Benefits Of Using Ashford University’s Library Homework Essay Sample

While conducting research or looking for some information, undergraduates can turn to various sources such as the Internet, databases, books, and so on. However, not all the sources should be considered trustworthy or relevant and can be used in academic research. To ensure that students have access to reliable data, Ashford University allows them to use Ashford Library throughout their time in this educational institution. The library offers a variety of academic resources available to all the undergraduates.

It is necessary to be able to sort through the huge variety of different means to get acute information. At first, it seems that conducting scholarly research is a challenging task; however, if a student knows the difference between kinds of sources and is aware of effective search practices, obtaining the needed data would be easy. There are two types of resources that students frequently come across during their studies, which are scholarly and popular sources (Ashford University Library, n.d.). Their purpose of the two types of sources is different as well as their reliability. For instance, the scholarly sources (such as certain books, scholarly journals, scientific publications) include a bibliography, while the popular sources do not.

The scholarly, academic or peer-reviewed journals contain articles that are written by academics or other experts in professional fields. They present the original research or the experimentation part of it to the group of scholars in this field and inform how the topic covered in the article was analyzed. An article usually goes through the peer review process before it is published in scholarly journals (Ashford University Library, n.d.).

During the review, the experts in this field analyze the substance, scientific significance, and scholarly soundness of the article. The popular sources, in its turn, dwell on how a specific topic has influenced the local population. It should be noted that both types of resources could be used in academic research.

Before conducting the research in the Ashford University Library (in databases, FindIt@AU search tool), it is crucial to define the main topic of the research. Then the topic should be broken into the key concepts so that it is easier to find the relevant information in the system (Ashford University Library, n.d.). It is advisable to enter one keyword (put in quotation marks) per search box to ensure the most precise results.

The databases retrieve information based on the entered keywords, they do not guess or understand the meaning of the search; instead, they show direct matches to the words (Ashford University Library, n.d.). Also, it would be a good idea to search for all the keywords and concepts needed for the assignment to make sure that all the necessary information was obtained. By referring to these library guidelines, the undergraduates will be able to find the information that fits their research needs, and then proceed to work on their assignments.

To sum it up, the Ashford University Library provides for successful academic research of its undergraduates. To obtain the necessary information effectively and efficiently, the students should be aware of the best search practices that will guarantee accurate and factual results. The students should narrow down the area of research to several keywords and enter them into search boxes; thus, the system would offer reliable sources by subject. For many students time is the factor; consequently, the effective way of database searching rather than general searches on the web, will save time and ensure credible information.


Ashford University Library. (n.d.). Quick ‘n’ dirty: Ashford university library. Web.

Gastric Cancer Treatment: Research Instrument

Selecting an Existing Instrument for a Study

When a researcher selects an existing instrument for application in a study, several major factors must be taken into account. In the first place, preference should be given to instruments that ensure the validity and reliability of the collected data. Furthermore, the results obtained must be potentially comparable with the data collected by other researchers during previous investigations on the same or a related topic.

The reliability of an instrument is reflected in the consistency of measure, whereas validity determines the degree to which this particular instrument can reflect the item under examination. Responsiveness is another important factor in the selection of an existing instrument. This term refers to the capability of the measure to track the changes that happen to the object of study over time. Responsiveness is particularly significant in the estimation of the consequences of various medical interventions (Zohrabi, 2013).

Even though a lot of information is available regarding how to select an existing instrument, the task can be difficult. One of the most appropriate traditional approaches is to conduct a thorough review of the literature (books, journals, peer-reviewed articles, etc.) that provides detailed descriptions of different instruments and their most suitable applications. Databases and other credible online resources are also helpful in this endeavor. Traditional medical sources (such as PubMed) are not the only resources to investigate in locating an instrument—in fact, it is highly advisable to address materials from other spheres to see how an instrument can be applied in different fields, as well as identifying the field in which its application yields the best results (Mohamad, Sulaiman, Sern, & Salleh, 2015).

Locating an instrument presupposes, taking into consideration not only whether it meets the goals of the intended research but also the associated financial, ethical, and time issues related to its use.

Search for an Existing Instrument to Address the Research Question

My research question addresses the issue: “In Hispanic patients with gastric cancer, does the prevalence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting differ in patients treated with conventional medicine compared to patients who receive herbal treatment in the form of ginger?” Thus, I must select a tool that would best suit assessing the quality of life in patients who undergo cancer therapy. To obtain objective results, it is necessary to assess the situation from both the researcher’s and the patient’s perspective.

As a result, it is necessary to apply several instruments within the quantitative experimental design: The researcher must perform both a patient record survey and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT). The first instrument will allow obtaining background data that will have a higher degree of validity and reliability than patient-reported information as it will be supported by evidence. Types of measures will be magnitude, duration, the occurrence of an event, and severity. However, the exclusive use of medical records as an information source does not offer an objective evaluation of vomiting connected with cancer-related therapy.

FACT offers the most suitable patient-reported outcome measure in the form of a questionnaire that will assess four aspects (physical, emotional, functional, and social) of the impact of both conventional and herbal treatment, providing a holistic picture of the patient’s state. The tool has 27 questions that use a 5-point scale (0-4), in which higher numbers indicate a better state. FACT scores have been proven to have Cronbach’s α of 0.8 or above, which shows perfect reliability while at the same time having good construct validity (Zhou et al., 2012). This allows stating that in combination with medical record research, this instrument will provide all the necessary data for the comparative assessment of the two measures under discussion.


Mohamad, M. M., Sulaiman, N. L., Sern, L. C., & Salleh, K. M. (2015). Measuring the validity and reliability of research instruments. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 204(1), 164-171.

Zhou, H. J., So, J. B., Yong, W. P., Luo, N., Zhu, F., Naidoo, N.,… Yeoh, K. G. (2012). Validation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy-gastric module for the Chinese population. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 10(1), 145-153.

Zohrabi, M. (2013). Mixed method research: Instruments, validity, reliability and reporting findings. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(2), 254-262.

Chinese Immigrants’ Socio-Cultural Group

A Brief History of the Cultural/Socio-Cultural Group

Chinese immigrants were first introduced as railroad builders in the American West. Due to an increased influx of Chinese immigrants, the Chinese Exclusion Act was issued in 1882 (Chinese Immigration and the Chinese Exclusion Acts, n.d.). It suspended the immigration of Chinese laborers for ten years and was only abolished by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1943 (Repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act, 1943, n.d.).


Chinese values include collectiveness, subtleness, respect for the opinions of others, submission to authority, respect for the elderly, meekness, and patriarchic family structure (Moran, Moran, & Abramson, 2011). These values usually collide with the craving for individualism and equality in the case of American Chinese.


“The pursuit of peace, amity and harmony is an integral part of the Chinese character which runs deep in the blood of the Chinese people” (Varrall, 2015, para. 23).

Language and Communication Patterns

Chinese is one of the oldest written languages the patterns of which are based on structures and intonations. Chinese are very particular about the roles interlocutors play in the communication process (for example, the communication between a teacher and a student warrants certain “proper” behavior from each of the participants). However, American Chinese tend to implement American patterns of communication.

Art and Other Expressive Forms

The history of Chinese art started around 1500 AD. Ever since learning about Buddhism during the rule of the Han Dynasty, the Chinese experience a huge influence on Buddhist art styles on their paintings, literature, and music. The Mongol invasions were also a great driving force behind Chinese art, namely painting. Under the Ming Dynasty, the art styles and influences underwent reconstruction and revision with still-life painting becoming the most wide-spread trend.

Norms and Rules

Traditional Chinese norms and rules are those of a collectivist society that teaches dependence on relatives, friends, and colleagues/schoolmates. They usually morph into something more individualistic in American society.

Lifestyle Characteristics

The lifestyle of the Chinese is revolving around family values. The family is considered to be the most basic unit of society and a means to achieve success and acceptance.

Relationship Patterns

Three social groups mentioned above decide your behavior. It does not apply to the Chinese who was born and raised in America, however.

Common Rituals

Chinese common rituals, apart from usual events like weddings and funerals, include festivals (Chinese New Year, Lantern Festival, Qingming Festival, etc.), specific rules of etiquette (greeting people is by bowing, not finishing your portion of food as not to show disrespect towards your host, etc.), and superstitions (do not read books at work because the Chinese word for “book” also means “loss”; do not offer an umbrella to your friend as it signifies parting ways, etc.).

Degree of Assimilation or Marginalization from Mainstream Society

The results of Chinese assimilation in America are rather positive, mostly because many Chinese immigrants converted to Christianity.

Health Behaviors and Practices

American Chinese are more aware of the state of their health and various bad influences and often do not need additional health education or other health promotion work. They have better access to the health-preserving facilities and practices than the actual Chinese. China has “a large health care demand gap” because of its aging population, rapid urbanization, increasing consumer wealth, fast-spreading diseases, and “the advancement of universal health care insurance” (Nofri, 2015).

It mostly uses primary care infrastructure consisting of health centers and stations. The condition of medical care is especially dire in the rural regions, as expected. The situation was attempted to be changed through several reforms on the insurance policies, the supply of affordable basic drugs, the quality of public healthcare in rural regions, although the results are still far from exceeding the American level of medical care.


Chinese Immigration and the Chinese Exclusion Acts. (n.d.). Web.

Moran, R., Harris, P., & Moran, S. (2011). Managing Cultural Differences. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Nofri, E. M. (2015). The Chinese Healthcare System: How It Works And Future Trends. Web.

Repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act, 1943. (n.d.) Web.

Varrall, M. (2016). Chinese Worldviews and China’s Foreign Policy. Web.

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