Autonomous Vehicles Overview Sample College Essay


The autonomous automobile concept is a novel technology that is being utilized in the production of automobiles. The technology will be installed in cars and light trucks to decrease traffic incidents, energy consumption, and environmental and noise contamination. The approach technology is performed and handled will also alter as a result of technological progress. For instance, the car will be able to operate without the assistance of a human driver. With the advancement of technology, a car will produce its own rational choices and choose the most efficient route to take. Thus, autonomous vehicles will alter the transportation system by navigating without human supervision. Because of a mix of hardware and software that executes the program over the device, the system works well. When the two components are combined, the whole machine will have a collaborative automated functioning.

Research Questions

The study seeks to evaluate the issues surrounding autonomous vehicles guided by the research questions below:

  1. What are the constraints experienced within the use of the technology?

    1. Under this aspect, technological use and application are explored, including the availability and compatibility of the technology within the target markets.

  2. What are the security concerns surrounding the usage of autonomous vehicles?

    1. Security concerns include the increased cyber fraud activities, which pose a considerable threat to the autonomous given the ill motives of particular individuals. Under this case, the aspect will evaluate the regulatory measures and the risks the security concern poses to users.

  3. What are the mitigation factors which should be undertaken to reduce the inefficiencies experienced?

    1. The question seeks to reduce the risks and hazards of the sector majorly caused by the technological aspect. In many cases, safety concerns are the primary barrier to development, and hence actions should be taken in order to address the issue.


As the autonomous vehicle industry emerged only recently and developed for several years, there may be no sufficient data to evaluate the technology comprehensively. It may be necessary to assess each case individually as the database provides a relatively small sample. Therefore, case study may be one of the most efficient evaluation methods in terms of autonomous vehicle technology. It may also be vital to monitor as much data as possible and introduce specific frameworks in order to analyze it. As the industry is new, significant unpredictability rates and risks may occur. Consequently, it may not be possible to predict technological problems, yet it is critical to collect such data and utilize it in order to evaluate and improve the technology.

Several procedures are performed to validate autonomous vehicle technology. The most straightforward technique is to enable the vehicle to complete the given job at various levels of complexity, increasing its capacity to prevent system mistakes, decision failures, correct routing, and collision prevention. It may be accomplished via a thorough analysis of algorithms. Lists of primary functionality test cases are chosen and organized into various testing procedures, which are subsequently generalized as driving task groupings based on the analysis of autonomous driving capabilities (Fagnant & Kockelman, 2015). Autonomous driving capabilities may be assessed by evaluating particular driving task sets. Independent driving activities are tested in a variety of simulation and real-world settings. All driving tasks are ultimately assessed with various task difficulty properties and diverse environment difficulties using a formal evaluation procedure that includes the testing approach, recordings, assessment, and completion validation. The system conducts multiple activities according to the developers’ and producers’ instructions. That is, the system will run and make choices following the installed software. For example, automated cars can identify and remove traffic jams utilizing GPS and radar data thanks to advanced technology. As a result, the vehicle will seek pathways with the fewest traffic congestion and reach its destination through other fast-moving highways.

Technological Issues in the Autonomous vehicles

Overcoming technical obstacles isn’t enough for self-driving cars to become widespread. Obtaining popular backing is also critical. In order to utilize and purchase autonomous vehicles, individuals must feel secure driving in such vehicles. Even though more than 40% of consumers across the globe would be prepared to either utilize completely autonomous vehicles or semi-autonomous ones, they still have certain crucial reservations (Statista, 2021). Approximately more than half of consumers are concerned regarding autonomous vehicle security. Thus, more than a third are unsure if the technology required to run driverless vehicles is sophisticated enough. Moreover, the technology behind fully autonomous vehicles is very complicated.

The operators of the ad-hoc vehicle network maintain consistency, guaranteeing that the data gathering is safe. They also ensure that wireless connectivity networks are established and stay dependable for the duration of the vehicle’s functioning (Bonnefon, Shariff & Rahwan, 2016). In addition, the technique guarantees that the cars that use the system are examined for speed, giving real-time information to the computing device that is linked. Finally, vehicle ad-hoc connections may serve as a backup in a technical problem or an unforeseen situation.

Cybersecurity and other Security Concerns

All cars that function on public highways are susceptible to a set of restrictions imposed by both the federal and municipal administrations. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the Department of Transportation (DOT) has issued car safety rules previously, and the government has issued driver’s licenses. The department also has set traffic rules and car insurance requirements for all automobiles (Canis, 2019). Nevertheless, developing appropriate software and algorithms that comply with state laws becomes increasingly challenging for all autonomous car creators. Because the automobile is self-driving, no personal monitoring or management is required throughout its operation. As a result, the system uses collision avoidance features to assist in preventing inevitable foreseeable consequences. Several car crashes, for example, may be prevented since reckless driving errors cause them.

Automated cars are capable of operating in a variety of settings. They might, for instance, adapt military applications as a novel mode of transportation. Some vehicles include a vehicle occupant detection technique and a viper technology that detects individual bodily temperature, allowing various decision-making methods. This factor alone may involve changes in speed depending on the environment and accessibility. Vehicle architects are familiar with the surroundings of autonomous artificial intelligence. As a result, depending on the methods, they will work with structuralized aprioristic understanding.

Cybersecurity Threats

Autonomous vehicles, on the other hand, necessitate more robust protection to protect the mechanism. There should also be secure methods and the ability to choose how to execute them efficiently. As technologies develop, so do cyber-attacks, which grow more complex with time. As a result, it’s critical to minimize all of the dangers and flaws that may jeopardize the technology’s effectiveness throughout discovery. In addition, the procedure will improve the technology’s authenticity when it comes to autonomous car computer networks (Canis, 2019). Finally, autonomous cars may be utilized for malicious purposes such as bodily harm, intimidation, and surveillance because of their capacity to operate in various settings. As a result, it’s critical to make sure the vehicle’s structural framework and layout are built to withstand assaults.

Furthermore, the autonomous automobile software system developer ought to be aware of the recommended techniques for defending against all types of cyber threats. He has to concentrate on making sure that the best activities are implemented and implemented on the automobile. Without appropriate vulnerability analysis techniques, risk analyses, and well-known security measures, disasters may occur. Cyber-attacks on autonomous systems may result in the deletion or compromise of original programming (Canis, 2019). Manipulating the system’s necessary directives may make it harder to feed the program.


In any business, there aren’t enough standards and rules to cover up an entire autonomous technology. Current car safety regulations presume the presence of a human driver who can take control in a crisis. Contamination crashes and human fatalities are just a few of the significant transportation drawbacks. In principle, autonomous automobile technology will continue to be seen as containing unique answers to issues. Technological innovation alleviates congestion problems, which wastes time and consumes a lot of gasoline. As a result, one should think about the efficiency of the methods of travel as well as their growing accessibility. As a result, it should be evaluated and compared to its mobility in various settings.

Risks and Vulnerabilities

Since the system is human-made, certain risk assaults develop substantially on autonomous car-linked network systems. Nevertheless, one of the most critical activities and structures for any linked independent vehicle program is to improve security measures. For example, since most machine learning techniques include faulty human efforts, the power to defend the infrastructure becomes critical. The integrating state structure will assist in the mitigation of security risks (Canis, 2019). Then it will provide advice and instructions for accessing the government directives requirements, regulations, and guidelines’ possible consequences. Before driverless cars (AVs) can be extensively used, they must undergo rigorous testing. Aside from routine testing, external and internal security problems such as hijacking, malfunction, and so on may happen at any moment. Furthermore, cybercriminals may attack self-driving cars after they are entirely implemented to gain access to the motorist’s intimate details or, worse, take charge of the vessel’s direction or propulsion.

Mitigation of the Concerns

Cybercriminals become more advanced and complex nearly every day, necessitating safe protocols and procedures in linked networks. The cyber-physical framework may be utilized to make important choices that aid in identifying flaws in the crucial autonomous vehicle (Haboucha, Ishaq & Shiftan, 2017). The cyber-physical infrastructure has the potential to upgrade the effectiveness of integrated system software that detects issues. It also locates the root of the problem in the platform and discloses the flaw, thus reducing the risks. However, changes to the program may harm the structure or disable the secure coding mechanism, causing the whole system to fail. Consequently, establishing necessary and safe frameworks with the capacity to detect vulnerabilities leads to significant infrastructure remedies.

Furthermore, there is a significant danger connected with self-driving cars. That is issues in computation or decision-making that may lead to an accident, damage to property, or redirection. A well-designed and simulated application should be executed in the systems (Kongnso, 2015). The issue may be caused by the system’s use of incompatible operating systems. To solve the problem, autonomous car developers should guarantee that all algorithms are thoroughly tested before being put into service to ensure they are compatible with various vehicle models within the industry. Furthermore, without appropriate monitoring devices, autonomous automobile technologies may culminate in unfortunate occurrences and severe risks.

Limitations or Special Considerations

Enabling the plan to achieve the desired objectives within the autonomous vehicle sector will include setting limitations to the evaluation models implicated. For example, sections such as open roads should not be applicable if other users are present in the area, given the prevalence of the vulnerabilities highlighted within the technology usage, hence the need to use a concealed site where damage may be contained. It may be highly beneficial to introduce testing environments, which simulate realistic conditions to conduct comprehensive testing with minimum risks. In addition, the test should include safety elements such as fire extinguishers and ambulances in case any incident arises. It may be essential to minimize human involvement and utilize existing evaluation methods to meet safety requirements. Finally, real data monitoring through various sensors and video recorders may significantly contribute to the evaluation process. Such methods may provide sufficient data regarding occurring accidents. However, gaining access to such data may considerably interfere with privacy rights. Therefore, legal frameworks and user agreements should be adjusted to address the above-mentioned privacy issues.

Time Frames

The suggested timeline for the test is approximately three months, allowing full navigation of the automobiles through an open environment and traffic area to monitor the pattern and approaches it adopts in the two different settings. Further to this, the test regarding cyberattacks may take longer to effectively adopt apparent effects and recommendations, according to the observation shown below.

Time Frames


Before using any new technology, it is crucial to examine the dangers and other security considerations involved. As a result, it is critical to guarantee that architectural design is protected against exploitation. Since exploitation impacts a company’s purpose and data security, autonomous cars will evolve as the next generation of high-tech transportation in this scenario. As a result, understanding the risks connected with technology is critical to avoiding major technological problems arising from cyberattacks.


Bonnefon, J., Shariff, A., & Rahwan, I. (2016). The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles. Science, 352(6293), 1573-1576.

Canis, B. (2019). Issues in autonomous vehicle testing and deployment (No. R45985). Congressional Research Service.

Fagnant, D., & Kockelman, K. (2015). Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 77, 167-181.

Haboucha, C., Ishaq, R., & Shiftan, Y. (2017). User preferences regarding autonomous vehicles. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 78, 37-49.

Kongnso, F. J. (2015). Best practices to minimize data security breaches for increased business performance. 

Statista. (2021). Global autonomous car market. Statista. 

“War Dances” And “What You Pawn I Will Redeem” By Sherman Alexie

Sherman Alexie’s short stories “War Dances” and “What You Pawn I Will Redeem” describe the life of Native Americans who have to deal with vices and vulnerabilities in everyday life. Their values ​​and suffering have different causes, but they are similar due to the degree of pain projected onto daily actions. The first story’s character is concerned about memories and references to the days when his father was alive, rather than his fatal personal diagnosis. On the other hand, the second novel’s hero struggles with individual addictions and social inequality, which do not allow for success. The author of both works provided emotional imagery that symbolizes the vulnerability of minorities to stereotypes, discriminatory behavior, and common human weaknesses that generate everyday experiences. The characters are similar in how family problems and death have permeated their daily lives, but differ in how alcohol played a role in the loss of loved ones or themselves.

The family is an integral part of any individual’s life, expressed in mutual support and love. These concepts link both characters but in different ways. The protagonist of “What You Pawn I Will Redeem” has an emotional connection with his deceased grandmother, Agnes, who accompanies the person every day. The man makes decisions and mentally consults with the relative, although it is a psychological desire to return to the past. On the other hand, the character from the second story struggles with personal health problems, but their impact pales when compared to the deceased father. In other words, even a severe diagnosis does not distract him from the connection with his parent, with whom he sometimes wants to share everyday facts and jokes (Alexie, “War Dances”). Thus, family relationships are those anchors that prevent both characters from starting a new round of life.

A derivative of the similarity from family difficulties is the theme of death and illness. The character of “War Dances” suffers from a painful diagnosis and loses his hearing, which causes fear of death. It happens in parallel with persistent memories of the father, which further exacerbates the psychological imbalance (Alexie, “War Dances”). On the other hand, the homeless man from the second story purchases family regalia in a pawnshop, although the financial situation does not allow this. At the same time, the death of the grandmother starts a chain of irreversible processes that make the character declare that “I’ve been killing myself ever since she died” (Alexie, “What You Pawn I Will Redeem”). Thus, both characters are afraid of death, which once took their relatives. However, the irony is that the characters unknowingly moved towards that end.

Alcoholism prevents people from self-development and escaping from the past, which is noticeable when analyzing both characters. The homeless man from “What You Pawn I Will Redeem” suffers from addiction, which further exacerbates the longing for the deceased grandmother and the situation of a stray. The man asks spirits for survival advice, namely associates bottles with imagination (Alexie, “What You Pawn I Will Redeem”). A similar scenario is seen in the second novel’s character, whose father died of alcohol abuse. The idea behind this theme in both books is that addiction keeps people in one place or pulls them into a psychological abyss, preventing healthy development and promotion of individual values.

Both heroes are fettered by past chains, which do not allow living in the present. The character from “War Dances” suffers from a severe illness, but even this news does not let him distract from the father’s memories. On the other hand, the homeless person from the second story experiences alcoholism and a destructive emotional bond with the deceased grandmother, keeping the man in psychological disharmony. The themes of death, family relationships, and addiction to psychoactive substances haunt the heroes and impose the knowledge that this will kill them one day. However, Alexie’s portrayal also reveals itself as a sympathetic and sincere people mired in personal problems.

Works Cited

Alexie, Sherman. “What You Pawn I Will Redeem.” The New Yorker, 2003, Web.

“War Dances.” The New Yorker, 2009, Web.

Event Standardization Of Sit-To-Stand Movements

This article critique will focus on the article titled “Event Standardization of Sit-to-Stand Movements”. The article is authored by Bruce Etnyre and David Q Thomas, and they wrote so much on body movements concerning when one is moving from various sitting positions to upright positions. Their study was concerned with natural standing where people were expected to stand up without supporting themselves. They used 50 male and 50 female adults in their study. This was hugely beneficial because their report represents movements in both males and females. It is known that both genders develop differently hence calling for proper research to compare their movements. All participants were expected to perform four different methods of rising from a sitting position. Observations were recorded for further use in analysis and report writing.

These two authors did a tremendously valuable analysis since sit-to-stand movements had been ignored for long (Muscolino, 2011). Their research is useful in the field of medicine as it can be used to compare patients’ functionalities in hospitals. Natural rising up is extremely crucial in human life and patients should be required to perform it whenever they have problems in walking. In addition, they helped in identifying individuals’ movements since they differ from one person to another depending on their body size and structures.

Bruce Etnyre and David Q Thomas went ahead to explain how body movements involve movements of joints. For instance, their body joints form various angles in response to movements made by people when rising naturally. In addition, they argued that these angles differ with the age of individuals. Their study is of immense help to the elderly and people with disabilities. The study favors these groups of people because they are victims of walking problems. Assessments in this report can be darned capable of use to clinical officers attending to the needs of patients who have walking problems.

This article is rich in information because it provides details on the procedure of conducting the assessment. This is extremely powerful because anybody can make use of the report to carry out various movement assessments. In addition, they chose to use mature adults of both genders and different ages in order to get inclusive data. The article is outlining all their results hence being exceptionally agreeable for future scholars. People can use the data provided by the authors of this article to compare with other information within their reach.

After comparing their results with other standardized reports, it was found that their findings supported those of other researchers. This means that their findings were valid as they matched with what others had put in place. They concluded that individual strategies affected movements during rising. This means that the movements of different people differed due to different strategies applied by those people when trying to stand up. STS movements may be used to provide a common communication between researchers and medical practitioners (Burstein, 2009). This means that the report in this article is tremendously crucial for adoption by health workers. In fact, it has proved to concur with most studies conducted by various researchers. In addition, the article highlights issues that affect people every day. Rising from a sitting position is every day’s activity; therefore, clinicians should consider using STS assessments. The article has provided broad information regarding STS assessment hence meeting its said goals. In fact, it has clearly detailed all elements of the STS and should be recommended to medical practitioners. The authors were thorough in putting down their argument hence achieving their goals in writing the article.


Muscolino, J. E. (2011). Kinesiology: The Skeletal System and Muscle Function (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Burstein, J. (2009). The Mighty Muscular and Skeletal Systems: How Do My Bones and Muscles Work? London: Crabtree Publishing Company.