Bill Analysis: H.R. 1368, Mental Health Justice Act Of 2021 Essay Example For College

The official name of the bill is H.R. 1368, Mental Health Justice Act of 2021. The purpose of the bill was to propose provisions that resolve the gaps in serving people will mental illnesses. The goals of the acts include funding the state and the local government in hiring, training, and releasing mental health professionals to respond in place of law enforcement officers in handling injustices involving individuals with suspected mental heath, intellectual, developmental issues and substance abuse. The act would also offer mental health professionals training concerning de-escalation techniques during a crisis. In addition, the act mandated the mental health professionals with roles of presenting Individuals identified as battling substance abuse and mental health issues with short voluntary community-based services. The act also stipulated that the states train professionals in the dispatching centres in de-escalation skills. The act also proposed motivation systems for rewarding professionals who demonstrate competencies in reducing the rates of incarcerating and killing individuals with mental health issues and lowering the enforcement of police brutality and reducing the high referral rates if a persons with mental health, developmental and intellectuals challenges in community-based services, and voluntary support services.


The facts related to the issues that the law seeks to address include the mental health considerations for incarcerated Americans. The National Alliance for mental health provided data which indicated that about 2 million American adults with mental health challenges are registered in jail yearly (NAMI, n.d). The data estimated that women with a history of mental illness contributed to 66% of the population, and about 70% of youths with diagnosable mental health conditions, leading to about 64% of the inmates with mental health issues (NAMI, n.d). These statistics indicate that people with mental illnesses always portray behaviours that increase their chances of interacting with law enforcement officers involving homelessness and substance abuse. Therefore, these concerns contribute to the numerous detention facilities in America due to the mass detention of individuals with mental health challenges.

The states also utilize intensive finances in managing individuals who could get assistance from mental health care due to weaknesses of justice towards them. As a result, the government uses taxpayers money to cater for the high dentation rates. For instance, a financial statement from from the federal register indicates that the federal states used $102.6 daily to cater for the inmates housing in 2018 (Federal Register, 2019). These expenditures indicate that the states use heavy finances on inmates, which could be helpful when directed towards psychiatric treatment. This evidence became overwhelming when considering the costs in relation to untreated mental illnesses and its impact on families, communities and individuals. Therefore, the mental health act of 2021 was proposed to address these issues.

Legislation Support and Rationale

The mental health act of 2021 is still on hold since its introduction in the congress house. As a result, the citizens can experience challenges in anticipating the type of opposition the bill encounters in its introduction phase. The factors that can are likely to affect the process include concerns of the community advocates about the organ in charge of determining individuals with mental health challenges. My reasons for opposing the legislation include its focus on institutionalization. Various states, such as the united states (US), have varying civil commitment laws that emphasize involuntary institutionalization of people that can cause harm to themselves and other individuals. For instance, Florida commits individuals with mental health issues involuntarily under the Backer Act when they meet criteria which include reasonable beliefs that the individual has mental illnesses, the individual suspected of mental challenges fails to undertake voluntary assessment, and that failure to treat the individual can cause feelings of neglect, leading to harmful behaviors that overpowers the help of other individuals (CCHR Florida, 2022). Laws of this type can hinder the implementation of the mental health justice act of 2021 due to its focus on voluntary institutionalization. In addition, the bill can also face opposition due to the ambiguity in the program management and the structure of mental health care. For instance, the act does not outline where there are sufficient voluntary programs, resources and implementation. Therefore, the act does not provide comprehensive information about its programming details.

Policies Addressing Similar Problems

The other policies intended to address similar problems includes H.R. 7254, mental justice, and H.R. 8542, mental health justice act of 2022. The H.R. 7254, still in the introduction phase, developed a grant program for emergency response mental health professionals. The alternative policy changes that the acts explores include eliminating the laws that allow the non-governmental organizations offering insurance programs from self-funding to withdraw from the requirements to maintain parity in covering mental health and mental health services. The H.R 8542, passed bill through Congress majority, proposed $250 million in financing the Indian tribes, Urban Indian organizations, and technical state assistants to train, employ, hire and deploy mental health professionals to respond in a crises involving individuals with substance abuse disorders, and mental health challenges in place of law enforcement officers (Porter, 2022). It explored alternative policies that stipulate a compulsory mandate for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to award grants to the state and the local governments to conduct training programs for mental health professionals and send them to emergencies involving individuals demonstrating behavioural requirements. The H.R. 8542 also mandates the SAMHSW compulsory engagement with the Department of Justice (DOJ) in managing the training programs. The act also provides SAMHSA with the authority to withhold funds that can influence an increase in institutionalization and incarceration. Therefore, the organizations that offer the grant have a compulsory mandate to use the funds for relevant purposes, such as training programs involving anti-racism and de-escalation.


The population of individuals with mental health issues are vulnerable to the criminal justice system. The population are always at risk of inappropriate arrest and detention in prisons due to a lack of awareness and resources, such as health professionals, to handle them. For instance, police officers always arrest them due to negligible behaviours such as wandering in the streets. A study shows that close to 12% of psychiatric patients receiving treatment in the San Diego healthcare system have a history of incarcerating and diagnosing 28% of patients residing in Connecticut with bipolar illness have been once arrested (Ghiasi et al., 2021). The factors contributing to these statistics include the lack of mental health services for the population due to the deinstitutionalization of psychiatric state hospitals. The H.R 8542 mental health justice act of 2022 will have a positive impact on the population. The policy has a defined budget for conducting its programs. In addition, the policy mandates SAMHSA to work closely with the DOJ in consultation matters relating to individuals with mental health challenges. For example, substance abuse contributes to the most independent factor that compels individuals with mental challenges into violence. The act will address these issues easily since it gives SAMHSA the basic role of assessing substance abuse among the population. In addition, individuals with mental health challenges also experience challenges in getting treatment due to a lack of funding in the mental health care system. The H.R 8542 mental health justice act will reduce the financial issues due to the sufficient budgeting for mental health problems. Therefore, the policy will address the issues affecting individuals with mental issues when implemented effectively.

The role is Social Workers

The social workers can collaborate with interdisciplinary teams, such as the team involved in the mental health justice act programs to provide intensive assistance to individuals with mental health challenges. The social workers will help in creating an environment that respects the dignity and diversity of the population. Social workers will assist the interprofessional teams in developing treatment plans based on the population’s need. The specific activities that they can execute include collaborating with the organizations such as the SAMHSA to offer additional support in handling individuals diagnosed with substance use. They can also offer cognitive, and psychosocial evaluations to identified individuals with mental health challenges. They can advocate on behalf of the families of people detained with underlying mental conditions. Therefore, social workers will play significant roles in reducing the cases of incarcerating individuals with mental issues.

The current and alternative policy can affect social work in different ways. For instance, the mental health justice act of 2021 will give the social worker the opportunity to advocate against over presentation of individuals with mental health in criminal justice. For instance, there will advocate for laws that prevent the police officers from maiming the vulnerable population. In addition, the policy will motivate social workers recruited in its program to deliver quality service through its reward system. The mental health act of 2022 will also enable the social workers to liaise with SAMSHA in managing individuals with substance abuse issues. The bill will also enable social workers to address the overrepresentation of minority races in the population in prisons. They will achieve this goal by advocating against racial overrepresentation in line with the recommendations of the bill. Therefore, these policies will influence social workers’ practice positively.


The most effective policy to handle the issues of criminality and mental challenges should consist of a flexible, economic, and assessable approach to accessing mental health services. These characteristics will enable the policy programs to meet the needs of the community and criminal victims significantly. The approach will also provide quality healthcare to the population, improving their overall well-being and enhancing their significance in the country’s production. The connection between mental illness and law enforcement accompanies complicated implications in the community. This complication emphasizes the need to conduct comprehensive surveys and research to evaluate and avail the possible solutions to mental health treatment. However, there is inadequate evidence to illustrate how mental challenges influence criminal behaviours independently. Therefore, favourable policies such as the mental health justice act of 2022 will assist in reducing over the presentation of individuals with mental issues in criminal justice.

An interprofessional team that consists of psychiatrist advocates, social workers, and criminal justice advocates can collaborate to identify and propose effective measures and strategies that can help reduce factors that compel people with mental challenges to engage in crime. For instance, the team can involve experts with knowledge at different levels, mandated with the role of identifying individuals with mental issues during the initial stages and providing proposals and solutions to factors such as food and shelter to prevent the individuals from engaging with law enforcement. Social work organizations can also provide essential services to the criminals in detention, such as education, rehabilitation and empowerment. The interprofessional teams can also liaise with social work organizations to mobilize the public against identifying criminals as individuals with mental challenges. Therefore, these approaches will create a positive environment between the law enforcement officers, the community and the individuals with mental issues.


Porter, K. (2022, September 22). Statement of Administration Policy.

CCHR Florida. (2020, March 27). Involuntary commitment law in Florida – Citizens Commission on Human Rights, CCHR. Citizens Commission on Human Rights, CCHR.

Ghiasi, N., Azhar, Y., & Singh, J. (2022). Psychiatric illness and criminality. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.

Federal Register. (2019, November 19). Annual determination of average cost of incarceration fee (COIF).

NAMI. (n.d.). Criminalization of people with mental illness. NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness.

NAMI. (n.d.). Mental health by the numbers. NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness.

Dealing With Workers And Customers In A Restaurant Environment Free Writing Sample

The restaurant industry is a complex, multifaceted, and challenging business sector that requires effective management of both workers and customer relationship management interventions. The paper explores seven critical challenges associated with dealing with employees and customers in a restaurant and provides solutions and recommendations to address them.

High Turnover Rates

A profound challenge in the restaurant industry is high turnover rates. It arises from various factors that include but are not limited to insufficient remuneration, extended working hours, and overall employee satisfaction that exacerbates the difficulty in reducing quality costs (Dwesini, 2019). High turnover rates are associated with decreased production, higher training expenses, and the inability to meet customer expectations. Restaurant owners and managers must increase employee retention to address excessive turnover rates. The execution of the intervention takes the form of giving competitive pay, benefits like health insurance and paid time off, and an enabling work environment. Additionally, allowing employees to grow professionally through continuous professional development can make them feel important and invested in the restaurant’s success.

Poor Customer Service

In the restaurant business, bad customer service is another issue that frequently arises. It results from poor working conditions, understaffing, or inadequate training. Customer churn and revenue decline are both correlated with subpar customer service. Owners and managers must spend on customer service training for hotel staff to meet the challenge. Training on welcoming clients, taking orders, and dealing with complaints can fall under this category. Employees can be inspired to deliver extraordinary service that meets and exceeds client expectations when management provides incentives for excellent customer service, such as bonuses or recognition, and goal setting as stipulated in Locke and Latham’s (2019) goal-motivation theory.

Inefficient Operations

Extended wait times, order mismatches, and the inability to meet the client’s constantly shifting demands and desires can all result from inefficient operations. Restaurant owners and managers should consider implementing Total Quality Management interventions, such as Lean techniques, to address inefficient operations since a lack of organization, poor communication, or outdated technology exacerbates the issue. This methodology aims to reduce waste and increase efficiency by streamlining processes and enhancing communication. This can involve implementing technology, such as employing software to track inventories and orders or online ordering systems.

Food Safety Concerns

Due to related healthcare issues, food safety concerns are a significant issue in the restaurant sector. This may be brought on by incorrect food handling, insufficient training, or an absence of the necessary tools. By implementing appropriate training and procedures for food handling and hygiene, investing in appropriate equipment like refrigeration and temperature-controlled trucks, and routinely inspecting the restaurant for cleanliness and safety, restaurant owners and managers can reduce food safety concerns. Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 requirements, which require companies to train employees on workplace hazards, tools, policies, and procedures used to reduce risks, must also be followed.

Lack of Innovation 

Inadequate innovation can result in lowered customer satisfaction, lost sales, and obsolescence, rendering it harder for restaurants to establish a suitably competitive edge over rivals. It results from the desire to maintain the status quo while resisting change or failing to invest in cutting-edge technology. According to Bhat & Sharma (2022), accepting innovation is necessary for solving the problem effectively. Hotel management should encourage and empower broad-based action to support innovation by investing in cutting-edge equipment like online ordering platforms or mobile apps, experimenting with new menu items, customer relations management, and supporting employee innovation.

 Environmental sustainability

The entire economy must overcome massive obstacles to deal with environmental issues and their effects on daily operations. Corporate social responsibility has gained widespread acceptance due to environmental sustainability concerns, and according to Farooq et al. (2022), it is responsible for green luxury. The notion has attracted the attention of international organizations, society, NGOs, employees, and regulatory organizations due to the potential benefits. Businesses should alter their practices and plans to protect the environment and natural resources. The financial sector can significantly aid environmental sustainability. Financial institutions, stock trading firms, credit card issuers, and businesses engaged in consumer finance are just a few examples of the many services that have embraced green business. Corporate social responsibility has gained widespread acceptance due to environmental sustainability concerns.

Language barriers

A fast-food restaurant’s service Language hurdles may exist for workers for whom English is a second language, which may impact their employment experiences. There may be a discrepancy between how fast-food employees view their language abilities and how their boss or supervisor views their capacity for managerial responsibilities. Employers must fund English language programs for these workers to support their language learning journeys to address the situation (Nanbu & Greer, 2022). It would help the employees in their personal and professional lives and close the perception gap between manager/supervisor and employee regarding their language abilities. Modern methods and feasible forms of competence management include retraining, participation in seminars, training programs, master classes, and self-education. The structure of competencies of employees of the hotel and restaurant business should be analyzed, and priority should be given to the competence approach in training specialists.


Bhat, D. A. R., & Sharma, V. (2022). Enabling service innovation and firm performance: the role of co-creation and technological innovation in the hospitality industry. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management34(7), 774-786.

Dwesini, N. F. (2019). Causes and prevention of high employee turnover within the hospitality industry: A literature review. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism, and Leisure8(3), 1-15.

Farooq, R., Zhang, Z., Talwar, S., & Dhir, A. (2022). Do green human resource management and self-efficacy facilitate green creativity? A study of luxury hotels and resorts. Journal of Sustainable Tourism30(4), 824-845.

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2019). The development of goal setting theory: A half-century retrospective. Motivation Science5(2), 93.

Nanbu, Z., & Greer, T. (2022). Creating Obstacles to Progressivity: Task Expansion in Second Language Role‐Plays. TESOL Quarterly.

Destination Marketing And Its Economic Impact On Tourist Arrivals Sample College Essay


Karen Hughes stated that the tourism and travel sector is not just a place but a considerable section of a nation’s economy. Marketing a location, also known as destination marketing, is a management process that involves demand-driven research, advertising, and communication activities, emphasizing potential customers from the outside. Its primary objective is to entice visitors, tourists, investors, students at educational institutions, or skilled workers. The tourism sector significantly emphasizes destination marketing as a critical component. It entails promoting a specific location to people interested in visiting it as tourists, with the ultimate goal of persuading them to visit it (Ingrassia et al., 2022). In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in determining the economic impact that destination marketing has on the number of tourists that arrive at a particular location. It entails locating the destination’s most advantageous and competitively enticing assets in the eyes of potential visitors, constructing a narrative out of these assets that distinguish the destination from its rivals, and ensuring that this narrative is carried out consistently throughout all marketing communications for the destination. Even with the relevance of destination marketing, there is a need for more studies on the precise financial impact of destination marketing on visitor arrivals. This research paper addresses the gap by evaluating the relationship between destination marketing and tourism in New York.

Literature review

According to Papatheodorou (2006), an integrated marketing communication approach is paramount for successful destination marketing. He says that to properly market and position a location among the chosen audience, a marketing communication strategy that is both thorough and coordinated is required. The marketing communication plan for a destination should be customized to its unique qualities, such as its location, culture, attraction, and infrastructures, alongside the needs and preferences of the audience visiting the place. For a communication strategy to be successful, it is necessary to consider various aspects, such as the media utilized, the message sent, and the intended consequence. According to Papatheodorou (2006), a destination’s marketing plan succeeds when it includes many stakeholders, including tourist boards, travel agents, hotels, and local businesses. Maintaining a unified brand voice and message across all platforms demands careful planning and constant communication. An all-encompassing plan must consider relevant elements and encourage cooperation amongst relevant parties. This tact allows destination marketers to successfully advertise their locations and develop a memorable brand image.

In addition, Sotiriadis (2020) summarises the research done in the field of tourism destination marketing. The article focuses on the most critical ideas, philosophies, and practices within the industry, and it stresses the need to adopt a strategic and integrated method when approaching destination marketing. When marketing a destination, it is essential to have a solid understanding of the target audience’s demographics and preferences, as well as the roles that branding, communication, and stakeholder collaboration play in sculpting the image and identity of a location. There is a requirement for a marketing mix plan that is both all-encompassing and well-coordinated, and that strategy should involve various communication methods and platforms. A focus must be placed on the significance of adopting a strategic and integrated method of destination marketing and that insights into the most significant difficulties and possibilities connected with this industry be uncovered.

Becken (2002) strongly emphasizes the relevance of destination branding as an essential part of destination marketing. According to the article, destination branding develops a distinctive image and personality for a location to separate it from similar destinations and entice potential visitors. It is essential to take a methodical, step-by-step approach when developing a successful brand for a destination. This includes determining the destination’s unique selling proposition (USP), defining the personality and values of the brand, and developing a brand identity that reflects the distinctive qualities and features specific to the destination. Similarly, the significance of the involvement and engagement of stakeholders in the branding process must be considered. Furthermore, efficient destination branding takes persistence and cooperation among all marketing channels, such as advertising, public relations, and digital media. A well-crafted destination brand can assist in establishing an emotional attachment with prospective visitors, thereby enhancing the visitors’ interest in and engagement with the specific destination.

From a global viewpoint, Pritchard (2011) lays out the many difficulties and potential rewards of destination marketing. They are realizing the significance of cultural variations and tailoring marketing approaches to the requirements of overseas markets. Adapting destination marketing techniques to suit individual foreign markets is a significant concept in the field. Marketing a place requires in-depth familiarity with the targeted demographic and an awareness of the cultural nuances that must be considered while designing campaigns. Not only do people have different languages and cultural norms, but they also have different travel habits and reasons for seeing the world. Destination marketing relies heavily on active participation and cooperation from key stakeholders. Destination marketing is most successful when it includes several parties, such as residents, business owners in the tourist industry, and government organizations. Collaboration and marketing alignment with broader economic, social, and environmental goals may be achieved by establishing partnerships and networks. It is also essential to think about how technology and digital media function in the context of destination marketing. According to Pritchard (2011), the advent of the Internet and social media has completely changed how tourism spots are advertised, allowing for more specific and individualized approaches to promotion. Gathering information about tourists’ habits and likes with technology may help shape advertising campaigns and enhance the trip for those who visit a specific location.

Furthermore, given the complexity and fluidity of the area, Fyall, Garrod, and Tosun’s (2007) paradigm for future study in destination marketing is timely and vital. The authors claim that knowing how internal and external elements interact to build a place’s image and attraction to potential tourists is essential for efficient destination marketing. A framework is required that considers the destination product, the marketing mix, and the destination setting while promoting a destination. The natural and cultural resources, infrastructure, and services that make up a destination are only some of the physical aspects of the destination product dimension. Advertising, public relations, and sales promotions are all part of the marketing communication methods that may be utilized to spread the word about the holiday spot, which make up one part of the marketing mix. The destination context considers the role of stakeholders and cooperation in destination marketing and the more extensive social, cultural, economic, and political variables that define a destination’s image and desirability. Destination marketers must keep up with the ever-evolving tastes of the tourist industry and adjust their marketing tactics appropriately. However, they must also take a holistic and integrated strategy considering the connections between each framework’s components.

Moreover, the article by Tran and Rudolf (2022) comprehensively assesses the literature on social media applications in tourist destination branding. The authors investigate the impact of social media platforms on the promotion of travel destinations, the creation of brand awareness, and the formation of travellers’ impressions of the places they visit. Because of its ability to sway visitors’ choices, the rising significance of social media in the tourism sector is vital. This is because of the potential that it has to affect the decision-making process of tourists. It is now only possible to successfully sell a place by extensively using social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube. Tourism organizations and destination marketing companies use these platforms more often to communicate with travellers and promote their locations. Because visitors can now share their experiences and views with an audience worldwide, the conventional top-down strategy for marketing holiday destinations has shifted due to the rise of social media.

Pike and Page’s (2014) narrative review of the literature on DMOs and destination marketing is thorough. By examining the fundamental themes and concepts in the literature, the authors want to better understand the theoretical and practical elements of destination marketing. DMOs are well-recognized in this setting for their contributions to tourist marketing and the enhancement of destination attractiveness. Teamwork and partnerships between several parties are essential for a successful destination marketing campaign. A thriving destination marketing campaign often results from collaborative efforts among DMOs, governments, commercial sector organizations, and local communities. Working together as partners has several benefits for the tourist industry, including better alignment of interests, improved product and service quality, and promotion of a destination’s appeal. With the proliferation of smartphones and other digital devices, DMOs increasingly turn to digital technology to advertise their destinations to visitors. DMOs must adjust to these shifts by creating digital marketing models that use digital media’s potential.

Bunghez (2020) investigates the connection between tour operators’ advertising tactics and the tourism business’s long-term health. While travel agents are the primary focus of the research, the results may be applied to destination marketing as a whole. Sustainable tourism businesses promote their services by highlighting the destination’s natural and cultural features and the agency’s commitment to social responsibility and ethical business practices. This data supports the idea that destination marketing campaigns highlighting eco-friendliness and social responsibility are likelier to entice visitors with similar beliefs. Successful customer acquisition is often associated with digital marketing channels, including social media, email marketing, and search engine optimization (SEO). Digital marketing campaigns for tourist destinations are equally efficient in reaching potential customers. There is a correlation between a travel agency’s level of client happiness and loyalty and the extent to which it allows for personalized holiday packages and experiences. In light of these findings, destination marketing campaigns that emphasize the unique and individual opportunities available at a particular location are more likely to lure visitors and establish a favourable reputation.

Research design and methodology

A quantitative research approach was utilized for the study, which entailed gathering and examining various numerical data. The quantitative research entailed surveys from New York through the analysis of surveys from the companies and data presented by the state articles. The research covered companies like New York City Tourism + Conventions and New York City Guide and the contribution of tourists to New York. The visitors who have already been to New York City have commended the functioning and operations of destination marketing through their impressions of the marketing methods employed by New York agencies. In addition, the survey, through questionnaires from New York City Tourism + Conventions and New York City Guide managers and New York policymakers, provided data about the destination marketing strategies that have been put into action.

Statistical procedures such as correlation analysis and regression analysis were utilized in the process of analyzing the data that was obtained. The research investigated the connection between marketing a location, the number of visitors who visit that place, and the economic effect on the growth of their respective regions. To boost the accuracy of the research results, integrate various data types in the analysis, save time, and a host of other benefits, the research critically considered the benefits of Big Data and Deep Learning algorithms. This research by Liu et al. (2020) bridges the literature on picture extraction and machine learning on the one hand and the brand literature on the other to extract information from various articles and government articles. It presents a strategy to access the system brands and market intelligence and aggregates consumer-generated photos. Natural language processing, sometimes known as NLP, is a computer science subfield that describes how computers recognize, interpret, and reproduce the structures of natural languages. The fields of mathematics and computer science are inextricably intertwined with linguistics. Natural language processing (NLP) is typically understood to be a subfield of both artificial intelligence and language. As a result, a thorough knowledge of the viewpoints of both domestic and foreign visitors on the branding of New York City may be achieved via social media.

Findings and implications

The research revealed insightful new knowledge on the economic influence that destination marketing has on the number of visitors. The research identified the marketing tactics that are the most effective in drawing visitors to New York City and gave recommendations for destination managers and policymakers on how to enhance their efforts to advertise the area. New York City Tourism + Conventions and New York City Guide are two marketing destination agencies that have remained relevant and successful because of the use of the Internet to advertise their services. In addition, New York City Tourism + Conventions has succeeded by adhering to its mission of maximizing travel and tourism opportunities all through New York while building economic success and spreading the dynamic image of New York City worldwide.

In the financial year ending in June 2020, New York City Tourism + Conventions had contract funds at $21.2 million from $20.9 million in 2019 (NYC & Company, n.d). After Covid 19 and doing away with the restrictions, destination marketing is expected to experience tremendous success, improving the city’s economic growth. New York City Guide, according to recent data presented by the United States Travel Association, direct spending on travel in the United States reached $1.2 trillion in 2022, which was in line with levels seen prior to the epidemic as a result of the economic footprint of $2.6 trillion (Wolff, 2023). Hotel bookings stood at 98% of their pre-pandemic levels, and airline ticket sales achieved an all-time high by increasing by 22% yearly to set a new record. The hospitality industry led the city’s growth, but New York City still needs more people to be hired to keep up with the tourist demand.

More than 376,800 jobs (or approximately 10 per cent of total private sector employment) depend on the tourist industry in New York City (DiNapoli, 2021). Hospitality and transportation form the sector’s backbone, a dynamic ecology of attractions, including performances, events, shopping, and dining.

Contribution of Tourism to New York economy

Graph showing the contribution of tourism to the New York economy from the year 2019 to 2022

The vital signs of an industry may be gauged by looking at visitor numbers and tourist expenditures. The number of tourists that visited New York City in 2020 fell by 67% from the record high of $86.6 million in 2019, while their expenditure fell by 73% to $47.4 billion due to the Covid-19 epidemic (DiNapoli, 2021). In 2019, as defined by OSC, the tourist business accounted for a record 283,200 jobs, 7.2% of private sector employment, and 4.5% of private sector incomes. This was a 35% increase from 2009 levels, higher than the overall 30% increase in private-sector employment. According to OSC projections, employment in 2020 dropped to 194,200, a decrease of 31.4% (or 89,000 jobs) and the lowest level since 2004 (DiNapoli, 2021). In 2019, 53.5% of the state’s total tourist jobs were in the City of New York, which explains the impact of destination marketing on the city. The study’s findings stress the value of cooperation among tourist sector players. Many parties, such as local companies, tour operators, travel agencies, and destination managers, must all work together for a destination’s marketing campaign to succeed.

An increase in the number of tourists that visit a location may lead to an increase in the amount of money spent, the number of jobs created, and the amount of tax income collected, all of which can be beneficial to the community’s cultural landmarks, natural beauty, and regional food, which might pique a traveller’s interest in a potential holiday spot and encourage them to book a trip there as in the case of New York City. If destination managers and politicians understand these motives better, they will be better equipped to craft marketing tactics that align with their target audience’s interests and preferences.


In conclusion, this study provided critical analysis to fill a vacuum in existing research on the economic influence that destination marketing has on the number of visitors it attracts. In this study, a quantitative research approach was taken, and the data gathered through secondary sources, interviews, and surveys from New York City Tourism + Conventions and New York City Guide indicated the massive impact of destination marketing on New York City’s GDP. The research identified the marketing strategies like proper advertisements of the places and the organizations and excellent customer service through well-laid plans and mission as the most effective in luring tourists to the destination. Additionally, the research recommended that government officials and managers of destination marketing organizations should work together to form policies that create desirable conditions for the success of tourism. The results of this study had significant repercussions for the tourism sector and led to a better understanding of the link between destination marketing and the number of tourists who visit New York City and other locations.


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