This volume is the culmination of nearly twenty-five years of collaboration with friends and colleagues who have been more than generous with their time, expertise, encouragement, and at times, sympathy.
It has become a Mathew clickd and expected thing to claim that a work would not be possible without such support. It is nonetheless true, at least from my experience, and am indebted to all those who helped move the process along. First and foremost, I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to my Maya teachers, colleagues, and friends who have selflessly devoted their time and knowledge to help carry out this project. Without their efforts, none of it would have ever gotten off the ground. Loud like to particularly recognize in this regard don Vaccine De Leon Abaca, who, with patience and kindness, aided me through the complexity and poetry of Check’ theology and ceremonials. Without his wisdom, would have missed much of the beauty of ancestral vision that is woven into the very fabric of the Pool Vhf. I dearly miss him. I would also like to acknowledge the profound influence that Antonio Actual V;squeeze had on this work. It was his kind and gentle voice that often heard when I struggled at times to understand the ancient words of this text.
Others who have aided this work include Diego Chi;fez Petty, Nicola;s Chi;fez Joule, Felix Choc, Gregory Couch, Juan Mendoza, Francisco Mendoza, and Juan Z;rate. M deeply indebted to Jim Monthly for his extraordinary generosity in offering to read through the translation. His depth Of knowledge with regard to Check’ grammar, syntax, and 2 modern usage were invaluable. I purchased a copy of his “Basic Quick Grammar” in 1 976 to help in my quest to learn the language at a time when such aids were very rare. The book was a steadfast friend and companion during the next few years.
Not only was it a brilliant work but it proved to be just the size and weight to dispatch mosquito on the wall of my adobe shack. Thus owe to him, not only much of my initial knowledge of the Check’ engage, but my red blood cell count in those days as well. Am also grateful to John Robertson for his guidance, particularly with regard to the orthography of the text. He was a patient educator to me when I began work with the Check’ language nearly twenty-five years ago, helping to prepare a dictionary and grammar. He was an ideal boss and a wise teacher. It is a great honor for me to occupy the office next door to his at the university. M sincerely indebted to my friend and colleague Urdu van Karen who went to extraordinary lengths to share with me his profound understanding of highland Maya ethnologists. Alee his knowledge, experience, and generosity in reading through various versions of this volume and offering his insights. As in much of what I do that is of worth in the academic world, I acknowledge the influence of my mentor, Linda Shell. As a graduate student, Linda encouraged me to complete the translation of the Pool Vhf at a time when I was content to throw up my hands after I had worked through the rhinitis sections.
It was her love for the Maya people and passion for their language that reminded me why we take on overwhelming tasks such as this, and why it’s worth the price in life and heart that we put into them. Among the many who have contributed in invaluable ways to this project, I would like to recognize with my sincerest thanks the following individuals: Claude Beaded, Karen Bessie, James Brady, Linda Brown, Margaret Brusher, Michael Cascaras, Garrett Cook, Doris Dana John Early, Sam Edgerton, Unripe Florescent, John Fox, David Freddie, Stephen Houston, Kerry Hull, Julia G.
Kaplan, Peter Keller, Justine Kerr, Bob Laughlin, Bruce Love, John 3 Monogram, Dories Rents-Budded, Julia Sanchez, Joel Kidders, Carolyn Tate, Mark Van Stone, Bob Wallach, Andrew Weeks, Jack Welch, and Diane Worth. I Loud also like to thank my graduate students who keep me constantly on my toes and challenged with their curiosity and energy. Among these students, Spencer Sardine helped with the initial transcription of the text used in this volume, and Scott Brian created the beautiful maps. I am indebted to them for their efforts.
TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE A little over twenty years ago I helped to compile a dictionary in the Quick- Maya language in the mountains of northwestern Guatemala near a small village called Chill. At the time, Quick was almost completely an orally, communicated language, with very few native speakers who could read or rite it. One summer evening after a long day of work with one of my best sources, I realized that had lost track of time and needed to hurry down to the valley where I had a small home before it got dark.
The region had no electricity and hiking steep mountain trails at night was dangerous, particularly because of the numerous packs of wild (and often rabid) dogs that roamed freely about. I therefore started down a small footpath that appeared to be a more direct route than the usual winding road taken by buses. About a third the way down the mountainside, I passed an isolated adobe and thatch house built in a clearing surrounded by pine forest. A small group of men were seated on a low wooden bench in front of the house conversing. When they saw me, they called out a greeting and beckoned me to join them.
After introductions were properly exchanged, a requirement in formal Quick conversation, I was offered a warm cup of toasted corn coffee and a space on the bench was opened up for me to sit down. One of the men had heard that there was a fair-skinned young man that people called 4 ARQn us (mosquito legs) who was visiting in Chill, and he asked if that would be me. My name is difficult to pronounce in Quick, so had been given that rather unfortunate nickname, derived no doubt from my lanky physique in those days. I told him that I was the one they had heard about.
They asked what I was doing and explained that I was interested in collecting the words of his people so that I could carry them with me back to my own town beyond the mountains to the north. Another of the men was curious as to how I could “collect” words and carry them away, since he assumed that his language could only be spoken, not written. Quicks in that area had, of course, seen documents and books like the Bible Ritter in Spanish but had little conception at that time that it was possible to use phonetic letters to record their own language.
This is a great tragedy, because until about five hundred years ago the Maya were the most literate people in the Americas, preserving their history and culture with a sophisticated hieroglyphic script in hundreds of folded screen books. The Spanish conquest in the early sixteenth century was a devastating blow to Maya literacy in Mexico and Guatemala. Christian missionaries burned great numbers of hieroglyphic texts in an attempt to eradicate indigenous religious practices.
Native scribes were singled out for persecution to such an extent that within one hundred years, the art of hieroglyphic writing had virtually disappeared from among the Maya people. My new friends were therefore very interested in the notes I had written that day in their language. Excited by the possibility of press;Eng their own thoughts in written form, they asked me to demonstrate how to write a number of words and phrases. After writing a few phrases for them in Quick, I asked the oldest of them if he would like me to write something for him. He said that he did and I waited a long time for the words he wished me o write.
Finally he asked me to record a few brief words of counsel for his son. Didn’t know it at the time but his five year old boy was the last of twelve children, all of whom had died in childhood, mostly to tuberculosis. That week his last surviving child had begun to cough up 5 blood and he knew that his hope for posterity would inevitably die with him. By this time I knew I would never make it down to the valley before dark so my elderly friend invited me to stay in his corn loft. Before the others left for the night, I asked if they would like to hear the words of their fathers.
This as greeted with indulgent smiles of disbelief, since few of their parents were alive and they were sure that couldn’t have known them. But told them that it wasn’t their fathers’ words that I carried with me, but rather those of their fathers’ fathers’ (repeated many times) fathers, dating back nearly five hundred years. Happened to have with me a Copy of the pool Vhf manuscript, a book that was compiled in the mid-sixteenth century at a town that still exists less than thirty miles from where we sat. I began to read from the first page of the book: THIS IS THE ACCOUNT of when all is still silent and laced.
All is silent and calm. Hushed and empty is the womb of the sky. THESE, then, are the first words, the first speech. There is not yet one person, one animal, bird, fish, crab, tree, rock, hollow, canyon, meadow, or forest. All alone the sky exists. The face of the earth has note appeared. Alone lies the expanse of the sea, along with the womb of all the sky. There is not yet anything gathered together. All is at rest. Nothing stirs. All is languid, at rest in the sky. There is not yet anything standing erect. Only the expanse of the water, only the tranquil sea lies alone. There is not yet anything that might exist.
All lies placid and silent in the darkness, in the night. All alone are the Framer and the Shaper, Sovereign and Quetzal Serpent, They Who Have Borne Children and They Who Have Begotten Sons. Luminous they are in the water, wrapped in quetzal feathers and coating feathers. (Pool Vhf, up. 67-69) After I had read a page or two from the account of the creation of the earth, I stopped and waited for their reaction. No one spoke for some time. Finally, the elderly man with the sick boy asked if he might hold the unbound pages of the manuscript copy for a moment. He gently took it from my hands and with great care turned its pages. These are the words of my ancient fathers? ” he asked. “Do you know what you have done for them? ” wasn’t quite sure what he meant, so I didn’t answer at first. ‘You make them live again by speaking their words. ” 6 The word he used was k’ Satanists, meaning “to cause to have life,” or “to resurrect. ” The written word has the power to survive the death of its author, to preserve the most precious souvenirs of human existence-?thoughts, hopes, ideals, and acquaintance with the sacred. We tend to take writing for granted. The Maya do not. The ability to write words and have them preserved long after the death of the author is a miracle.
Many of the larger highland Maya communities possess wooden chests containing books and clothing owned by their ancestors which they revere as precious relics. These objects are said to bear the auk’s, or “heart” of the ancestors. On special occasions, the contents are removed ceremonially to “feed” them with offerings of incense and prayers. Many of these books are of great antiquity. Attended the opening of one of these old chests in the town of Santiago Atilt;n which contained a number of loose manuscript pages, rite and death registries, and several bound leather books, one of which could see was a seventeenth century missal.
When brought out into the open, such books are reverently offered incense and prayers, but no attempt is made to open them or read them. Partly this is because few contemporary Maya know how to read the early script of the colonial period, and partly out of respect for the words themselves. When the words of the ancestors are read, or spoken aloud, it is as if that person had returned from death to speak again. Reading ancient texts is therefore a very locate matter, filled with peril if the words are not treated with sufficient respect.
While working as an ethnographer and translator in the Guatemalan highlands, I collaborated with a number of Maya shaman-priests called as jab’s’ (they of days, or disperser). Prior to reading the words of ancient Maya manuscripts like the Pool Vhf, it was customary for one of them, don Vaccine De Leon Abaca of Moistening, to first purify my Xeroxed copy of the text by waving copal incense smoke over it and asking forgiveness of the ancestors who had written the original for disturbing them.
When I asked why e did this, he replied that to read the thoughts of ancient ancestors is to make their spirits present in the 7 room and give them a living voice. Such power must be approached with great seriousness, and all care taken to be faithful to their original ideas in any transcription or translation. At the end of our work sessions, he politely dismissed the gods and ancestors involved in that days reading with his thanks and asked pardon for any offense we might have given. Most of the people who lived on the American continents prior to the arrival of Europeans lacked a written script.
Even in Mesospheric, where there was a long tradition of hieroglyphic writing among some of the ancient cue Tortures of the region, such as the Maya and Capote’s, other neighboring cultures preserved their history and theology principally through the spoken word, passed from generation to generation. This was true even of highly sophisticated cultures such as the Aztec, whose painted texts relied primarily on a rebus or picture form of writing incapable of recording abstract ideas phonetically. Yet the concept of oral poetry held by the Aztec is exemplary of the view of such discourse throughout Mesospheric, including the Maya.
For the ancient Aztec the highest form of sacred communication was poetry, what they called chaotically (“flower-song”). These were delicately beautiful hymns meant to be recited orally, often to musical accompaniment. In paintings, Aztec poets are depicted with speech scrolls issuing from their mouths. These scrolls are often colored a rich blue or green, symbolic of the precious nature of the poets’ words as if they were composed of jade or sacred quetzal feathers. Aztec looked upon poetry as the actualization of a creative act inspired by divinities who were called upon to be present at the performance.
Thus the poet Canyon Actualization of Technically believed that his songs came from heaven, but lamented that his own words could not express them as they came undefiled from the gods: From within the heavens they come, The beautiful flowers, the beautiful songs. Our longing spoils them, Our inventiveness makes them lose their fragrance. (Lean-Partial 1980, 257) Such songs exist only at the moment of their performance, their sound hanging briefly in the air, then fading to silence. It is only when they are spoken that they reveal their divine 8 origin, transforming the poet into a messenger of deity.
Outline Cyber Crime Research Paper
What are the most important approaches that organizations should embrace for dealing with cyber-crime? Thesis statement: The approaches for solving cyber-crime and helping the victims which should come from the government’s controlling , Communities’ and individuals’ regulation and the development of Internet industry. Body: 1 . Topic of paragraph: Government’s controlling Topic sentence: Government needs to coordinate between specific departments, internet industry and some social organizations for solving cyber-crime. Why this approach is important? 1 .
The government stands at the management level. . At is the most basic method. Evidences: 1>The central network security and information leading group of Chinese The group aims to: government. ;Reducing the risk to the safe and secure use of cyber space Exploit opportunities in cyber space ; Improving knowledge, capabilities and decision-making ;Coordinate the law enforcement response to cyber crime to ensure a safe 2. Topic of paragraph: Government’s controlling ;Lead work Topic sentence: Reporting crimes and using classification scheme are still significant for government to handling cyber-crime. Why this approach is important? . The government has the records of cyber-crime. 2. The government has the resources of medium, fund and human resource. 3. Individual always trust what government said to them. 1>ASK Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (Jones,2011 ) 2>1. J the Internet Watch 3. Topic of paragraph: Government’s controlling Topic sentence: The most effective way Of dealing with cyber crime is law enforcement. Why this approach is important? 1 . T seems that only government has the authority to prosecuting cyber crime at the law level. 2. The government has the resources of supplying some appropriate trainings for prosecutor to handling different cases of cyber crime. Evidences: 1>A new model of law enforcement investigation(Hunt,201 0) 4. Topic of paragraph: Government’s controlling Topic sentence: International cooperation is necessary for different legislative systems dealing with cyber crime effectively and easily. Why this approach is 1 .
Because Cyber crime is an international problem, national regulate within their own borders, they cannot governments can regulate externally Evidences: l>alienation cyber security through cooperation 2>Global prosecutors E-crime network 5. Topic of paragraph: Communities’ and individuals’ regulation Topic sentence: Developing an internet culture that stamps out unacceptable behavior like abuse, stalking and harassment. Why this approach is 1 . Because the communities and individuals give the direct feedback of the cyber crime. 2.
The unity of the social behaviors can influence the Internet because it is widely used in communities and individuals. Evidences: 1>interim Regulations on the Management of Internet Culture(Jazzing,2010) 2>an Changing the Culture Of Empirical Internet Assessment(Allan,2013) 6. Topic of paragraph: Communities’ and individuals’ regulation Topic entente: Creating a friendly environment and providing comprehensive education programmed in school to keep students be aware of the security on the internet. Why this approach is important? . The society can bring awareness and habit of using internet to education system while government supplying a constraint. Evidences: OUTTHINKING program to keep children safe online 7. Topic of paragraph: The development of internet industry Topic sentence: The missions of internet industry is developing tools, tactic and technology to ensure that law enforcement are able to detect and investigate. Why this approach is important? 1 . The internet industry can supply some latest technologies of dealing with cyber-crime. . Because the cyber crime comes from the internet industry so it can be solved from the initial state by the internet industry. Evidences: I>SCADA security in the light of Cyber-warfare (Dyer 2) 2>SOTS: Strategy of Triple-E on solving Trojan defense Cyber-crime cases (Dad- F-ranking 0) conclusion: In conclusion, it is significant for the government coordination, social regulation and the development of internet industry to play their role in order o eliminating the negative impact of cyber crime.
Because Cyber criminals can operate from anywhere in the world, targeting large numbers of people or businesses across international boundaries, and there are challenges posed by the scale and volume of the crimes. At the leading level, government need to coordinate each source and enhance law enforcement because the most effective way to punishment a crime is using legal tool and administrative measures. Social regulation is focusing on education and developing internet culture that is friendly across the world and it is another effective way to deal with cyber crime.
Because spreading and educating some correct behavior and methods of operating internet can touching individuals a lot. Furthermore, solving cyber crime cannot with the support of internet industry. Some latest finding of internet industry technologies can detecting and investigating the crime. With those communications conveyed in various applications such as e-mail or mallard. To investigate and gather evidence of cyber crimes can depend on the ability to recover and analyze network data and, once an offence has been detected and reported, the ability to research and analyze historic data.
How To Maintain A Lifelong Friendship
HOW TO MAINTAIN A LIFELONG FRIENDSHIP ? A better life ! Everybody demands a better life and each has his own perception or definition for it. Today, let us tell you about our definition on the phrase ‘ a better life ’ . To us, it means the improvement of something towards the perfection in every single aspect. Every single aspect includes our social life, health and the other ways of our life. The main point of our discussion today is about a better social relations with friends. When we talk about social activities, people will obviously says that social means entertainment.
How about we widen our thinking by exploring the true definition on the word ‘ social ’. Social does not only means entertainment but it also means the interaction among ourselves with our family, friends and surroundings – especially nature. In reality nowadays, some people have such a limited social life and some of them are very sociable so that they have a wide or ‘ wild ’ social relation. For those who owns a normal social relation – which is not excessively sociable or too geeky, friends are very important to them.
If these relationships are healthy, they are arguably of great benefit to us. However, if these relations are negative, they can give a profound effect on us. Nobody in this world can live without any single friend. Thomas Moore had once said, ‘ To the soul, there is hardly nothing more healing than friendship ’ . Maybe, its just Erik in the story ‘ Phantom of The Opera ’ who did not have any fellow friend. There is a person who said that ‘ the first people you make friends with, will not be the one that you remain friend with ’.
These words are really true. It is hard to believe that friendship could lasts forever, especially when it was based on “ To the soul, there is hardly anything more healing than a friendship ”- Thomas Moore superficial reasons. We must attempt to maintain lifelong friendship since friends are the ones who always cheers us up. In every relation, trusting each other is the most important thing you need to have in order to ensure the relationship lasts long. The same goes to friendships.
We need to trust our friends all the time and show it in any possible way sometimes. Next, we do need to be honest with our friends – which is the second most important thing after believing. Never cheat or lie on our friends will surely prevents unwanted distasteful outcomes that can ruin our friendship. Forgive and forget – that’s the third. Do not hold grudge for whatever your friends did to you that offended your heart because it will certainly kills off the cuteness of your friendship.
Besides that, we are also required to understands our friends, giving them right advices when needed, remembering their important days such as their birthday, listens to them whenever they have something to tell us and be there when they need us. Oh yeah, avoid judgmental behavior to them too. This can really makes them trust more in you. In our opinions, we should not impose our friends to accept our choices or thinking or opinions. Maybe a few of them can accept that behavior but most of them hates when you did that !
They thought that you are trying to control their life. They will also feels like being in a prison which inhibits their performances . Taking some efforts to keep in touch with an old friend or a distanced friend are also good to maintain a lifelong friendship as we shows them that we really care about themselves and wants to keep the friendship last forever. It once crossed our minds that continuously finding faults in our friends also affects the beauty of our friendship. Do you like it when people keeps pointing out your faults in front of the crowd ?
We’re sure that you probably say ‘ NO ’ , right ? The same goes to your friends, when you always try to search for their weakness. So, avoid that bad habit. Well, that’s all the tips we would like to share with you. Friends form a major part in everybody’s life, especially youngsters because they spend their utmost time with friends. It depends on us to manage our friendship so that it will last forever. Remember , friends are kisses blown to us by angels so preserve your relationship with them. ………………………………………………….