Lennie feels and how that affects the story later.

Also how Lennie is incredibly strong and is basically the size of two people. When the reader is reading the book, every time a situation comes up, they can look back to how each character is characterized and kind of make an inference on what is about to happen. Second, the way each antagonist and protagonist works together to create the plot. Ultimately, what readers are going to want is an interesting story with great characters. Also the way Steinbeck portrays each of his characters leads to a great plot a wonderful story. This is what as a reader looking for in a book.

People don’t want to sit there all day and just read a bad book they have to read but want to be actively engaged in it and enjoy it. Third, the use of imagery ties into the play of his characterization. Steinbeck’s imagery use and descriptions are incredibly and makes a reader feel like they know exactly what the situation looks like. This contributes to how each character acts. For example, when Steinbeck describes Curley as a mean dude who likes to pick on big dudes it gives the reader a hint of what will happen in the future.

When they do end up fighting, Lennie is being his shy old self and just takes a beating before later breaking Curley’s hand. If we never knew what Curley’s personality was like or why he does what he does, we wouldn’t understand the reasoning in this fight. Finally, how all of the characterizations lead to the themes of the novel. For example, when they describe Crooks as a lonely person contributes to the theme. This is one of the themes of the novel and without proper characterization and relation to the plot; people wouldn’t be able to figure that out as easily.

Curley’s wife is also incredibly lonely even though she has a husband. She admits to this when she is talking to George about what she wants or wanted to do with her life. All of the characters contributed to what happened throughout the story specifically by their personality, directly or indirectly. All in all, the characterization contributes to the story so much by giving the story a solid plot and constructing its themes. Still, the plot of the story is genius. The plot is made up of what happens in this book and what makes it interesting.

First, the way Steinbeck uses the characters to clash together. As the reader knows, one of the main characters in the story is Lennie and an antagonist is Curley. When they first meet the reader wouldn’t necessarily think trouble is going to occur between the two, but later does due to foreshadowing techniques and other hints. The plot of this story is interesting because it is about two poor people who try to make a living on a farm and what happens to them during that time.

All of the characters mesh together well and everyone has a role to play weather they are a part of the rising actions, falling actions, or climax of the story. Another example is when Lennie is running away from the people on the farm. This is kind of like a climax of the story and from here on out it goes downhill for Lennie and George. Leading up to this point however, things on the farm were going alright, but there were signs and actions leading up to them being on the run.

Like when Lennie gets into a fight with Curley; then when he breaks Curley’s wife’s neck on accident. All of these things play up to what happens in the end. Lastly, the foreshadowing and hints combine to make a phenomenal ending. In the beginning the reader would know George and Lennie as two innocent guys trying to get to their dream farm idea. All of the foreshadowing of death and disruption towards that dream lead to the end of the story. When they were running away from Weed, George is upset with Lennie because he causes them to always be on the run.

In the end they are running, like they did in the beginning. This is unique because it starts the same way in ends in a sense. Like a good friend, George decides that it’s best to stop running and encourages Lennie to go onto the dream farm and puts a bullet into Lennie’s head. This is really interesting due to the fact that it not only started how it ended, but so many items like the snake in the water clued into the fact that this was sudden and Lennie had no idea what was about to happen.

The way this story was constructed was to not understand until the end and then the reader gets Steinbeck’s underlying meanings. All in all, these elements and techniques leads to an amazing story which is what the curriculum needs to keep readers interested. All in all, this book is an amazing piece of literature. It has a very thought out plot, well described characterization, and can give a reader good reading skills. There is enough evidence here that Of Mice and Men should defiantly be kept in the school curriculum.

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