Bacterial Cells And Chemotherapeutic Drugs Homework Essay Sample

The present-day world faces many problems connected to various bacteria causing human diseases. At the time of pandemics such as COVID-19, these issues are clearly seen both by specialists and citizens. Since the major difficulty is related to the development of new properties by bacteria or, most importantly, their resistance to drugs over time, this field draws researchers’ special attention (Kapoor et al., 2017). In order to overcome it, they use various methods allowing them to deal with biochemical types of mechanisms that bacteria use when introducing new drugs (Kapoor et al., 2017). These mechanisms can explain the nature of the processes contributing to their increased resistance.

There are numerous reasons why drugs may selectively act on bacterial cells, and they can be considered from the aforementioned perspective. The most common way for bacteria to influence their operation is the so-called antibiotic inactivation when they change cells so that the drug no longer works (Kapoor et al., 2017). It is complemented by target modification and altered permeability, also resulting in drug inactivity (Kapoor et al., 2017). From this point of view, the selectiveness in the effects of antibiotics on bacterial cells is explained by the latter’s attempts to decrease their influence.

The current situation poses a threat to the world population since no effective methods allowing to resolve this issue exist. The defensiveness of bacteria not only leads to the selectiveness of drug effects but also contributes to the complications in the case of pandemics. Therefore, in order to fight microbes that are not yet known, the researchers need to find a mechanism that would make bacteria’s efforts to resist antibiotics inefficient. In this way, drugs will affect all of them and thereby help to avoid pandemics in the future.


Kapoor, G., Saigal, S., & Elongavan, A. (2017). Action and resistance mechanisms of antibiotics: A guide for clinicians. Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology, 33(3), 300-305. Web.

Dzubay’s “An Outbreak Of The Irrational” And “Alternative Math” By Ideaman

“An Outbreak of the Irrational”

The piece under analysis entitled “An Outbreak of the Irrational” is written by Sarah Dzubay. The article deals with the attitudes to vaccination that became a debatable issue several years ago. The primary point the author makes is the effectiveness of vaccination in establishing safe communities with no serious illnesses of the past. Dzubay (2019) states that after the production of the vaccine and inoculation of the population in developed countries, measles infection rates “were reduced to almost nothing” (p. 808). The author adds that modern people do not understand the devastating effects of epidemics of such diseases and tend to avoid their children’s vaccination, which is the reason for new outbreaks of measles.

To support her point, the author dwells upon such concepts as herd immunity, immunity threshold, and basic reproduction number. The author refers to scientific evidence regarding the spread of infections that may affect large populations if a considerable number of people have low immunity to it. Dzubay (2019) pays specific attention to the counterarguments to her point or the arguments anti-vaccine advocates give. She notes that the primary advocates against vaccination are middle- and upper-class individuals. They tend to refer to the research related to the link between vaccination and autism development, which is still rather debatable. This view is gaining popularity in the masses as many celebrities speak against vaccination. Another argument is concerned with seizures vaccines may cause in children. At that, the author also mentions the case when parents found out that vaccination was not the cause of epilepsy as they previously had thought, but it could trigger the disorder. Basically, the child would still have seizures with or without vaccination. The author concludes that more research and debate are needed, but the years without epidemics of measles show that vaccination works and helps people prosper.

“Alternative Math”

The short film under analysis is entitled “Alternative Math,” and it is concerned with some trends in the American educational sphere. The director’s goal for making this film was, apparently, to show that the modern educational system lacks academic integrity due to some people’s willingness to ‘liberalize’ it. Certain groups and individuals concentrate on bringing more flexibility and support to children, but these efforts often take strange forms. The director uses a humorous tone to draw people’s attention to this trend and its potential outcomes (Ideaman, 2017). The target audience is wide and includes parents, administrators, teachers, the media, policymakers, as well as the rest of society.

This video made me think about all those occasions I have witnessed in my life that are similar in some way to the described situation. I completely agree with the director of the film and believe such media products are necessary. This work shows that sometimes people forget about the essence of education or science try to find new ways. Hopefully, people will not actually question the correctness of the answer on a primary-school test in the future. However, now there are voices asking for more flexibility and less pressure on students. At that, there are many cases when there is only one correct answer that can exist even if it may hurt someone’s feelings. New generations should know all those answers to evolve and address the challenges humanity may encounter. The source is reliable as the video has all the necessary information about its creators. The video also includes the data regarding all the people involved in making it, which makes it a reliable source.


Dzubay, S. (2019). An Outbreak of the irrational. In R. Bullock, M. D. Goggin, & F. Weinberg (Eds.), The Norton field guide to writing with readings (5th ed.) (pp. 808-814). New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

Ideaman. (2017). Alternative math. Web.

Man Vs. Society Conflict In ”The Lottery” By S. Jackson

Arguably, the main drive of “The Lottery” involves man vs. society conflict. It occurs when the protagonist has a distinct belief against many community members. The majority of them see the individual as the antagonist, whose aim is to violate the stipulated norms and ways of life. In the short story “The Lottery,” Tessie is against the lottery culture’s unfairness (Jackson, 2017). When her husband, Bill Hutchinson, picks the spotted slip, Tessie protests, depicting that he was harassed by Mr. Summers, but the townspeople refute her claims. Since the Hutchinson family has only one household, a second drawing is put according to the lottery culture dictations, whereby Bill, his wife Tessie, and their three children chose from the box (Jackson, 2017). Tessie unluckily picks the slip with the spot, and the crowd stones her to death while she screams, lamenting about the lottery exercise’s unfairness. In a man vs. society conflict, the latter win since they are the majority despite being wrong. Therefore, the conflict in “The Lottery” is that of man. vs. society.

In the workplace, I have experienced a conflict with my workmate. I always come to work early in the morning, mostly thirty minutes before the arrival of other employees. My colleague and I were supposed to enter the suppliers’ data and make invoices that would facilitate their payment disbursement. I unknowingly started by working on the data which my colleague had already worked on, making him devastated to the extent of quarreling. However, we solved our disagreement amicably, whereby I left the specific provider analysis and shifted to another supplier he had not worked on yet. Understandably, I learned that in conflict resolution, effective communication is vital. Moreover, I realized that resolving a conflict requires one person to control their temper when the other is high to calm the situation.


Jackson, S. (2017). The Lottery. In L. Kirszner & S. Mandel (Eds), Portable literature: Reading, reacting, and writing (9th ed, pp. 334–343). Cengage Learning.

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