Benefits Of Dreaming Free Writing Sample

The concept of dreams has existed since the dawn of humanity. Whether or not dreams have any significance is a subject of much debate. Despite the widespread belief that dreams are meaningless and have no significance, studies and experiments have shown that there are numerous ways to interpret dreams. Dreams are a peculiar, strong power that shapes our lives and how we see the rest of the world. Our fantasies can significantly mould our behaviour, insights, and decisions when young(Pagel 22). Indeed, even our thoughts and sentiments can be better perceived and deciphered with the guide of dreams. Dreams can be vital to our psychological and close-to-home prosperity as we age. There is little uncertainty that fantasies are huge in our lives and development, although their starting point and significance are very controversial. Dreams might be entertaining, disrupting, or plain abnormal. Regardless of whether we recollect our fantasies the following day, everybody dreams. Dreams can occur at any point while you are sleeping. Dreams can be extremely loud, passionate, and vivid. Because of this, it is simple to mistake them for reality. When someone goes to sleep at night, their dreams are like collecting all their desires and feelings and placing them in a tiny “shadow world”. Dreams are essential for our psychological, emotional, and physical health, providing a creative and vital outlet for our minds and bodies to process and heal from everyday stressors.

Dreams were the subject of the earliest writings produced by the Sumerian culture, which was the first to establish writing in the third millennium BC. For instance, the bull-man Enkidu in the Gilgamesh epic had two dreams that predicted his demise(Leeming). This interpretation is found in the texts of the Egyptian papyri and other early civilizations. Also, Joseph is believed to have understood Pharaoh’s dream in Genesis 41:138, which dates back to at least a millennium BCE, that there would be seven years of abundance followed by a corresponding period of famine(Lowis 366).

According to research, lucid dreaming causes the brain’s normally-quiescent sleep-related regions to become more active. In a lucid dream, you are aware that you are sleeping. Lucid dreaming is an intermediate brain state between REM sleep and consciousness (Stumbrys etal.1457). After entering REM, your sleep stages will cycle through around every hour to 90 minutes, with subsequent cycles getting longer and more profound. Some people who have lucid dreams can alter the dream’s narrative. Though many dream experts advise against it, doing so occasionally, especially during a nightmare, is a good strategy.

“For what reason do we dream?” Researchers, therapists, and, shockingly, profound pioneers have put together theories about why we dream. The actual reason we dream is a secret, even if there are no longer as many accepted theories. We can see that fantasies can benefit us in various ways. The ancient theories of dreams are the oldest and depend on the conviction that fantasies were messages from a divine being or the spirits of the dead. They accepted that when an individual had a dream, it was a sign or a message from the heavenly. This theory is not generally acknowledged today, as it has no logical basis. In any case, it is, as yet, a fascinating method for contemplating our dreams and their motivation. Freud’s Wish-Fulfillment Theory is a theory created by Sigmund Freud and depends on the possibility that dreams are a way for our obliviousness to satisfy our cravings(Freud 12). As per Freud, dreams are a way for our oblivious to satisfy our longings and wishes in a secure manner. He believed that our dreams are a method for fulfilling our necessities and needs without confronting the outcomes of our activities in reality(Lowis 369). The issue with Freud’s hypothesis is that it cannot be scientifically verified because it cannot be tested methodically. Every dream has many alternative interpretations, and it is hard to know which one is accurate.

Activation-Synthesis Theory was created by John Hobson and Allan McCarthy, and it expresses that dreams are the aftereffect of the random firing of neurons in the mind (Hobson 452). The theory expresses that our mind attempts to figure out the random neural activity by making a story. The brain absorbs information from the outside environment while awake. To give experiences meaning, it makes use of this knowledge as well as stored knowledge. The brain receives information from internal neuronal activity while dreaming. Even if there may be no connection between that internal neuronal activity and the world outside, the brain nonetheless tries to give it meaning. A limitation of illogically connected dream episodes is a byproduct of this brain activity.

Furthermore, the Threat-and Social-Reproduction theory was created by Antti Revonsuo, which states that dreams are a way for our cerebrum to mimic and prepare for dire circumstances. Per the theory, our dreams are a way for our mind to rehearse and plan for threatening or socially awkward circumstances, so we can more readily manage them in the real world. Information-Processing Theory and the Self-Organization Model. Likewise, information-processing theory recommends that dreams are only a piece of our mental turn of events. Cognitive psychology takes a gander at how the mind decides, tackles issues, and stores recollections. Memory capacity is critical to this review and why we dream. Dreaming could be a vital part of converting our brief recollections into long-haul memories. This theory recommends that we put together our memories as we rest. Our dreams, which frequently contain components from what we encountered that day, result from that interaction.

Additionally, Physiological-Functioning Theory proposes that dreams are useless and that we dream of protecting brain connections. We invest a ton of energy dozing. Mind action during this time keeps us working and prepared to handle data when we get up the following morning! William Twist created this theory and expresses that fantasies are a way for our body to reestablish and fix itself. Per this theory, our dreams are a way for our body to reestablish, fix itself, and process and store data. This theory’s strengths are that it offers an intriguing point of view on why we dream and can give an understanding of the spiritual parts of dreams. However, its limitation is that it has no logical basis, so it cannot be experimentally tried or checked. It likewise does not make sense why a few dreams are significant and others are not.

Finding specific components in your dreams and determining their meaning will help you interpret them. A therapeutic technique is dream interpretation. It could be useful as a self-awareness tool when trying to discover peace of mind and delving deeper into your subconscious and emotional condition. For instance, dream analysis has been included in Gestalt therapy and Jungian theory as therapeutic modalities(Yontef). According to Jungian dream analysis, the specific symbols in each dream are incredibly significant. These representations could be connected to cultural or spiritual beliefs or early experiences. For example, dreaming of death can represent a need to let go of a person or thing causing torment and suffering. This could be a relationship, work, or whatever other circumstance that is done serving you. The dream might be a suggestion to relinquish whatever is done working for yourself and to continue toward something better(Lowis 376). By releasing the aggravation related to this experience, the dreamer can be more ready to push ahead and make another life. Also, dreaming of death could likewise represent a need to bury the hatchet. If an individual feels responsible or laments over something they have done previously, this could indicate that they need to reconcile with the situation to push ahead. Also, falling could mean climbing too high and now feeling insecure; being chased means the need to face an aspect of self that is being denied(Lowis 375). There are various understandings of what this Losing Teeth dream could mean. Teeth are often images of strength and youth, and losing teeth is one of the most well-known encounters of getting older. It could recommend a feeling of dread toward progressing in years and losing your childhood.

Our thoughts and feelings concerning the events in our lives can be reflected in our dreams. The nature and frequency of dreams might be influenced by mental health. People who suffer from mental illnesses like anxiety or depression may have more unsettling dreams. Conversely, those in good mental health could have more encouraging dreams. Drugs used to treat mental illnesses can also have an impact on dreams. For instance, using and stopping some antidepressants and antipsychotic medicines might cause nightmares(Pagel 42). Although the relationship between dream content and mental health is unclear, it does seem to exist. For instance, some claim that positive and negative dream feelings can linger and influence their attitude the next day. Disturbing dreams or nightmares that last all night are more common in those with mental health issues.

Dreams assist us with putting away memories and the things we have learned. The mind reactivates and merges recently got memories and information while we rest, and specialists have seen that this cycle is straightforwardly reflected in the dream content. Dreams assist with handling our feelings. Ongoing research recommends that we are bound to dream about emotionally intense experiences, and the theta cerebrum waves during REM rest are one manner by which the mind unites those recollections(Lowis 377). Dreams can be an overnight therapy for dealing with PTSD or emotional trauma.

Furthermore, even bad dreams have benefits. Bad dreams happen most often in REM rest; however, unlike transparent dreams, these intense, frequently unwanted imaginings occur with diminished prefrontal cortex movement. There is less close-to-home control and an overpowering feeling of excitement. You Can Overcome Your Fears Through Dreams: This is more true when you are lucid dreaming and conscious of your dreams. Essentially, a lucid dreamer directs and regulates the dream(Roy).

Dreams could move us to track down unique solutions to issues in our lives. Dreams can likewise give us new viewpoints on our troubles and point us toward cures we might not have recently thought of. Dreams can radically change our lives and our general surroundings, as confirmed by the fantasies of Albert Einstein and Martin Luther Ruler, Jr. Dreams can help us interpret the rest of the world and our place in it. Exploring our dreams can familiarise us with our connections and social cooperation. Dreams can assist us with acquiring superior information on both our own and others’ activities(Roy). Furthermore, dreams can help us figure out the political, social, and social powers that impact our lives. We can get more familiar with ourselves and our general surroundings by breaking down our dreams.

To sum up, dreams are a strong power that shapes our lives(Roy). While there is much discussion about the source and significance of dreams, their significance in our lives cannot be denied. Through understanding our dreams, we can acquire knowledge of our way of behaving and the way of behaving of everyone around us and gain a superior comprehension of our general surroundings. Dreams are fundamental to our psychological and profound well-being and should not be overlooked.

Works Cited

Stumbrys, Tadas, et al. “Induction of lucid dreams: A systematic review of evidence.” Consciousness and Cognition 21.3 2012: 1456–1475.

Leeming, David A. The handy mythology answer book. Visible Ink Press, 2014.

Lowis, Michael J. “Dreams and their relation to physical and mental well-being.” The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies 35.3 2010: 366.

Freud, Sigmund, James Strachey, and Anna Freud. The Interpretation of Dreams: Pt. 1.-1900. Hogarth Press, 1953.

Pagel, James. The limits of the dream: A scientific exploration of the mind/brain interface. Elsevier, 2010.

Hobson, Allan. “Activation Synthesis Hypothesis of Dreaming.” Essential papers on dreams 4 1992: 452.

Yontef, Gary, and Lynne Jacobs. “Gestalt therapy.” Current psychotherapies 4 1989: 59491012–604.

Roy, Sree. “4 Advantages of Dreaming during Sleep.” Sleep Review, 28 Apr. 2021,

Bias In Assessment Essay Example For College

The importance of assessment can be seen in various fields, including employment and healthcare because evaluating a person’s skills and abilities is what assessments are designed for. Fairness and objectivity in assessments may not always prevail due to the influence of biases, which could skew the results. The presence of biases in assessments can result in inaccuracies that could lead to serious consequences of job rejection or lower IQ levels of social inequality. This report will discuss in-depth ways to avoid assessment biases, and the objective of my study is to scrutinize the predispositions in IQ tests—a popular measurement tool for evaluating one’s general mental aptitude.

Bias in IQ Testing

IQ testing is a common way to assess general intelligence, and for decades IQ testing has been a controversial subject, with numerous concerns raised regarding its validity and fairness. The presence of bias in IQ tests is a significant concern because IQ tests measure specific cognitive capabilities that play a significant role in achieving academic and professional success. There is an argument among some individuals that the tests could be culturally biased and, therefore, may not accurately represent the abilities of people with varying cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds.

A primary worry with IQ testing is cultural bias within its test items because knowledge of Western history, literature, and art is often required in IQ tests due to their association with the dominant culture. This problem can lead to variations in the average test performance of diverse ethnic groups and growth in a non-Western culture can lead to different knowledge and experiences compared to growth in a Western culture. Even with equivalent levels of cognitive ability to their Western counterparts, individuals from non-Western backgrounds may still receive lower test scores.

According to Cambridge University Press (2020), bias is present in the testing if two people with similar skills but come from diverse demographic backgrounds get distinct results on an exam because of their association with that particular group. Henceforth, detecting bias in examinations necessitates examining differences that manifest themselves amongst these comparable groups who communicate using their first language and have become accustomed to living in this nation. The relevance of average score differences should not be dismissed. Psychologists must look into possible test biases when presented with such indicators because these elements cannot demonstrate whether a test has any partiality.

IQ testing has the potential for the test items to show a linguistic bias because IQ exams will frequently assess a person’s vocabulary, reading comprehension, and verbal reasoning. Even though they possess the same level of cognitive ability as native English speakers, individuals from non-native backgrounds might encounter difficulties in mastering these skills; however, lower test scores are possible for individuals from non-native English-speaking backgrounds despite having similar cognitive abilities to native English speakers.

Avoiding Bias in IQ Testing

To guarantee fairness in IQ testing, it is crucial to develop tests that do not show cultural or linguistic bias. Utilizing a diverse group of individuals to create and take tests can help achieve this. Cultural and linguistic fairness of test items can be ensured by having a diverse group of test creators from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds, and the representation of the population in the test results can be ensured by having test takers from various cultural and linguistic backgrounds.

One can also avoid bias in IQ testing by using alternative assessment tools that are less culturally and linguistically biased. Moreover, The Assessment of Children’s Thinking (ACT) and other performance-based evaluations measure cognitive abilities by utilizing problem-solving tasks minimally dependent on language skills. One must consider using performance-based assessments to obtain a less biased measurement of cognitive abilities than what an IQ test provides.

Another way to prevent bias is to provide a testing environment that is both fair and free from any potential distractions that could impact the test taker’s performance, and a level playing field must be established in the testing environment so as not to put any particular group at a disadvantage due to cultural or linguistic biases. To achieve this goal, avoiding using unfamiliar vocabulary and making cultural references is necessary. Also, the guidelines provided for the examination ought to be precise and easy to comprehend, and individuals who take the test must be given proper assistance to achieve their highest potential.

To guarantee the cultural and linguistic impartiality of IQ tests is still necessary, and the performance of validation studies can help ascertain if there is any bias in the test toward certain cultural or linguistic groups and furnish substantiation for its validity across different cultures and languages. The use of validation studies can aid in identifying any culturally or linguistically biased test items that need to be revised or removed to ensure a fair assessment.

Training and education are crucial for test administrators to avoid bias in IQ testing. Providing thorough training for administrators is crucial as it enables them to recognize and prevent cultural and linguistic biases while offering clear and concise directions. Moreover, they must remain sensitive to the cultural differences of the test takers. Administrators must recognize and minimize their biases to ensure fair testing practices.

For a comparison to be meaningful, tests available in different languages must measure the same construct. Difficulty in comparing both scores may arise due to non-equivalent constructs between the two test forms caused by a poor translation leading to a compromise in the validity of the test (Cecilio-Fernandes et al., 2019). Mitigating the loss of content validity through effectively reducing language barriers in assessment can lead to a fair assessment for all students. Studies have indicated that non-native English speakers may perform poorly on knowledge tests in English due to inadequate English proficiency. This can result in the test becoming a language assessment.

Students’ knowledge cannot be assessed adequately without understanding the vocabulary and linguistic structures. Therefore knowledge and English proficiency become the main factors affecting the test score. The test’s content validity is in jeopardy, according to (Cecilio-Fernandes et al., 2019). Item language bias is a specific source of item bias in research. However, blaming this bias solely on language factors may be unjustified. An additional source of bias that often accompanies different languages is cultural differences.

Consequences of Test Bias

Severe consequences can arise from test bias, leading to social inequality and discrimination. Lower test scores can result from biased assessments for individuals from certain cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds leading to job denial and social inequality. For instance, if a job needs an IQ test for employment and the test leans towards a certain cultural or linguistic group, this could lead to job rejection for individuals from other backgrounds who might possess similar cognitive abilities to those from the dominant culture.

In educational settings, biased assessments can have severe consequences. Underprivileged students may face disadvantages because they lack exposure to cultural and educational experiences reflected in assessments. Their abilities may be inaccurately assessed, reducing educational opportunities and limiting academic and career advancement.

According to Shi & Zhu’s (2021) research findings, the supposedly advantageous “positive” stereotype may have negative outcomes. Stereotyping can lead to individuals in certain groups being held to unrealistically high expectations and experiencing hindered performance. Certain academic and career paths may be restricted for stereotyped group members. Reinforcing the notion of fundamental differences across groups or bolstering negative stereotypes for under-represented minorities can cause negative effects on other minority groups through the positive stereotypes of Asians.

In addition, faulty appraisals may lead to adverse opinions of specific groups based on their exam scores, ultimately causing prejudice and inequality in society. Suppose a particular group consistently receives lower marks on an assessment due to cultural or linguistic prejudices; they can be perceived as inferior or less smart, leading to negative stereotypes and bias (Schünemann et al., 2020).

In healthcare settings, inaccurate diagnoses and treatment test bias can lead to bias in tests. If a healthcare professional uses a culturally biased assessment as an example, they may diagnose patients from certain backgrounds inaccurately or mistreat them, resulting in care that is not appropriate (Schünemann et al., 2020).


Evaluating an individual’s skills and knowledge necessitates using assessments. However, biases when administering assessments may cause errors in the results, leading to significant consequences of job denial or lower IQ levels and social inequality. IQ testing is a tool frequently used to assess general intelligence that has sparked controversy for decades. Lower test scores on IQ tests are frequently observed among individuals from non-Western cultures and non-native English-speaking backgrounds due to cultural and linguistic biases.


Cambridge University Press. (2020, October 1). Understanding bias in intelligence, academic, and cognitive tests. Cambridge Core Blog.,oftheirdemographicgroupmembership.

Cecilio-Fernandes, D., Bremers, A., Collares, C. F., Nieuwland, W., van der Vleuten, C., & Tio, R. A. (2019). Investigating possible causes of bias in a progress test translation: a one-edged sword. Korean Journal of medical education, 31(3), 193.

Shi, Y., & Zhu, M. (2021). Model Minorities in the Classroom? Positive Bias Towards Asian Students and its Consequences. Working Paper.

Schünemann, H. J., Mustafa, R. A., Brozek, J., Steingart, K. R., Leeflang, M., Murad, M. H., … & GRADE Working Group. (2020). GRADE guidelines: 21 part 1. Study design, risk of bias, and indirectness in rating the certainty across a body of evidence for test accuracy. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 122, 129-141.

Corporate Social Responsibility As A Factor Influencing Consumer Behavior Sample Assignment


The underlying principles of corporate management entail its social responsibilities, which are essential in performance measures and forecasting the sales of an establishment. In this point of view, these principles determine consumer behavior in different ways, including their perception of the products of an establishment. Analyzing the correlation between corporate social responsibility and consumer behavior relies on the global standards of these responsibilities. They include ethical labor practices, environmental stewardship, community involvement, corporate governance, and consumer protection. Additionally, government policies ensure that establishments meet corporate social responsibilities to facilitate legitimate business operations. Once establishments abide by the global expectations of corporate social responsibilities, consumer behavior towards their marketing and advertising strategies positively transforms over long-term business plans. In this perspective, corporate social responsibility is an essential aspect of customer retention through a reputable rapport with the business practices of an establishment. The research explores the correlation between consumer behavior and corporate social responsibilities by analyzing the profitability of business ventures.

A Literature Review on Corporate Social Responsibility

The concept of sustainable value creation through corporate social responsibility connects with the substructure’s critical provisions for performance measures regarding the CSR of establishments. From this point of view, it is essential for business entities to prioritize stakeholders’ interests since they determine the availability of resources to fund operations within the business. Reliable business operations within business entities need an understanding of stakeholders’ interests. Business owners employ management systems to perform independently based on market trends. Additionally, a clear description of CSR can overlook the significance of a good working environment and the efficiency of training programs.

On the contrary, the sustainability of a business organization depends on its ability to award employees with sufficient incentives and proper job training. The procedure of training employees is summative in the context of their work experience, which has increased their progressive value. Business entities develop approaches that ensure safety precautions for employees to facilitate the protection of their well-being in the workspace (Howaniec, 2023). On the contrary, employees channel their efforts towards the business” sustainability, thereby increasing its value to society. The evaluation of CSR in a company utilizes the definition of various norms in accordance with the convenience and efficiency of a workspace rapport, incorporation of relational norms, the significance of social capital, and concepts of social business dimensions. The importance of relational norms is to ensure solidarity among workmates through investments in social capital that enable them to work together towards a common objective. On the contrary, social business dimensions ensure the business can meet its set standards and attain its corporate social responsibility.

The value of comprehending consumer behavior depends on various factors affecting a firm’s operations. According to this viewpoint, a company’s corporate social responsibility is ensuring capital needs are appropriately satisfied. Business owners are provided with reliable knowledge about specific client needs by analyzing the variants that significantly change customer behavior (Emmanuel & Priscilla, 2022). Additionally, this strategy approach focuses on consumers’ poor attitudes, influencing their choices and allegiance to specific companies. Business owners knowledgeable about CSR standards can better fulfill their social commitments through meaningful interactions with potential clients. These provisions ignore all elements that support a corporate social responsibility culture, including leadership, group, individual, and society-community values. Additionally, the provisions overlook organizational culture as an essential entity in business sustainability achievable through beliefs, symbols, and stories told during induction procedures. In this perspective, the argument in this concept is that a business should focus on its culture, which will have a significant return on corporate social responsibility to society through the efforts of employees working together towards common objectives.

In this perspective, the emergence of corporate social responsibility through examining fundamental corporate practices within an establishment’s internal environment is another crucial idea. The development of corporate social responsibility depends on changes in profitability and the worldwide sharing of value (Howaniec, 2023). For instance, if a company’s role in society gradually evolves, so do social expectations of that company. Business jargon is practical and in line with current business vocabulary. Accordingly, the primary goal of these rules is to add a professional dimension to related study issues on consumer behavior and corporate social responsibility by making predictions. The relationship between business behavior and corporate social responsibility entails emphasizing how a business focuses its resources on appropriate corporate governance. A statistical framework of this analogy reflects the impact of corporate social responsibility on consumer behavior. These provisions overlook the correlation between these two aspects using distinctive categorization of their precise functions since they work simultaneously to achieve a similar objective. The analogy enables corporations to focus on corporate governance, minimizing the cost of focusing independently on corporate social responsibility. Additionally, the impact of business ethics and their impacts on corporate social responsibility is another crucial aspect that determines consumer behavior.

A company’s drive for profit coexists apart from its commitment to corporate social responsibility, creating two diverse facets of consumer behavior. Therefore, in addition to concentrating on profitability, a company should realize its social responsibility. The background of this analogy can be seen in the distinctions between industrialized and underdeveloped countries in terms of the laws and regulations governing corporate social responsibility. According to this viewpoint, a company separates its social obligation from its revenue, with the infrastructure of an entire country benefiting from this strategy. Additionally, the long-term impact of CSR on a company corporation depends on stakeholders’ intentions as a crucial factor in defining the future of a business, which depicts the importance of having their interests as the priority. According to the research findings on technology firms in the U.S, analytical statistics showcase that corporate social responsibility reflects corporate financial performance (Lim et al., 2023). On the contrary, appropriate expenditure on corporate social responsibility is a crucial aspect in maximizing organizational growth of the establishment, which adds towards its achievements in business operations

Performance indicators that achieve the financial targets outlined in a facility’s sustainability plans demonstrate the significance of corporate governance on corporate social responsibility. Accepting this parallel has educational benefits for corporate social responsibility strategies used globally, where community involvement is an integral component of the goals set by an enterprise. In this light, the analogy’s provisions include the proper approach for corporate roles, competencies, and obligations as crucial elements toward community involvement. The idea also includes examining budgeting practices as building blocks for a strong foundation crucial to catastrophe management. The strategy also ignores the efficiency of functional procedures in overseeing cross-sector partnerships and the overall effectiveness of employees’ cumulative efforts. Other prerequisite factors that affect consumer behavior include models of overcoming challenges and perpetrating changes which also connect to the analogy behind corporate social responsibility.

A Literature Review on Consumer Behavior

The literature review on consumer behavior relies on the analysis of individuals, groups, and organizations regarding the data and information to do with procurement, usage, and distribution of goods and services. In this context, consumer behavior refers to the way consumers react to matters that pertain to their attitudes, emotions, and preferences as significant determinants of their average spending power. Understanding the underlying principles of consumer behavior is an essential aspect of business activities by determining the profitability of business enterprises through customer retention and the loyalty of consumers to a particular establishment. Entrepreneurs have to understand the significance of consumer behavior and use it to their advantage in achieving business sustainability objectives through advertising and marketing strategies for business activities (Koi-Akrofi, n.d). It also enables establishments to reach out to a wide range of potential buyers. One of the crucial aspects of influencing consumer behavior is neuromarketing. The concept entails a measurement of neural and physiological gesticulations hence enabling establishments to gain first-hand insights regarding the motivation, preferences, and decisions of consumers as prerequisite factors in their decision-making processes. In this context, business’s profitability is overly dependent on marketing and advertising, making them crucial factors in aligning strategic business approaches and neuroscience.

Additionally, successful neuromarketing involves the analysis of the literature reviews pertaining to it as a distinctive prospect in determining consumer behavior. On the contrary, statistical analysis of neuromarketing overlooks specific stimuli on consumer behavior through advertisements and commercials. Applying this strategic approach helps to minimize the cost of customer persuasion into consuming particular products and services through minimal efforts that steer towards impressive results (Singh et al., n.d). The analogy behind neuromarketing relies on neuroscience as a background provision for neuro-marketers focusing on distinctive skills, including eye-tracking consumers together with pupillometry as useful factors in the quality of advertisements through a lens of highly recognizable details. Additional techniques that are part and parcel of this approach include facial codes, the use of biometrics, and electroencephalogram together with functional magnetic resonance in imaging. These techniques play a major role in controlling the illusions determining consumer behavior by increasing the chances of effective persuasion towards the impulsive purchases of potential consumers. Successful business ventures, from a global perspective, utilize neuromarketing to increase product consumption by the target market (Lim et al., 2023). The approach is equally essential in customer retention since the average spending power of consumers relies on the significance of product information due to the psychological dominance of businesses. From a different perspective, neuromarketing is often seen as unethical because it has a tendency to use an overly persuasive communication approach that over-emphasizes product knowledge and appears biased in one way or another.

Analyzing consumer behavior from a lens of cognitive decision-making procedures reflects on the approach by describing definite variables and structures affecting the response of consumers when making their purchasing decisions. The analogy of this approach is dependent on analytical procedures that rely on the memory, attention, and perception of consumers in making decisions on specific products and services (Teah et al., 2023). Arguably, customers tend to purchase goods on the basis of data and information in advertisements and quality of services together with a general scope of products and services. In this perspective, strategic marketing and advertising uses cognitive decision-making when customers are in a position that renders their needs as essential to the business activities. Cognitive decision-making in determining consumer behavior is achievable through precise product knowledge as a supportive mechanism for a customer’s purchasing decisions. Establishments necessitate that their target consumers are subject to after-sale services to facilitate further satisfaction as an essential aspect of customer retention. On the contrary, the analogy behind cognitive decision-making is directive, analytical, and conceptual as a result of utilizing the principles in behavioral models.

Additionally, the decision-making process of customers relies on purchases, and the directives set by the business or other satisfied consumers have a significant influence. In this perspective, consumer behavior requires a critical analysis of products and services. Utilizing the conceptual model requires customers to depend on their need for products that meet the criteria of their wants on the basis of fashion, which subjects them to impulse buying (Leclerc-Machado et al., 2022). The analogy behind cognitive decision-making serves as a significant determinant of the business’ profitability without adding the value added by business activity. In this context, it is a crucial technique in influencer marketing through social media marketing. The strategy requires the ability of an influencer to mention the brands of products or services in social media posts and get a great outreach to potential customers globally (Teah et al., 2023). In this context, the approach depends on the advantage that is a possibility in every influencer post. Influencer marketers have a particular personality and specialty skill sets of advertisement to develop a following by potential consumers in different social media followers due to professionalism ranging with the business niche. Their work is to minimize the cost of advertisement by reducing its limitations by holding them accountable for the outreach of a particular product or service. In this perspective, consumer behavior and influencer marketing require valuable resources from external content creators to ensure that a business’s brand name communicates a particular message targeting a wide range of potential buyers. Influencer marketing enhances brand awareness by calculating moves that will portray a brand’s utmost goodwill, authority together with trust. Setting these values requires professionals with vast experience in this field. Understanding consumer behavior enables a business to communicate with the target audience, eventually reaching a wider market. From this point of view, influencer marketing is responsible for emerging trends that enable the market to keep up with the latest tastes, preferences, and fashion as determinants of products. On the contrary, influencer marketing is the development of partnerships through business conversions aiming to generate leads for particular business enterprises.

The Psychology of Consumer Behavior

Consumer expectations are a priority that relies on the objectives of business enterprises that focus on ensuring the satisfaction of every consumer. In return, the business ends up getting rewards from the sales of its products and services. A convenient sustainability plan is a key entity in every establishment through its projections on long-term profit margins and the processes in advertising and marketing strategies that focus on intriguing every potential customer. On the contrary, there are different approaches to managing the process of marketing that utilizes the concepts of habitual, functional, cost emotional, and self-expressive (Koi-Akrofi, n.d). From a business point of view, the habitual buying behavior of consumers does not follow a specific procedure that would guarantee their keen engagement in making purchasing decisions.

The potential of buyers in a market does not rely on identifying the differences between brands. From a consumer point of view, purchasing behavior depends on several factors, including urgency of needs, average spending power together with taste and preferences. One of the strategic approaches towards marketing management relies on taking advantage of habitual buying behavior through similar packaging models and styles resembling the dominant brands in a market. Cost buying behavior happens when consumers get physical engagement in thorough research of a specific product. The process involves a comparison between alternative brands by checking the difference in prices before making purchasing decisions (Gu, 2023). On the contrary, the self-expressive buying behavior of consumers happens when purchasing specific brands hence identifying with a particular brand name. In this context, self-expressive buying behavior is a subject of the social classes that make a society. Additionally, the concept of self-expressive buying behavior happens when customers purchase particular brands of products in accordance with conformity and identity of particular group expectations within the society.

A Strategic Approach Towards Corporate Social Responsibility

Planning a strategic approach towards the reliability of corporate social responsibility in both short-term and long-term sustainability goals and objectives of an organization. In this context, it is done to ensure that management operations meet the objectives, set standards, and policies of an organization. Effective strategic planning utilizes a professional outlook on several entities. Following a standard order, the first entity is an organization’s vision, which is an essential aspect of making business forecasts. The requirements for objective visions in an organization must have a clear illustration of the mission to model a direction for the workforce that meets the set standards of the organization. By relaying a clear illustration of both the vision and mission statements, the process of setting objectives must follow a specific guide relating to the organizational activities (Boccia et al., 2019). Additionally, the approach plays a significant role in developing a concise strategy acting on the basis of research statistics regarding the diversity of market dynamics. An outline of the approaches will also enable the organization to guarantee the reality of its goals and objectives. On the contrary, the aspect of potential gaps in strategic planning is key in defining corporate social responsibility using the policy gap, delivery gap, knowledge gap, customer gap together with communication gap. Defining a policy gap relies on the analytical measures that are essential in determining the effectiveness of current organizational policies in comparison with recent policies. In this context, policy gaps illustrate the need for corporate social responsibility of organizations by evaluating both the internal and external environment.

On the contrary, the knowledge gap as a key concept of corporate social responsibility happens when employees of an organization have a copy of facts about the establishment with a corporate consent. Another key aspect of corporate social responsibility is the delivery gap as an advent issue to do with the policies formulating the objectives of human resource management in organizations. It overlooks the expectations of employees regarding their freedom and rights together with their roles in an establishment. In this context, when employees lack quality training and induction procedures, the reflection of the result is in the quality of service given to customers. The analogy behind customer gaps is an essential aspect of corporate social responsibility that exists as a result of the difference between customer expectations and the real-time quality of products and services during delivery (Yang & Jiang, 2023). On the contrary, the analogy behind the communication gap as a key aspect of corporate social responsibility exists when misinformation leads to misunderstandings regarding the point of view and intention of superiors. In this perspective, identifying potential gaps in strategic planning proffers essential data and information regarding the measure of performance. Additionally, it enables an organization to regularly analyze concurrent statistical data hence managing its business operations.


Corporate social responsibility and consumer behavior are inseparable factors in the scope of market dynamics. The role of organizations in society is to provide quality products and services and, in return, collect incentives in the form of marginal profits. In this perspective, strategic planning is necessary to ensure the organizations meet their corporate social responsibilities, which have a positive impact on consumer behavior. Additionally, understanding potential gaps in strategic planning ensures that organizations continually develop new strategic approaches and eradicate most of the negative aspects resulting from misinformation during decision-making processes. In this perspective, the objectives of the research overlook several factors, including the reliability of human resources, essential skill sets, and knowledgeability, together with the overall efficiency of processes.


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