Authotarian Government And Economic Development Essay Example For College

In the first part of the study questionnaires were given to 40 students from International Islamic university Malaysia to find out their view on economic placement and authoritarian government. In the second part, a comparison is done between the economic indicators of developed democratic nations and a group of selected authoritarian governments, The data suggests that an authoritarian government also can bring economic development to a nation. Introduction: Economic Development of a country and their political stability are always interconnected.

If the society thinks that they are being worsened off by the current political system, It can lead to a political Instability In the society. On the other hand, f the economy is politically unstable, it will reduce the incoming investment from abroad at the same time slowing down the development of a nation. That’s why it is always the goal of political economy to understand how Institutional arrangements shape policy outcomes and human well-being.

There has been some debate among the scholars about the degree to which institutional arrangements affect the economic development of a nation. Some researchers suggest a high economic growth among autocratic institutions is a proof that a “benevolent autocrat” can overcome the political obstacles necessary to create economic growth (Easterly, 2011). As a result, some suggest a benevolent autocrat is a necessity and an Important factor for economic development during the primary stages of economic growth. Roosts (1971, p. 57) states”… He buildup of an initial minimum quantum of social overhead capital (Including the role of education), the bringing about of expansion in agriculture, and the generation of a supply of imports adequate for modernization have required important interventions and leadership by national governments. ” However, Mulligan, Gel, and Martin (2004) find little evidence that political institutions enhance economic efficiency. The fact that the most of the developed industrialized nations are democratic was long taken as iron-clad evidence that only democracy can matters.

The blistering economic growth of authoritarian governments like China without a political liberalizing now suggests that the link between economic development and the liberal democracy is actually quite weak. The growing number of the affluent authoritarian state shows that they can reap the benefit of economic development without easing their political control. A key objective that motivates this paper is that an autocratic government is not always a disaster in economic terms.

There is undeniable evidence throughout history that proves there has been economic development in autocratic governments. For example, Singapore was one of the fastest-growing countries in the last decade and the country has been classified as a ‘Growth Miracle’ (Oppressors et al. 2000) and as an ‘Asian Tiger Economy (Young 1995). The regime, led by Prime Minister Lee Guan Yew, defended his form of government stating that it is very much needed to boost the economic development in the developing countries (Seen, 1999).

The fast growing economy of China also challenges the notion that democracy is always essential to the economic development of a country. However, this paper is not intended as a defense of autocracy, but as means of gaining further insights into the issue why autocracy can sometimes be successful. We will focus on one underlying dimension, which is to find out the position in economic development of authoritarian governments compared to the developed democratic countries.

This paper will focus on autocrats that exist today and will try to empirically find out whether their institutional arrangements are deter than those of democratic developed countries. We will not only look in to regimes which are robustly high performers, but will also take into account those underdeveloped authoritarian countries to find out what is the real reason for their low economic performance. With the help of hypothesis testing, we will try to find out the correlation between the economic growth and autocratic government.

Also, an average of economic development indicators such as standard of living, literacy rate, life expectancy condition on per capita Gross Domestic Product (GAP), gross primary school enrollment rate and Human Development Index from all the industrialized democratic countries will be taken to compare with the findings of the autocratic regimes. Therefore, the research questions of this paper are as follows: 1) Are authoritarian governments an impediment to economic growth? 2) How the authoritarian governments are performing economically compared to the developed democratic nations?

Literature Review Over the past decades, a lot of literatures have been written on this topic. Some argue democracy is a powerful link between economic developments and democracy Oppressors & Liming, 1997; Oppressors & Liming, 1993; Lewis, 2008). On the other hand, there are those who do not believe democracy enhances economic development. For them, authoritarian governments more effectively stimulated the economic development of a nation (Kurt, 1979; March, 1988; Sorrow and Knells, 990).

But what is an authoritarian government? Dry. Paul M. Johnson defines autocracy or an authoritarian government as “a system of government in which supreme political power to direct all the activities of the state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints or regulated mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit sometimes use economic development as a tool to create both economic stability and political stability in an economy.

Mesquite and Downs states that economic development can increase the prospect of survival of a regime by expanding their government resources and their ability to deal with various problems such as economic recessions or natural disasters. However, in the long run, economic development can threaten the political survival of the government by raising the likelihood that effective political competitors may emerge (2005, p. 9). But the question is can an authoritarian government increase their economic development Nitrous a reform? Economic development, according to Harvard Professor Michael E.

Porter is the “long-term process of building a number of interdependent microeconomic capabilities and incentives to support more advanced forms of competition. ” These capabilities and incentives, which were originally identified in Porter’s The Competitive Advantage of Nations, 1990, include the nature and extent of the inputs required by firms to produce goods or services; the rules, incentives and arms governing the type and intensity of local rivalry; the quality of demand for local services; and the extent and quality of local suppliers and related industries.

Studies show that it is not democracy or autocracy that boosts the economic development, but it is the high level of economic freedom and stable economic policies (Adkins, Momma and Asides, 2002; Guaranty, Lawson and Holcomb, 2005; Klein and Lulu, 2003). Both the democratic and autocratic regimes can create an environment with a high level of economic freedom and stable economic policies. Hat’s why if a country is experiencing frequent regime changes, especially as the exult of military coups, it can create significant uncertainty for parties engaged or interested in forming economic exchanges, which is supported empirically by Fen 11997) and Lesion et al. (1996). As a result, these uncertainties will lower the investments and will result in lower standard of living and lower productions. Therefore, we cannot take that only a democratic nation can achieve economic growth.

Diamond (2008, 96), for example, states the ‘evidence is murky for the hypothesis that democracy enhances economic development, while Tasteless (2002, 70) considers it a surprising fact that there is no evidence of democracy increasing placement. In Curt’s estimation, authoritarian government can more effectively stimulate growth and investment by suppressing labor unions, wages, and consumer demand?very unpopular measures (1979, p. 334; see also March, 1988; Sorrow and Knells, 1990). Methodology: In the last chapters I have tried to review the literature of the related problem.

This part of the assignment will be focused on the methodology. The study adopted simple two methods to test the research hypothesis and both of them are quantitative approaches. In the first part, a questionnaire titled ‘Authoritarian Government and Economic Development’ was distributed to collect the information to test the hypothesis. It was manually distributed to randomly selected 50 students studying in International Islamic University Malaysia. Questionnaires were used to find the views of students on authoritarian government, democratic government and regarding the demography of the respondents.

Part 1 addressed the general understanding of an authoritarian government and economic development. Part 2 Nas focused on finding the view of the students about authoritarian government and economic development. The questionnaire was based on close-ended questions to limit the information given by the respondents to attain the objectives of the study. In the second part, a comparison will be done between developed democratic nations and authoritarian governments based on GAP growth, unemployment level and life expectancy ratio.

The average of economic indicators of developed five countries will be used from 2007 to 2011 for comparison with the economic indicators of some of the selected authoritarian governments. The authoritarian governments used for this study are China, North Korea, Bahrain, Vietnam, Cuba, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Analysis of the questionnaire: ere data extracted from the questionnaires were organized into tables using simple percentage to see the overall opinion of the students regarding the issue.

A total number of 50 students completed the questionnaire and out of them 23 were male and 27 were females. Most of the students were of the age group 20-25 which was 55% of the total number of students. The second largest age group, consisting of 30% of the respondents was from 18 to 20 years and the remaining 5% were more than 25 {ears old as shown in the figure 1 . Out of the total number of students, 75% of the dents were from auxiliary of Law and Auxiliary of Economics, while the remaining 25% were from other faculties. Asia understanding of the students on authoritarian government and economic development: From all the students who filled the questionnaire, 85% of the students fully understood the meaning of an authoritarian government while 12% are not certain about authoritarian government. This data is represented in the figure 2. Though most of them understood the meaning of authoritarian government, only a few are aware that there are authoritarian governments with high economic development.

Only 39% of the respondents are aware that there are authoritarian governments with high economic growth while 55% of the respondents did not know that there are authoritarian governments with high economic development. Also, 82% of the respondents understood the meaning of economic development while 8% are not certain about the concept of economic development. Perception of students on government structure and economic development: The study found out that 88% believe that democracies are outperforming autocracies if it comes to development beyond economic growth as shown in the figure 3.

However, till 71% of the students believe that a “benevolent autocrat” can overcome the political obstacles necessary to create economic growth, but 33% disagree with the statement. Also, 82% believes that institutional arrangements affect the economic development of a nation but most of them which is 92 % of the respondents believe that it is the high level of economic freedom and stable economic policies, that bring economic development, institutional arrangements.

Most of the students participated, believes that democratic governments are better Nee it comes to economic development and this is not a concern as democratic institutions are very famous among the students. As shown in the figure 4, only 27% of the students thinks that an authoritarian can bring economic development while the rest of 4% thinks that both the systems can bring economic development to a nation.

Analysis using Economic indicators: In this section, economic indicators of five developed countries namely United States of America, United Kingdom, Germany, France and Japan are taken to compare with the findings of authoritarian governments. The authoritarian governments selected for this study is China, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, North Korea, Cuba and Kuwait. Average of economic indicators of five developed countries will be calculated to compare with the results and the data is collected only for 5 years starting from 2007. Data was collected from World Bank data bank.

The economic indicators selected for this part of analysis are life expectancy at birth (years), GAP growth rate (annual %) and total unemployment level (percentage of total labor force). Average of economic indicators of developed democratic nations is shown in the data table from 2007 to 2011. The average life expectancy of the democratic nations is between 80 to 81 years. This is high figure compare to all the authoritarian governments considered for the study is Cuba and this could be because of the high developed Healthcare system of Cuba.

Even for North Korea, the life expectancy is around 68-69 years which is high compared to nation which is always political conflict with the rest of the world. The life expectancy of Vietnam, Saudi Arabia and china is around 74-75 years while the life expectancy of Bahrain is between 75-77 years. The Gross Domestic Product (GAP) growth of the average democratic countries fluctuates between 3% to negative (-5%) percent. This could be mainly because of the Supreme Mortgage crisis in 2008 and the European crisis at the end of 2010.

However, during that period the GAP growth of all the authoritarian government remain positive as shown in the data table 2. The highest growth rate is in China in 2008 when it was 14. 2%. The unemployment levels of the democratic nations are relatively high. Around average of 6%-7% of the total labor force in the democratic countries remains unemployed. Although, for most of the authoritarian government, the data of unemployment cannot be found, the unemployment level in democratic nations is high compared to the authoritarian overspent.

The Sick Rose By William Blake Summary & Analysis

‘The Sick Rose’ was a poem written by William Blake who originated from London. He was a profoundly religious man, and his spiritual life inspired his writing and paintings. Although he was Christian, he did not go by the rules, as he believed in having his own freedom in life.

He published numerous collections of poems, which included a collection named ‘Songs of Innocence’ which is based upon the ‘joy’ of his past experiences in life. His second collection was named ‘Songs of Experience.’ Both of these poem collections contributed to illustrate his paintings.The Songs of Innocence is an innocent poem based entirely upon a delightful life, protected from danger.

Whereas, the Songs of Experience is a completely different poem where fear has replaced security. Both collections, are a record of his thoughts and feelings on life, and are both statements of what life either should be like, and how it was in reality. Blake published these two collections in one volume and the title of this was “Showing the two contrary states of the human soul.”‘The Sick Rose’ is present in the ‘Songs of Experience” collection, in which he examines the bleaker aspects of life and reality, including fear, jealousy, hatred and greed.

‘The Sick Rose is not a poem of great joy and pleasure, but it is a poem which represents a symbol of a passion for something which has been destroyed. This indicates some sort of negativity, which is a product of evil and destruction, which is heavily loaded with a negative imagery. There are many possibilities for this passion, which include: a protective love relationship which has been destroyed with something such as lack of trust, an affair, a persons health which has been affected and destroyed by a disease, a disturbed parent-child relationship, or maybe how a beautiful flower is attacked by a parasite and left diseased.The Sick Rose is a poem, which uses a symbol, as a confession to represent his true feelings.

There is a possibility of it being entirely based upon syphilis, which was a sexually transmitted disease that won a major killer around the time that Blake wrote this poem. It consists of many negative aspects, which is far from presenting an image of beauty.It is clearly a description of sickness, death or decay. The symbolism of a “rose” for corporeal love of the worm or the flesh for the source of the sickness is plain.

It is a symbol of perfection and the flower of Venus (the Roman goddess of love). It also stands for joy and peace. The rose is always seen as feminine and sometimes represents the female genitals. A red rose can represent life, spring, passion and blood.

A white rose can represent purity and virginity.The “invisible worm” indicates some sort of envy and hatred towards the experiences in life, destroying hopes towards a better life.In the illustration of a “worm,” which is described as ‘banded like an earthworm’ in some copies of the poem, it is making an entrance to the heart of the rose, and simultaneously the spirit of this joy is extruded. It could also be a phrase used to possibly represent a serpent.

However it can also be used as a symbol of death. It is connected with lowness, vileness and contempt and it is a masculine force, sometimes being seen to represent the penis. In this poem, worm is also specifically the canker worm, which eats the roots of the rose.The rose from which the rose has bent down to the ground on the illustration of the poem presents several other details.

On the left is a caterpillar feeding on a leaf, the creature being for him, as for the Bible and Elizabethan poets, the symbol of the “pillager” or despoiler. Elsewhere, Blake denoted the caterpillar as the chief enemy of the rose, equating it with the priesthood, who lay their curses on the fairest joys. Further down the stems are two figures in attitudes of despair. The menacing thorns scattered along the whole length of the stems emphasise the pains of love on earth.

The worm flies in the “night” which may indicate some sort of ‘dark secret love’ that is linked to possessiveness and jealousy of love, which is eventually destroyed. It is a symbol of darkness, of things secret and hidden and also be used as a symbol of evil.The “howling storm in which the rose comes, suggests some sort of symbol of materialism. It is a symbol of chaos, confusion, fear, wildness, destruction and change.

The storm can also be seen as blowing away the old and frail and giving the new room to expand. If the storm is seen to have creative effects, there must first be great wildness and destruction.The term “bed” is a symbol of sleep and the vulnerability and innocence of sleep. It can also represent the sexual in bed.

In this poem it is also, of course, a garden bed.The “dark secret love” indicates something that is a secret and is hard to detect with great difficulty. The poem ends with the line “Does thy life destroy” which represents some sort of peace of mind of this specific scenario.In conclusion, it is obvious that William Blake is always a sharp contrast between the imagery of mutual love and the imagery of violence.

Arthur Miller Biography: Crucible, Plays & Marilyn Monroe

The legendary Arthur Miller b.1915 has inspired and touched many with his famous writing pieces such as The Crucible (1953). Before venturing into the playwright profession, Miller majored in journalism in the University of Michigan in 1938, showing skills as a reporter and night editor for his school newspaper. Although Miller is mostly associated with the writing of plays, he has also written novels such as Focus (1945) and Misfits (1961). As he became a rising playwright, he decided to write an autobiography titled Timebends: A Life in 1987. Miller’s first taste of success came from All My Sons in 1947, winning him the New York Drama Critics Circle award.

However, another brilliant piece of his, Death of a Salesman, raised controversial issues1 as to why the main character was merely just an ordinary man. Miller strongly stood firm to his view of tragedy, stating that emotion can be drawn from the audience through any character regardless of status if they are willing to die for a just cause. Death of a Salesman earned him the Pulitzer Prize in 1949, proving him to be once again, one of the greatest writers in America. Miller continuously emphasized themes dealing with morality, teaching his readers life lessons.

Many of his plays also had to deal with family values and issues which many could relate to. Miller himself had been engaged in three different marriages and has four children. Arthur Miller believed that “by whatever means it is accomplished, the prime business of a play is to arouse the passions of its audience,” which is precisely what he has done throughout his life.

Interesting Facts

  • Miller’s second marriage was to Marilyn Monroe from 29 June 1956 – 20 January 1961
  • Miller was exempted from military service during World War II because of a football injury
  • Miller’s second wife, Inge Morath gave birth to a son, Daniel, with Down Syndrome.
  • Miller sent Daniel into an institution and refused to pay any visits.
  • Is of Polish-Jewish ancestry
  • Miller was invited into China after the revolution to direct a play. He chose to bring in Death of a Salesman.Awards
  • New York Drama Critics Circle award – All My Sons (1947)
  • New York City’s Theatre Guild prize The Man Who Had All the Luck (1944)
  • New York Drama Critics Circle Award, the Tony Award and the Pulitzer Prize – Death of a Salesman (1949)
  • Tony Award – The Crucible (1953)
  • Principe de Asturias prize – awarded for his writing career (May 8 2002)1 “Arthur Miller”.


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