Behavioral Learning Approach And Gender-Role Behavior Free Sample

Application of Behavioral Theory

It is possible to say that personal traits manifest themselves through decisions and behaviors. As the behavioral theories of personality suggest, individuals learn particular behaviors when influenced by various environmental factors associated with specific macro- and micro-social contexts. It means that a child learns how to act by observing other community members, as well as by being exposed to negative or positive reinforcement, punishment, and other influences pertinent to the environment where he/she is raised.

Throughout behavioral learning, a person may develop different habits. Unhealthy dieting is one of them. This habit may be largely predetermined by culture, motivation, available resources, opportunities, and their costs. The behavioral pattern develops in case a person chooses a behavioral option (e.g., overeats fat and salty food) consistently over a significant time. It means that in order to treat a client showing unhealthy dieting patterns and develop a behavioral change in him/her, it is essential to make a healthy eating behavior a dominant response across distinct contexts.

To achieve the formulated goal, a therapist should first identify what factors activate the client’s behavioral potential for unhealthy dieting and evaluate his/her fiat tendencies (i.e., intentions and motivations). These data can be collected by investigating how the client interacts with his/her environment. A personal interview may also provide a comprehensive qualitative, reflective information on the problem. Based on these assessment data, the therapist will identify main self-control, and change maintenance motives: satisfaction with behavioral results (e.g., improved health), enjoyment in new behavior (e.g., eating tasty and healthy foods).

To sustain the behavioral change, the self-monitoring technique will be used because “people tend to maintain behaviour if they successfully monitor and regulate the newly adopted behaviour and have effective strategies to overcome barriers to the performance of the new behaviour” (Kwasnicka, Dombrowski, White & Sniehotta, 2016, p. 283). Continual self-regulation will thus be regarded as the major sign of a positive change. To assist the client in self-monitoring, the therapist will help him/her cultivate and utilize essential physical and psychological resources needed to adopt a new behavior.

Lastly, the role of environment in the change maintenance cannot be underestimated. It will be easier for the client to shift towards healthy dieting if it is in line with the social context. Thus, the community assessment, as well as family counseling may be required as well.

Question: What conditions and factors can make a bad habit relapse?

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Individual Differences in Gender-Role Behavior

Gender-role behavior learned through the principles of operant conditioning

According to Halpern and Perry-Jenkins (2016), “much of children’s early learning about gender occurs within the family context—namely, through children’s attendance to parents’ subtle messages about gender roles” (p. 531). These messages can be either explicit or implicit, and consistently with the principles of operant conditioning, they can be associated with either positive or negative reinforcement. It means that in case a person’s behavior is aligned with a view on his/her gender role accepted within a dominant ideology, it can be reinforced through a positive response, e.g., approval, support, respect, etc. On the contrary, if a person’s behavior deviates from the accepted norm, he/she may face a risk of rejection, shaming, etc. For instance, if a boy in a conservative family/community decides to wear a dress, he would likely be misunderstood and ridiculed or even scolded by others because such a behavior is not in line with a traditional perspective on masculinity.

Masculine and femine traits and function in society

Across different cultures and times, masculinity is usually associated with ambition, leadership, self-sufficiency, etc., while femininity is linked to such features as empathy, caring, sensitivity, etc. (Drydakis, Sidiropoulou, Patnaik, Selmanovic, & Bozani, 2017). Although it is commonly believed that men and women behave in a polarly opposite way, many individual demonstrate atypical gender behavioral qualities. As Drydakis et al. (2017) note, no person is born with purely masculine or feminine traits, but the compliance with a gender role is largely defined by culture. It means that a boy may actually like “girl toys” and vice versa. Moreover, an individual can change gender behaviors and attitudes depending on environmental and cultural factors across the lifespan. Based on this, it is possible to say that a woman may show such qualities as ambitiousness and aggressiveness in case she is placed in a competitive environment, while a male, conversely, will behave compassionately and caringly if the situation requires him to do so.

Question: What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment in operant conditioning?

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Personality, Conditioning, and Behavior

Can someone’s personality be classically conditioned?

It is possible to say that classical conditioning can only partially shape personality. It implies the occurrence of a behavioral response to a certain experience or factor through excitation and emotional/unconditioned stimuli associated with it. In case a person demonstrates an enduring retaining of these responses, a new habit/attitude develops. As Wood (2017) observes, “habit is one of many acquired behavioral dispositions,” and it does not reflect the personality entirely (p. 389). Still, the fact that it becomes cultivated at a physiological, neurological level can signify that it plays a key role in human behavior. Nevertheless, even if a child develops a classically conditioned trait early in life, it does not mean it will sustain across the lifespan. For instance, if a timid child will be placed in a friendly classroom environment and will be accustomed to receiving a positive feedback every time he/she speaks in front of the class, he/she will be conditioned to overcome anxiety and will learn to enjoy group speaking, or vice versa. Overall, a classically conditioned personality trait or a habit will affect an individual’s decisions and actions, yet it may be changed in different contexts.

Can personality be conditioned using the principles of operant conditioning?

Like in the case with classical conditioning, personality can be shaped using the principles of operant conditioning as well. It seems that operant conditioning happens naturally throughout the course of social learning and upbringing. Most of the parents approve and show affection for a child if he/she behaves well, and conversely, scold him/her when he/she is naughty and disobedient. In this way, such personality traits as politeness, compliance with social norms, and even empathy, etc. can be conditioned through positive and negative reinforcement, as well as positive and negative punishment. Naturally, if a child learns that politeness and friendliness lead to satisfaction, i.e., add something pleasant to his/her life, he will subconsciously or deliberately aim to maximize the benefits associated with this behavior. In this way, a personality trait can be developed over time. At the same time, the operant conditioning does not work for everybody with the same effectiveness − some innate qualities, such as extroversion and introversion, neuroticism, obsessive-compulsive features, etc. can either facilitate or interfere with social learning and conditioning, both classical and operant.

Bandura’s Four-Step Model of Aggression

Bandura considered that people form a cognitive image of a particular behavioral response through observing the behavior of others, and then this encoded information (stored in long-term memory) can be used to guide their actions. In this way, individuals can learn either positive or negative behaviors including aggressiveness. Based on this, long-term exposure to violence and aggression can lead to increased aggressiveness, weakening of factors holding back aggression, dulled sensitivity to aggression, and formation of the image of social reality justifying aggressive behaviors.

Individuals can observe and learn aggressiveness through four major steps, namely, attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. The first step implies that a person perceives a behavioral example thoroughly and clearly. Retention means he/she memorizes the observed behavior. During the reproduction stage, a person translates the information encoded in memory into a new form of a behavioral response. Lastly, motivation refers to environmental and personal stimuli that support the performance of the learned behavior. Bandura emphasized the importance of the pres of sufficient stimuli for a particular behavioral response. It means the chance that a person will behave aggressively decreases when he/she knows this behavior will not be accepted or will be punished.

Criticisms of the behavioral/social learning approach to personality

The social learning theories employing the principles of operant and Pavlovian conditioning are considered to be radical. As stated by Kelland (2015), they are associated with “a vigorous effort to avoid spurious inner causes,” and underestimate the significance of individual cognitive functioning (p. 1). For instance, in his experiments, Pavlov observed that some dogs develop and retain conditioned responses much easier than other subjects, and explained it by differences in the nervous systems of the animals. However, the researcher failed to include the individual, innate factors in the theory of social learning and conditioning, making it excessively deterministic. Thus, the second criticism of the social learning theory is connected to the fact that it does not take into account the factor of individuals’ free will and motivation. From this theoretical point of view, people are almost deprived of a chance to control their lives. The inclusion of the cognitive aspect into the theory by Bandura made a significant contribution to the evolution of the theory as the model suggested by him provides therapists and individuals with instruments for modifying undesirable and harmful behaviors learned from the environment.


Drydakis, N., Sidiropoulou, K., Patnaik, S., Selmanovic, S., & Bozani, V. (2017). Masculine vs feminine personality traits and women’s employment outcomes in Britain: A field experiment. 

Kelland, M. (2015). Social learning theory and personality development. Web.

Kwasnicka, D., Dombrowski, S. U., White, M., & Sniehotta, F. (2016). Theoretical explanations for maintenance of behaviour change: A systematic review of behaviour theories. Health Psychology Review, 10(3), 277-296.

Halpern, P., & Perry-Jenkins, M. (2016). Parents’ gender ideology and gendered behavior as predictors of children’s gender-role attitudes: A longitudinal exploration. Sex Roles, 74(11), 527–542.

Wood, W. (2017). Habit in personality and social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 21(4), 389-403.

Culturally Competent Care Delivery In Nursing


The given paper revolves around the delivery of culturally competent care to patients belonging to different ethnic groups. The work investigates the most important aspects of the given issue and delves into the analysis of the significance of the cultural aspect in terms of the healthcare sector. For this reason, the information presented in the credible sources related to the question is collected and discussed.

In the course of the paper, the crucial role of cultural competence and patient-centeredness is evidenced by numerous modern approaches that are taken as the most efficient ones. Additionally, the paper also provides a review of the relevant literature to create a solid knowledge basis for further investigations of the issue. Finally, the work also presents several implications for the nursing practice that are aimed at the significant improvement of its efficiency. At the end of the paper, the conclusion is made.


Diversity is one of the major concerns of the modern world. The increase of the tempos of globalization and a number of modern tendencies towards immigration resulted in the creation of a multicultural society that is comprised of representatives of numerous ethnic groups. The given structure could be considered as a great benefit as it promotes the further development of the community; however, it also gives rise to a number of concerns related to cultural competence.

Especially topical this question becomes in terms of the healthcare sector as the peculiarities of the patients culture might condition the approaches and practices used to guarantee his/her recovery. In these regards, the further development of cultural competence is crucial for a healthcare professional as it impacts the nursing process and introduces some significant aspects.


The process of the recognition of the importance of the cultural factor has started along with the increase in the level of tolerance. Representatives of various ethnic groups living in a certain country demanded a special attitude based on the main peculiarities of their mentality and traditions. Additionally, the reconsideration of the approach towards equality and public disapproval of discrimination conditioned the appearance of the new approach which tended to take into account the aspects of the patients culture that might impact the process of recovery. However, the further evolution of society and the humanistic approach introduced the need for the creation of the environment that would have a positive effect on the state of a patient and his/her mood (Wilson-Stronks et al., 2008). The complexity of these factors combined with the evidence of the efficiency of the given practice promoted the increase of the importance of cultural competence in terms of nursing.

Nevertheless, the scale of the challenge is so significant that it introduces the need for the investigation of the major concerns of cultural competence to understand the possibilities for their implication for nursing practice. Hence, the purpose of the given paper is to analyze the modern tendencies in the given sphere and outline the most important conceptions related to cultural competence. Additionally, it also tends to analyze the idea of patient-centeredness and its impact on the whole nursing sphere. That is why the work revolves around the relevant sources to obtain credible data related to the question. Furthermore, there is also an attempt to highlight the possible limitations introduced by various cultural peculiarities in the context of a certain ethnic group.

Besides, investigating the issue, it is vital to adhere to the main principles of the qualitative method. Analyzing the impact various cultural factors have on the healthcare sector, one should determine the degree of the influence and the effect the given aspect might have on the state of a patient and the whole sphere. For these reasons, the analysis of the sources that provide information about the patients progress and feedback is essential to improve the comprehending of the researched question. Additionally, the usage of the qualitative method might help to create the basis for further research with the help of a quantitative or mixed qualitative-quantitative approach. Finally, the usage of the given method could be explained by the nature of the investigated phenomena as it impacts the quality of the provided service and conditions the recovery process.

Yet, analyzing the issue one should admit its great significance and topicality in terms of the modern healthcare sector. Besides, Lehman, Fenza, and Hollinger-Smith (n.d.) state that nowadays cultural competency is at the core of the patient-centered care as it impacts the way this very care is delivered and received. It means that the question becomes one of the major concepts of the modern medicine which proclaims its orientation on the fulfillment of the basic patients needs (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, n.d.). Furthermore, Saha, Beach, and Cooper (2008) admit the expansion of the scope of patient-centeredness and the rise of cultural competence.

They tend to associate these processes with the recognition of the overwhelming effect these factors have on the state of a patient. Moreover, the majority of the modern authors accept the necessity of the further development of possible implications to promote the evolution of the sphere and guarantee the further improvement of healthcare. De Gagne et al. (2015) are also sure that the acquisition of the knowledge of the peculiarities of a certain community’s functioning might help to overcome numerous limits that complicate the delivery of nursing care.

The authors provide an example related to the Asian Indians community in the Southeastern United States. In the course of the study, they prove the idea that representatives of this ethnic group have some unique barriers to health services resulting from their mentality (De Gagne et al., 2015). It becomes obvious that the elimination of these barriers will result in the significant improvement of the whole sphere and the quality of life of the members of this community.

Besides, the significance of the cultural competence is also evidenced by the increased efficiency and performance of medical establishments that adhere to the main principles of the delivery of culturally competent care (Wilson-Stronks et al., 2008). The showings also prove that the usage of the patient-centered approach becomes the main model peculiar to the modern healthcare sector.

In these regards, one realizes the potential benefits resulting from the implementation of the given practice and from the development of cultural competence. Additionally, the example provided by De Gange et al. (2015) proves the existence of the unique barriers determined by the ethnicity and mentality of various groups. That is why the further exploration of the issue is crucial for the evolution of a number of healthcare services and might contribute to the improvement of the nations health.

If to speak about the possible implications of the major concepts of cultural competence for nursing care, one should admit several essential points. First, any nurse should aim at the improvement of his/her competence to improve the process of communication with patients and guarantee their faster recovery. Second, it is crucial to organize the functioning of the sphere in accordance with the existing approaches to the delivery of culturally competent care. It will contribute to the creation of a positive atmosphere that will have a beneficial effect on the process of a patients recovery.

Third, the cases of all representatives of a certain ethnic group should be examined with consideration for the unique factors that might create some barriers to the delivery of healthcare. The adherence to all these factors will obviously promote the significant improvement of the efficiency of healthcare specialists and contribute to their professional growth. Finally, the recognition of the health care needs of a specific group will help to organize a more efficient recovery process by eliminating the factors that might have a negative impact on a patients health.


Altogether, cultural competence has become one of the major concerns of the modern healthcare sector. The growth of the significance of the issue is conditioned by the reconsideration of the approach towards the delivery of health care to the patients characterized by the belonging to some unique ethnic group. A number of researches related to the issue prove the efficiency of the given approach and insist on the necessity of its implementation into the nurse care settings. For this reason, it is vital to continue the investigation of the given question to guarantee its further improvement and deliver culturally competent care.


De Gange, J., Oh, J., So, A., Haidermota, M., & Lee, S. (2015). A Mixed Methods Study of Health Care Experience Among Asian Indians in the Southeastern United States. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 26(4), 354-365. doi:10.1177/1043659614526247

Lehman. D., Fenza, P., Hollinger-Smith. (n.d.). Diversity & Cultural Competency in Health Care Settings.

Saha, S., Beach, M., & Cooper, L. (2008). Patient Centeredness, Cultural Competence and Healthcare Quality. Journal of the National Medical Association, 100(11), 1275-1285.

Wilson-Stronks, A., Lee, K., Cordero, C., Kopp, A., & Galve, E. (2008). One Size Does Not Fit All: Meeting the HealthCare Needs of Diverse Populations. Web.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Adolescents


While type 2 diabetes associated with middle-aged and older patients is of more frequent occurrence, type 1 diabetes is rarer and predominates among younger people. The fact that type 1 is not so common implies difficulties in collecting data. However, in recent times, researchers give attention to this problem more often. As a part of the growing interest, qualitative studies are often conducted. The article by Scholes, Mandleco, Roper, Dearing, Dyches, & Freeborn (2013) is an example of such studies. The authors explore how young persons with type I diabetes live their lives and perceive their illness depending on the level of metabolic control (HbA1c). The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the research focusing on the following elements: problem statement, study purpose and research question, literature review, and theoretical framework.

Problem Statement

The article concerns young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and their perception of their lives and illness. The authors consider adolescence as one of the most challenging developmental stages for a person characterized by physiological and psychological changes. Since blood glucose levels and adherence to treatment regimens tend to deteriorate, T1DM becomes a complicating factor (Greening as cited in Scholes et al., 2013).

Nowadays, this clinical problem is pressing: some adolescents show responsibility and comply with treatment instructions, but others undergo hardship. However, it is emphasized that whether patients with high and low levels of metabolic control do not regard their state in the same manner is unknown: little research has explored these patient categories separately and concentrated on the young people’s self-perception. As a result, medical professionals assist adolescents with T1DM less effectively. Thus, the authors explain young individuals’ difficulties by the gap in knowledge about the influence of blood glucose levels on socializing.

Purpose and Research Question

According to the article, the study was a stage within a larger research dealing with the adaptation of family members to treating a child or adolescent with T1DM. In the paper under analysis, the aim is to investigate if young people with higher and lower levels of metabolic control of TD1M hold different perceptions of their lives and disease (Scholes et al., 2013). In this context, the research provides answers to the questions whether patients with high-HbA1cs levels are more optimistic about the future clinical outcome and whether adolescents with low-HbA1cs levels are less responsible for diabetes management. As these questions are directly connected with the real-life situations, they are related to the problem.

The qualitative method used is audio-recorded in-depth interviewing. Four main topics were covered: family, surrounding persons’ attitude, self-management, and behavior. The interviewees could freely share their routine daily experience and personal opinions about living with T1DM; only clarifying questions were sometimes present. Different researchers conducted the interview and analyzed the results. Thus, the method is appropriate to find the answers to the research question.

Literature Review

The authors use a wide range of works concerning the sphere of T1DM in adolescents as well as more general research and statistics on morbidity and mortality rates, disease incidence, and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. A substantial part of literature deals with family issues and parent-adolescent communication. Overall, the reference list contains current sources, although the authors used a few books and articles published in the last century. Most sources are qualitative studies dated by the last five years; older papers are also relevant because they help understand how adolescents’ perception has changed in the course of time and what obstacles were present.

The authors underline the main weakness of the previous studies: as a rule, they concentrated on adolescents with T1DM irrespectively to their HbA1cs levels. They summarize what has already been achieved in T1DM treatment and put this information into a special section where the research findings and implications for practice are given. This structure is instrumental in building the logical argument.

Theoretical Framework

The authors argue that the results of their research were checked for accuracy according to the qualitative methodology, and the interview themes were identified through inductive analysis (Scholes et al., 2013). They also mention the theory of crisis: perceptual differences are explained by the level of support and care that a person in a crisis state receives (Aguilera as cited in Scholes et al., 2013). However, the specific perspective from which the study was designed is not the focus. The researchers develop neither a framework nor diagram. It can be explained by the fact that this investigation is the part of the larger study.


To sum it up, the paper exemplifies the qualitative study concerning type I diabetes in adolescents with different levels of metabolic control. The authors use appropriate academic sources that help elicit the up-to-date knowledge and gaps in research, but do not concentrate on developing a theoretical framework. They aim at discovering differences between adolescents with high- and low- HbA1c levels in terms of optimism and self-care responsibility. The authors used interviewing and draw a conclusion that patients with high- HbA1c level tend to be more buoyant and concern about their health to a greater extent than adolescents with low- HbA1c level.


Scholes, C., Mandleco, B., Roper, S., Dearing, K., Dyches, T., & Freeborn, D. (2013). A qualitative study of young people’s perspectives of living with type 1 diabetes: Do perceptions vary by levels of metabolic control? The Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(6), 1235-1247.

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