Biography Of Singer Whitney Houston Essay Sample For College

Whitney Elizabeth Houston was born into a musical family on 9 August 1963, in Newark, New Jersey, the daughter of gospel star Cissy Houston, cousin of singing star Dionne Warwick and goddaughter of soul legend Aretha Franklin. She began singing in the choir at her church, The New Hope Baptist Church in Newark, as a young child and by the age of 15 was singing backing vocals professionally with her mother on Chaka Khan’s 1978 hit, ‘I’m Every Woman’.

She went on to provide backing vocals for Lou Rawls, Jermaine Jackson and her own mother and worked briefly as a model, appearing on the cover of ‘Seventeen’ magazine in 1981. She began working as a featured vocalist for the New York-based funk band Material and it was the quality of her vocal work with them that attracted the attention of the major record labels, including Arista with whom she signed in 1983 and where she stayed for the rest of her career.

Her debut album, ‘Whitney Houston’, was released in 1985 and became the biggest-selling album by a debut artist. Several hit singles, including ‘Saving All My Love For You’, ‘How Will I Know’, ‘You Give Good Love’, and ‘The Greatest Love of All’, were released from the album, setting her up for a Beatles-beating seven consecutive US number ones. The album itself sold 3 million copies in its first year in the US and went on to sell 25 million worldwide, winning her the first of her six Grammies.

The 1987 follow-up album, ‘Whitney’, which included the hits ‘Where Do Broken Hearts Go’ and ‘I Wanna Dance With Somebody’, built on her success but it was the 1992 film The Bodyguard (1992) that sealed her place as one of the best-selling artists of all time. While the movie itself and her performance in it were not highly praised, the soundtrack album and her cover of the Dolly Parton song ‘I Will Always Love You’ topped the singles and albums charts for months and sold 44 million copies around the world.

That same year she married ex-New Edition singer Bobby Brown with whom she had her only child, their daughter Bobbi Kristina Brown in March 1993. It was about this time that her much documented drug use began and by 1996 she was a daily user. Her 1998 album, ‘My Love Is Your Love’ was well reviewed but the drug abuse began to affect her reputation and press reports at the time said that she was becoming difficult to work with, if she turned up at all. She was dropped from a performance at The 72nd Annual Academy Awards (2000) (TV) because she was “out of it” at rehearsals.

Her weight fluctuated wildly – she was so thin at a ‘Michael Jackson’ tribute in 2001 that rumors circulated the next day that she had died – and her voice began to fail her. She was twice admitted to rehab and declared herself drug-free in 2010 but returned to rehab in May 2011. Her 2009 comeback album ‘I Look To You’ was positively received and sold well, but promotional performances were still marred by her weakened voice. Her final acting performance was in Sparkle (2012/I) (a remake of the 1976 movie, Sparkle (1976)), released after her death. She was found dead in a Beverly Hills hotel room on 11 February 2012.

General Trends In Fashion

1990s General Trends • The popularity of grunge and alternative rock music also helped bring the simple, unkempt grunge look mainstream. In general, the 1990s saw a general minimalist aesthetic in fashion,[3] contrasted to the more elaborate and flashy trends of the 1980s. Additionally, fashion trends throughout the decade started recycling styles from previous decades,[4] notably the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, a trend which would continue into the 2000s and 2010s. The top-models of the 1990s were Linda Evangelista, Cindy Crawford, Naomi Campbell, Eva Herzigova, Nadja Auermann, Christy Turlington, Kate Moss, Carla Bruni, Tatiana Sorokko, Helena Christensen, Claudia Schiffer, Yasmeen Ghauri, Stephanie Seymour, Carolyn Murphy, Amber Valletta, Shalom Harlow, and Tyra Banks. [edit] Womens fashion [edit] Early 1990s [edit] Neon colors • The early 1990s saw a continuation of 1980s fashion: women wore denim button down shirts, neon colors, oversized sweaters, T-shirts, sweatshirts, baby doll dresses, trenchcoats lined with fake fur, and black leather jackets.

Matching jeans and denim jackets began to be made in darker shades rather than the bleached acid wash of the 1980s. • From 1990 onwards, many women wore tight-fitting trousers with elastic boot-straps (stirrup pants/leggings), drainpipe jeans, colored tights, bike shorts, and tartan skirts. Popular accessories included court shoes, cowboy boots, headscarves, leggings, and penny loafers (associated with the preppy look). [edit] Leggings and Exercise-wear • Leotards made worn as tops with jeans were popular. A common outfit was to wear a skirt, dress shorts, babydoll or minidress with black opaque tights, white slouch socks and white sneakers.

It was not uncommon to see mothers dressed right along with their daughters in white slouch socks worn over black leggings or sweatpants, oversized T-shirt or sweater, and athletic sneakers like Keds or Converse. [edit] Mid-1990s [edit] Hippie look • The mid-1990s saw a revival of 1960s fashion from 1993 onwards, including hippie-style floral dresses, turtleneck shirts, lace blouses, and Gypsy tops. [5][6] • In America, Britain and Australia, long floral skirts, olive green dresses and yellow or blue denim shortalls, a version of overalls in which the legs of the garment resemble those of shorts, were very popular. edit] Designer clothing • Around this time in Europe (especially Italy), it was also fashionable to dress entirely in black or wear designer clothing displaying Italian or French labels (such as Lacoste, Yves Saint-Laurent, Armani, Gucci, or Chanel) as a way of demonstrating one’s apparent social status and wealth. • Popular accessories during the mid-1990s included conch shell necklaces, straw hats, chunky wedge heeled platform shoes, knee high boots, and dolly shoes. [edit] Late 1990s [edit] Pastel colors In the late 1990s, women wore pastel colors like pink or baby blue, fleeces, tank tops revealing the midriff (crop top), and Union jack motifs inspired by the Cool Britannia movement. [7] This continued into the 2000s. [edit] Casual chic • Many trends from the early and mid-1990s continued late into the decade, including flared trousers, miniskirts, grey sweatpants, yoga pants, capri pants, low-waisted jeans inspired by the designs of Alexander McQueen,[8] and thong underwear popularised by contemporary R&B and jungle music. In Britain and the US, popular accessories included large hoop earrings, shoes with rounded toes, flip flops, jelly shoes, alice bands, fascinators, gold jewelry, running shoes, bandanas, and novelty wellington boots with patterns like leopard print or zebra stripes.

 Men’s fashion [edit] Early 1990s [edit] Grunge look • In the early 1990s, flannel became very popular and lasted through most of the decade. Unlike the fitted Western shirts of the 1970s which fastened with pearl snaps, the flannel shirts of the 1990s were padded and oose-fitting for optimum warmth. Men also wore Acid wash denim jackets, wool sweaters, black leather jackets, sheepskin coats, Members Only jackets, corduroy, anoraks, and polo shirts. • The drainpipe jeans popular among metalheads and fans of new wave music went out of fashion in favor of straight-leg jeans like Levi 501s and baggy carpenter pants popularised by rappers, skaters, and grunge bands. Surfers favored baggies, colorful board shorts, and cut-off jean shorts. In Britain and the US, popular accessories included Converse All Stars, trapper hats, tuques, white Adidas trainers, Doc Martens Boots, Aviator sunglasses popularized by rock star Freddie Mercury,[9] and neon-colored trainers (sometimes incorporating flashing lights and elastic self-tying laces). [edit] Modern Preppy • Preppy clothing was popular in the US,[10] where wealthy young men wore khaki slacks, canvas[11] boat shoes, and navy blue blazers with breast-pocket monogram or gold buttons bearing a family crest. 11] In general, 1990s preppy was more casual than the almost dandified look of the 1980s as young men abandoned ascots and Oxford shoes in favor of polo shirts with popped collars, Nantucket Reds, nautical-striped T shirts, loafers, and madras cloth or gingham short-sleeved shirts. [12] [edit] Mid 1990s [edit] Cool Britannia • In the mid-1990s, 1960s mod clothing and longer hair were popular in Britain due to the success of Britpop. Men also wore Aloha shirts, brown leather jackets, paisley shirts, throwback pullover baseball jerseys, and graphic-print t-shirts (often featuring dragons, athletic logos or numbers). Desirable accessories during the mid-1990s included loafers, desert boots, chelsea boots, gold jewellery, boat shoes, chunky digital watches, Doc Martens, and black/neon colored high-top trainers. [edit] Hip-hop

• In America, hip-hop fashion went mainstream, with oversized baseball jackets, bomber jackets, Baja Jackets, and tracksuits popular among young men as casual wear. [13] • Pants were much the same as they were in the early 1990s: baggy carpenter jeans, cargo pants, sweatpants, overalls, tracksuit bottoms, and camouflage, especially the popular chocolate chip pattern worn during Operation Desert Storm. edit] Late 1990s [edit] Streetwear • By the late 1990s, the most popular trainers were white or black and manufactured by Adidas, Reebok, Hitec and Nike. Shoes with built in air pumps were popular among both sexes. Leather had largely replaced canvas, and soles were made of foam rather than solid rubber. • Young European and American men favored preppy brands like Old Navy, khaki cargo pants, baggy basketball shorts, and chinos. Other popular items of clothing included tracksuits, hoodies, and black bomber jackets with orange linings. At this time it became fashionable to leave shirts untucked. [edit] Business wear In Europe, single-breasted three and four button suits in grey or navy blue, together with leather jackets based on the same cut as blazers, began to replace the 1980s power suits. Tweed cloth and houndstooth sportcoats went out of fashion due to their association with older men. [14] • In America, suits went out of fashion as men began to dress smart-casual and business casual, a trend kickstarted by Bill Gates of Microsoft. [15] [edit] Youth fashion [edit] General trends • The dominant youth clothing fad at the beginning of the 1990s was fluorescent clothing in blue, green, orange, pink, and yellow.

Hoop earrings were also a popular accessory for teenaged girls and women in the first years of the 1990s. Plaid shirts were also popular. Popular colors for girls included coral, hot pink, and turquoise. In Britain and the USA, girls wore oversized tee shirts, sweat shirts, sweaters, slouch socks worn over sweatpants or leggings, black or white lace trimmed bike shorts with babydoll dresses, belts worn with dresses, sweaters, and t-shirts, flats, Keds, Converse Chuck Taylor All-Stars, shortalls, flared trousers, leotards worn as tops with jeans, and athletic shorts.

Boys wore soccer shorts, jean jackets, tartan shirts, tapered acid wash jeans, and sweatpants. For example, in the Southern Suburbs of Chicago during the late 1980s and early 1990s, Z Cavericci pants and IOU sweatshirts were worn by members of the middle/upper-middle class. • For younger children, the mid-1990s was the Golden Age of Disney films with T-shirts and sweaters featuring characters like Simba, Mickey Mouse, Aladdin, and Winnie the Pooh. Tartan trousers, striped shirts, long sleeved polo shirts, and sweaters (often knitted by the child’s grandmother) were worn by young boys in the UK.

Blue denim and railroad stripe overalls were also popular for females as seen on television and commercials throughout the decade, and for teenagers who would leave either strap hanging loose. A common outfit for all girls especially tweens and teens was to wear a skirt, dress shorts, baby doll dress or short dress with black opaque tights, white slouch socks and white sneakers especially Keds. [edit] Grunge Main article: Grunge • The new wave and heavy metal fashion of the 1980s lasted until early 1992, when Grunge and hip hop fashion took over in popularity. 16] By the mid-1990s the grunge style had gone mainstream in Britain and the US, resulting in a decline in bright colors from 1995 until the late 2000s, and was dominated by tartan flannel shirts, stonewashed blue jeans, and dark colors like maroon, forest green, indigo, brown, white and black. • Grunge fashion remained popular among the British skater subculture until the early 2000s as the hard-wearing, loose-fitting clothing was cheap and provided good protection. [17] Members of the subculture were nicknamed grebos or moshers and included those who did not skate. edit] Hip-hop Main article: Hip-hop fashion • The early 1990s saw widespread interest in hip hop and gangsta rap due to the influence of artists like MC Hammer, Tupac Shakur, Dr. Dre, Wu Tang Clan, and Public Enemy. The sagging trend began in the early 1990s and continued until the 2010s. Wide leg jeans, Plaid, Khakis, Locs glasses[disambiguation needed], bomber jackets, tracksuits and baseball caps and snapback hats worn backwards became popular among hip hop fans together with gold chains, sovereign rings, and FUBU T-shirts. The late 1990s saw the rise of the British chav subculture, an offshoot of the casuals, a football fan subculture of the 1980s. [18] Common items of clothing included tracksuits, baseball caps, gold jewellery, diamond earrings, and white Adidas trainers. Hair was heavily gelled, often bleached blonde, and either spiky or shaped into a quiff. Girls wore large hoop earrings and pulled their hair into a tight ponytail known as a croydon facelift. [19] [edit] Britpop

Main article: Cool Britannia • In the mid-1990s, indie rock, Madchester, and Britpop bands like Blur, Stone Roses, and Oasis[20] resulted in a revival of 1970s fashions, including Mod haircuts, aviator sunglasses, denim jackets, green parkas, harrington jackets, velvet sportcoats, striped shirts, Ben Sherman polo shirts, T-shirts bearing the RAF roundel,[21] and Union Jack motifs like the dress worn by the Spice Girls’ Geri Halliwell. [22] [edit] Preppy Main article: Preppy The conservative preppy look of the 1980s remained popular among wealthy teenagers in the Northeastern USA until the late 1990s, when many members of the subculture began adopting elements of hip hop fashion. [23] Typical clothing for preppies of the 1990s included khaki chinos, navy blue blazers, oxford shirts, brogues, and neat, well-groomed hairstyles. [24] [edit] Psychobilly and Punk Main article: Punk fashion • Hardcore Punk fashion, which began in the 1970s, was very popular in the 1990s,[25] and Goth fashion reached its peak. 26] Common items for pop punk and nu metal fans included spiky hair, black hoodies, and baggy pants in black or red Royal Stewart tartan. • In the US, Psychobilly bands like Reverend Horton Heat and Rocket from the Crypt popularised brothel creepers, gas station shirts and dark-colored bowling shirts during the late 1990s. [edit] Hair and Makeup of the 1990s [edit] Women’s hairstyles In the early 1990s, women’s hair changed from the teased curls popular in the late 1980s to straight, smooth hair, inspired by late 1960s hairstyles.

The pixie cut and Rachel haircut, based on the hairstyles of Jennifer Aniston in Friends and Marlo Thomas in That Girl, were popular in America from 1995 onwards. [27] Straight hair was also styled with a short fringe cut just above the eyebrows, known as a hime cut, and those with Afro-styled or naturally curly hair would rely on a Relaxer to keep the sleek straight hair. In the mid-1990s this style went out fashion until its revival in the late 2000s. Dark-haired women tended to dye their hair a lighter color with blonde highlights (popularized by Jennifer Aniston) until the late 2000s.

Bangs remained popular throughout most of the decade. [edit] Men’s hairstyles Men’s hair became increasingly shorter from the early 1990s onwards. In the early 1990s curtained hair (sometimes dyed blond) and small ponytails were popular among yuppies. Side-partings were briefly popular in the mid-1990s before head-shaving had become an acceptable way of dealing with male pattern baldness. From the late 1990s onwards, spiky hair, crew cuts and variants of the quiff became popular among young professional men. Dark haired men dyed their spikes blonde or added wavy blonde streaks well into the mid-2000s. [edit] Youth hairstyles

For teenagers longer hair was popular in the early to mid-1990s, including collar-length curtained hair, shaggy surfer hair popular among some Britpop fans, and dreadlocks. This changed in the mid-1990s when the much-ridiculed bowl cut became a fad among skaters, while hip-hop fans wore a variant of the flattop known as the Hi-top fade. In the late 1990s hair was usually buzzed very short for an athletic look although a few grunge fans grew their hair long in reaction to this. Headbands and scrunchies of various styles and colors were popular with girls throughout most of the 1990s who frequently wore them with side ponytails and bangs. 000s General trends Despite the numerous and mixed fashion trends of the 2000s, items of clothing which were predominant or popular throughout the decade include Ugg boots,[3] High-tops, hoodies, and skinny jeans. [4] Globalization also influenced the decade’s clothing trends, with the incorporation of Middle Eastern and Asian dress into mainstream European, American and Australasian fashion. [5] Furthermore, eco-friendly and ethical clothing, such as recycled fashions and fake fur, were prominent in the decade. [6] Women’s fashion Early 2000s Leading designers and models The leading fashion designers between 2000–2010 included the late Alexander McQueen, Vera Wang, Christian Louboutin, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Vivienne Westwood,[7] and Karl Lagerfeld. [8] • The top supermodels of the decade were Kate Moss, Gisele Bundchen,[9] Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, Heidi Klum, Naomi Campbell, Tyra Banks, Karolina Kurkova, Miranda Kerr, Izabel Goulart, Selita Ebanks, Christie Brinkley, Christy Turlington, Linda Evangelista, Marisa Miller, Doutzen Kroes, Agyness Deyn, Hilary Rhoda, Raquel Zimmermann, Coco Rocha, Lily Donaldson, Chanel Iman, Sasha Pivovarova, Caroline Trentini, and Jessica Stam. 10] Minimalism and the return of bright colors • In the early 2000s, women and girls wore shoes and boots with rounded or flat toes. Dressy, feminine styles were reintroduced over the course of the decade, as women’s fashion moved away from the more unisex styles of the 1990s. From 2001 onwards, women wore denim miniskirts, burberry, hip-hop inspired sweatpants, ugg boots, Daisy Dukes, ripped “distressed” jeans, flip-flops, ponchos, flared trousers, denim jackets, preppy polo shirts with popped collars, and tank tops exposing the midriff. Colors like baby blue, yellow, and hot pink were popular.

Mid 2000s Boho and Vintage Main article: Boho-chic • From the mid 2000s and onwards, European and American women wore lowrise skinny jeans,[11] lycra yoga wear, knee-high boots with pointed toes, 1960s style trenchcoats and peacoats, tunics worn with wide or thin belts, capri pants, longer tank tops worn with a main blouse or shirt, 1940s inspired New Look dresses and sandals,[12] leggings, and “vintage clothing” including hippie and Boho inspired dresses with paisley patterns. Crocs were a brief fad for both sexes in the summer of 2006, despite their kitsch connotations. 13][14][15] • The canary yellow dress Reese Witherspoon wore to the Golden Globes helped establish that hue as a signature color in 2007. [16] Around this time, it was also popular for women to wear short 1960s style cocktail dresses, especially the LBD. Eastern and Fairtrade fashion • Summer 2007 saw a resurgence of interest in ethnic fashion from India[17][18] and the Middle East, including harem pants, silk sashes, sarongs, gypsy tops, and the saree[19][20][21] as young British and American women discovered Bollywood cinema[22] and belly dancing, popularized by Shakira. 23] • Popular accessories included aviator sunglasses, small red glass or pearl drop earrings rather than the large hoop earrings of the early 2000s, shutter shades, crucifixes and rosaries, large silver belt buckles with rhinestones, fairtrade African bangles, Native American beaded jewellery,[24] Indian and Middle Eastern slave bracelets, purity rings, small leather handbags, and simple jewellery made from recycled eco friendly materials like hemp, wood, sea shells, glass, seeds, and white metal. Late 2000s 980s revival • Beginning in 2006, men and women’s fashion was influenced by 1980s punk, especially acid wash skinny jeans, bright neon colors, fishnet stockings, and jackets customised with metal studs. Shirts and jeans featured ripped fabric held together by an array of safety pins and leather jackets made a comeback. Celebrities sporting the look included singers, Madonna[25] and Mariah Carey. • By 2008, this look had gone mainstream due to the popularity of indie pop influenced by rave and New Wave music.

This second, larger wave incorporated more general items of 80s streetwear, like animal print headbands, denim-print jeggings, knitted sweater dresses, Nike Tempo shorts, wonderbra and sloggi underwear, geometric pattern tops, slap bracelets, ballet flats, black spandex leggings, and light, translucent tartan shirts worn with a camisole underneath. Long, baggy empire line shirts were taken in at the bustline and often paired with a belt.

Fur coats made a comeback, although many woman used “fish fur” due to real fur’s association with animal cruelty. [26] Activist chic • In Britain and Australia, Middle Eastern shemaghs were worn as scarves as a protest against the Iraq War and demonstration of solidarity with the Palestinians. [27] • In 2007, Che Guevara chic was popular in Europe and Latin America, with olive green fatigue jackets, boonie hats, berets, and T-shirts featuring red stars or the face of the famous revolutionary. [28] Men’s fashion Early 2000s Leisurewear The early 2000s saw the continuation of the 1990s fashion of wearing sportswear as everyday clothes, including tracksuits,[29] light-colored polo shirts[30] (sometimes striped), white Adidas or Nike trainers, cargo pants with zip-off legs, rugby shirts,[31] and baseball caps bearing the logos of football, soccer, basketball, and baseball teams. [32] • Practical hiking jackets (of the type made by Berghaus), fleeces, puffer jackets, and padded tartan lumberjack-type shirts were worn as winter outerwear, with functionality taking precedence over aesthetics. [31] Business-casual In the early 2000s, suits had largely gone out of fashion except for formal occasions like church, job interviews, weddings, funerals, and proms due to the popularity of Casual Fridays. In the workplace, many young men wore Argyle socks, khaki chinos, bootcut jeans, Oxford shoes, loafers, brown, grey, burgundy, rust, maroon, or forest green turtleneck sweaters,[33] camp shirts (often in fancy metallic patterns for clubbing), corduroy pants,[34] belts rather than braces, and (when required) odd navy blue, stone grey, beige, or natural linen sportcoats that fastened with three buttons. [31] Mid 2000s 1960s revival In the mid 2000s, retro fashions inspired by British indie pop groups and the 1960s counterculture became popular,[35] including Converse All-stars, winklepickers (taken to extremes by individuals within the Mexican cholo and lowrider subcultures), cartoon print hoodies (in contrast to the designer brands worn by the chav subculture), vintage Classic rock T-shirts, throwback uniforms, T shirts bearing retro pre 1980 advertisements or street art,[36] army surplus dress uniforms, paisley shirts,[37] Mod-style velvet sportcoats, parkas, windbreakers[38] Harris tweed jackets, and fitted 1970s style Western shirts[39] with pearl snaps[40] (popularised by blues-rock band the White Stripes). Business Suits • In the UK workplace, black, navy blue or pinstripe three-buttoned office suits remained common, but Nehru suits[41] or mandarin collar shirts[42] inspired by the Beatles, James Bond, and science fiction movies like the Matrix, were a popular alternative from 2003–2006. In the US, men favored the smart casual look, with striped purple dress shirts,[43] flat front charcoal chinos,[44] beige cardigans,[45] Argyll pullovers, black or brown leather blazers,[46] and houndstooth sportcoats. [47] Late 2000s Throwback fashions In the late 2000s, 1950s[48] and 1980s fashions became popular: Letterman jackets, black leather jackets[49] like the Perfecto, windbreakers,[50] dashiki[51] or Hawaiian shirts,[52] ski jackets,[53] slim and straight leg jeans,[54] slim-fitting jeans[55] Ray Ban Aviator sunglasses,[56] wool topcoats,[57] Ed Hardy T-shirts with low necklines, retro Patek Philippe, Casio G-Shock[58] and Rolex wristwatches, neon colors inspired by rave music,[59] geek chic inspired horn rimmed glasses, roll sleeve tartan flannel shirts worn with white T-shirts, cardigans and knitted V-neck sweaters. [60] Popular footwear in Europe and America included Sperry Top-Siders, Keds, motorcycle boots, Nike Air Jordans,[61] checkerboard pattern Vans, and Converse Chuck Taylor All-Stars. [62] Slim-fit suits • In the European workplace, the cut of suits changed as the three buttoned jackets popular in the 1990s were replaced with suits comprising a two-buttoned blazer and matching trousers[63] while in the US the power suit made a comeback. [64] Single-breasted European suits sometimes featured contrasting Edwardian style piping on the lapels and were often worn with slim ties and waistcoats. [65] Youth fashion

Youth fashion was strongly influenced by many music-based subcultures such as Emo, Indie kids, scene kids,[66] Psychobilly, Preppy, Skater, Goth, Nu-Metal (known as Moshers in the UK),[67] ravers and Hip-Hop,[68] including the British chav, US gangsta rapper and Mexican Cholo styles of the early 2000s. [69] Hip-Hop Main article: Hip hop fashion • The clothing of American hip-hop fans underwent an evolution from the sagging baggy gangster jeans of the 1990s to a more retro look by the end of the decade. [70] Popular items of clothing included baseball jackets, Nike Air Jordans, tracksuits, sweatpants, bucket hats, stunna shades, fur-lined puffer jackets, and flat-brim trucker hats or baseball caps (often retaining the store label). 71] • During the early 2000s, many wealthy white jocks and preppies imitated the gangsta lifestyle, eschewing the semi-formal conservative look of the 1980s and 90s in favor of gold bling, expensive designer clothes, sneakers, dark jeans, and sweatpants. [72] • Another common American subculture were the cholos and chicanos who wore baggy khaki slacks, gold chains, white T-shirts, and slicked back hair or shaved heads in imitation of Mexican prison gangs. [73] Chavs and Moshers Main article: Chav • In the early 2000s, the most common British subcultures were the chavs and skate punks who had a (sometimes violent) rivalry. [74] Chavs favored hip-hop fashions like tracksuits, burberry baseball caps, white trainers, and cheap sportswear. Common haircuts included spiky hair, a fauxhawk, a heavily gelled quiff, or (for girls) a Croydon facelift. 75] • The skaters (nicknamed grebos or moshers) had long hair or dreadlocks and wore grunge inspired padded flannel overshirts and baggy pants as these were less likely to rip when skateboarding. [76] Popular clothing included No Fear T-shirts, webbing belts, army surplus patrol caps, camouflage cargo pants, carpenter jeans,[77] tuques, and fingerless gloves in dark colors like black, olive drab, burgundy, and navy blue. [78] Nu-Metal, Rave and Goth Main article: Goth subculture • In America, common subcultures of the early 2000s included the nu-metal fans and goths who wore black leather duster coats and tripp pants. Their rivals were the jocks and preppies: wealthy teenagers who wore expensive designer clothes by Hollister, Old Navy, Abercrombie and Fitch, and American Eagle. 79] • From the mid-2000s onwards, ravers favored spiky hair and phat pants, while members of the cybergoth[80] and rivethead[81] subcultures opted for shaved heads, synthetic neon dreadlocks, camouflage, tight leather pants, chains, platform boots,[82] stretched body piercings, sleeve tattoos, goggles, corsets, PVC or leather skirts, and black trenchcoats decorated with metal studs. [83] Psychobilly and Rockabilly Main article: Raggare • From the early-mid 2000s, black leather jackets, cowboy boots and Levi’s jeans were popular in Scandinavia, Russia and Germany among the hot rod, psychobilly and rockabilly subcultures. Common hairstyles included the quiff, pompadour, and psychobilly mohican. 84] • Later in the decade, it was popular for women to dress like 1950s pin-up girls in polkadot dresses, pencil skirts, sheath dresses, capri pants, platform heels, 1940s style sandals, retro lingerie like garter belts, stockings, babydolls, petticoats, slips, and corsets, and (real or fake) old school tattoos. [85] This trend, popularised by models like Dita Von Teese, gave rise to the popularity among both sexes of Ed Hardy clothing[86] which lasted from 2008 until 2012. [87] Indie and Emo • From 2003–2007 indie culture went mainstream in both Britain and the US,[88] prompting a revival of 1960s Mod and British Invasion fashions, vintage clothing,[89] and the popularization of activist fashions like the keffiyeh. [90] Other subcultures, including American preppies and even rappers like Kanye West, imitated indie fashions[91] or combined them with elements of Japanese street style, like the Harajuku and Lolita fashion popularized by Gwen Stefani. The other notable youth group of the mid 2000s were the emo kids, identifiable by their black or purple hoodies, T-shirts featuring bands like My Chemical Romance or Taking Back Sunday, lowrise skinny jeans, snakebites, silver jewellery, and checkerboard pattern Vans. Hair was thin, flat and straight, with long, matte bangs (US) or fringe (UK), usually dyed black. [92] Scene Kids • By 2008, the most conspicuous subculture was the “scene kids. “[93][94] They originated in Britain during the late-1990s when some members of the chav subculture began to experiment with alternative fashion,[95] incorporated elements of indie pop, emo,[96] rave music, and

Japanese glam rock style, and spread to America and Australia in the mid-2000s. [97] The style, originally comprising tripp pants, stripes, tartan, spiky hair, Chucks, Vans, and trucker hats derived from grunge and skate punk fashion, evolved to incorporate androgynous, matted, flat and straight hair sometimes dyed bright colors, tight jeans,[98] cartoon print hoodies, shutter shades, promise rings,[99] checked shirts, and lots of bright colors. [100] The name was originally derived from “scene queen”, a derogatory term within the 1970s glam rock scene for a heterosexual musician who pretended to be gay and later applied to poseurs within the UK goth, heavy metal and punk subcultures. 101] Later, “scene queen” itself was adopted by leading female members of the modern subculture who were unaware of its original meaning, like supermodel Audrey Kitching. [102][103] Hair and makeup of the 2000s Womens hairstyles • In the early 2000s, women’s hair was long and straight. From 1996 until 2005 it was fashionable for women to have dyed highlights and lowlights (Rachel haircut) with red, blonde or light brown streaks. • In mid-late 2000s, dark haired women (and even light-haired ones) favored the jet black hair, as worn by Katy Perry or Amy Winehouse with her trademark beehive hairstyle. Textured hair with volume, natural wavy hair, the bob cut, and side-swept bangs become popular from 2007 onwards in both Britain and the USA.

For black women cornrows, dreadlocks and curly weaves were popular until the late 2000s, when tamed-down versions of the Afro, Jheri curl and short pixie cuts were popularized by artists like Janet Jackson and Rihanna. Mens hairstyles • For men over 25, shorter hair styles that usually took the form of a quiff were fashionable in the early 2000s, although collar-length centrally parted curtained hair (as worn by Tom Cruise) was also briefly popular in the US and remains so in Japan. Another common haircut was the spiky hair popularized by boybands in the late-1990s and into the early millennium. Dark haired men often had dyed-blonde weaves and streaks until 2005 where dark natural hair became the norm again. In America the fauxhawk and Buzzcut were popular among young men emulating their favorite hardcore punk bands. Long, shaggy Mod or surfer hair and Bed head became popular between 2003–2006 as many bands moved away from punk rock and rap metal in favor of a 1960s inspired indie or garage rock sound pioneered by groups like The Strokes, Jet, The Killers, The Hives, The Vines, Coldplay, and The White Stripes. • By the late 2000s, shaved and bald hairstyles along with beards, moustaches, stubble, sideburns and the goatee became popular in reaction to the effeminate early 2000s metrosexual look, with charitable events like Movember further increasing their acceptability. [104] Teenage hairstyles • For teenagers, short haircuts like spiky hair, dyed hair, the buzzcut and Caesar cut were popular in the early 2000s. Girls favored straight hair extensions, large hoop earrings and fake tan makeup.

In the mid-2000s, longer hair became popular, including the wings haircut inspired by surfers, the 1960s Mod subculture, and British indie pop stars. • In the late 2000s the androgynous Harajuku inspired scene hairstyles (often dyed bright colors) and eyeliner were popular among girls and boys alike. [106] As an alternative to the scene hairstyles, teenage girls opted for a preppy hairstyle that involved long, straight hair, side-swept bangs and a side part, while boys wore side-swept surfer hair. 2010s General trends • From 2010 onwards, colors such as teal, cobalt blue, pink and neon yellow have been popular for t-shirts and jackets, along with skinny jeans. Madras shirts with tartan prints and bright colored casual clothing[2] are popular for both men and women in the West.

Western shirts, popularised by the Dallas TV series[3] and indie pop groups like Kings of Leon, remain fashionable,[4] especially in the UK and southern US, but are generally made in more subdued colors than those of the mid-2000s:[5] browns, greys, blues, and distressed stonewash denim[6] with conventional buttons[7] rather than the popular press studs as designers moved towards a more authentic Old West[8] or American pioneer look. • Vintage clothing remained popular, although it was becoming increasingly common to cut unused stock of older fabric to modern patterns[9] or remake older garments into reconstructed clothing, for example, by sewing white cotton tape around the lapels of a navy blue 1990s blazer, or go to extremes and make a shirt from deliberately mismatched scraps of fabric. [10] • Throughout the decade, both men and women from wealthy backgrounds continue wearing expensive designer clothings.

Brands popular in Europe and the US include Wet Seal, American Eagle, H and M, John Varvatos, Longchamp, and Marc Anthony Collection. [citation needed] [edit] Women’s clothing [edit] Early 2010s (2010–2012) [edit] Designers and models German fashion designer Karl Lagerfeld, 2011 • The leading European designers of the 2010s include Stella McCartney, Vivienne Westwood, Vera Wang, Christian Louboutin, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Christian Audigier, and Karl Lagerfeld. [11] • Top models include Cara Delevingne, Daphne Groeneveld, Agyness Deyn, Gisele Bundchen, Tyra Banks,[12][13] Alessandra Ambrosio,[14] Karlie Kloss, Joan Smalls,[15] Erin Heatherton,[16] Dita Von Teese,[17] and Bar Refaeli. [18] [edit] 1980s influences Dark 1980s inspired skinny jeans popular in Russia, 2010 The early 2010s, so far, have seen many recycled fashions from the 1950s,[19] 1970s and 1980s as designers from stores like Topshop replicated original vintage clothing. In America, it is popular to wear designer brands like Gucci, Chanel, and Versace, neon colors such as pink, green, teal, black, purple, and yellow. [20] • Popular tops for American, British and Australian women aged 20–50 include tunics, 1980s style baseball jackets,[21] oversized cardigans, 1940s New Look dresses and trenchcoats, Tube tops, western shirts, 2fer and layered shirts and tees, dresses and shirts worn with belts, Perfecto motorcycle jackets customized with studs,[22] floral camisoles worn with matching hot pants, sundresses, and short dresses worn over ankle or capri length leggings or jeans.

European women wear sparkly dresses, baggy one-size-fits-all Empire line skirts, blouses and dresses, and lace, figure-hugging white organza maxi dresses inspired by Pippa Middleton. [23] • From 2010 to 2012 many late 2000s fashions remained popular in Europe, the US, Asia, and Latin America, including acid wash skinny jeans worn with black leather jackets for a “rock chick” look,[24] bell-bottoms, microskirts, romper suits,[25][26] leather trousers popularized by Kim Kardashian,[27] and preppy colored jeans. In Britain and Australia, Uggs,[28] flip-flops, Ballerina flats, cavalier boots,[29] Doc Martens, and gladiator sandals are very popular footwear for women. Other notable European, Australasian and American trends include alpaca wool Peruvian hats,[30] clutches, high top sneakers,[31] Ray-Ban Wayfarer or aviator sunglasses, leg warmers, knee socks or leg warmers peeking out over flat knee high boots especially knee high riding boots with skirts or short dresses or over jeans or leggings, rain boots, stilettos, Keds, TOMS Shoes, Sperry Top-Sider boat shoes, and Chucks. Smaller handbags replaced Birkin bags and the large designer It bags of the early-2000s. [32] • In Mexico and the West Coast of the United States, young women prefer fresh fashion but with a modern twist, wearing leather jackets[33] or long coats and miniskirts combined with 1980s inspired hairstyles like the hime cut with blonde highlights. [34] [edit] Hipster fashion • Continuing on from the late 2000s, hipster fashion continued to be a trend, with the media often conflating hipster aesthetics with the short-lived mid-2000s geek chic craze. 35] Drawing inspiration from a variety of sources (including indie kids, the gamer subculture, and blue collar laborers) many young men and women wear clothing incongruous to their socio-economic status and contemporary fashion standards, such as intermixing traditionally blue-collar clothing with casual or business attire. [36] • Other common hipster inspired items include braces,[37], newsboy caps, plaid shirts, hoodies and sweaters bearing the word “Geek” or “Nerd,” job skirts, 3/4 length sleeved shirts, pencil skirts, jean skirts, skirts with opaque tights, dresses and tops worn with belts, colored cotton shorts, shorts worn with opaque tights, fairisle print sweaters, and blouses or jackets with the Peter Pan collar.

The defining feature of hipster fashion continued to be “ironic glasses,” also called “nerd glasses” or “hipster glasses. “[38] Though the term initially referred to Ray-Ban Wayfarer style frames worn with clear lenses or no lenses, these have now largely been replaced by vintage-inspired spectacles evoking the aesthetics of the 1950s and 1960s. [39] [edit] Leggings and Snuggies • Originally restricted to the gym, Tracksuits, sweatpants, yoga pants, denim print jeggings, and dark spandex leggings[40] are often worn as street fashion by younger women like Paula Patton or TOWIE’s Lauren Goodger, usually without underwear[41] to avoid panty lines and covered by a long blouse to prevent exposure.

A general rule of thumb is that the shirt or tunic worn with the leggings should cover at the very least 80% of the wearer’s derriere to avoid a tacky or trashy appearance. [42] • From 2010-2011, a popular fad was the sleeved blanket: a sleeping bag combined with a dressing gown known as a “Snuggie” in America. [43] Before it was superseded by the onesies and morph suits of the mid-2010s, the “Snuggie” was often purchased as a gag gift, or worn ironically by young British women as a type of anti-fashion (see next section). [edit] Mid-2010s (2013–16) Indian actress Sameera Reddy wearing contrasting black and white top [edit] Return of anti-fashion By January 2013, 1990s inspired anti-fashion made a comeback in the UK, including geometric prints, metallic jackets, unusual fabrics like PVC, leather pants popularized by celebrities like Lauren Goodger or Kim Kardashian, ugly sweaters, and khaki superdry trenchcoats. • Black and white clothing, popularised by Kate Moss and Cara Delvigne, became fashionable in the UK and Chinaas minimalist fashion replaced the elaborate, colorful styles popular from 2004 to 2012. These include white trenchcoats with black sleeves, biker jackets, houndstooth coats, and black Gothic-inspired tops with skulls or crosses embellished with rhinestones. In China and North Korea, black and white polka dot dresses became fashionable from spring 2013 onwards. During the mid-2010s, it became popular to dress entirely in black while in attendance at formal events, with long, sometimes semi-transparent, gownsaccessorized with 1930s-inspired elbow-length opera gloves and jewelery, typically with diamonds or other precious jewels (although costume jewelry is often worn as well). Occasionally a feather boa and/or a tiara will accompany this look. • In the UK and America, women’s cream blazers and tuxedo jackets often have contrasting black velvet or satin lapels. [edit] Onesies • A unisex fad in early spring 2013 was the onesie: a one-piece garment similar to a child’s blanket sleeper. The onesie, frequently embellished with cartoon characters or intarsia patterns, was originally worn as pajamas but later as streetwear. Notable celebrities who wear them include pop star Justin Bieber, Cheryl Cole, presenter Holly Willoughby, actor Brad Pitt and comedian Russell Brand. [edit] Mens clothing

Italian slim-fit suits, often in grey rather than the navy blue of the 2000s, became popular in the UK, USA, China and Russia due to the success of movies like Bond 22 [edit] Early 2010s (2010–2012) [edit] Bright colors and retro styles • Neon colors and elaborate T-shirts were popular for much of the early 2010s, especially graphic print hoodies, novelty socks, red or blue skinny jeans, studded belts with large buckles, and Ed Hardy T shirts embellished with rhinestones. By fall 2012, the gaudy Ed Hardy shirts had largely gone out of fashion, except in the US, where the style maintains popularity amongst a certain subset of college-aged clubgoer, who have been stereotyped as “guidos,” jocks and lounge lizards. Many styles from the late 2000s remain fashionable in Europe, Australasia, and America, including Polo Ralph Lauren, J Crew, shawl collar cardigans, V-neck t-shirts, acid wash denim work shirts, cable knit pullovers, Tartan flannel Western shirts with snap fastenings, grunge style padded tartan overshirts in red, navy blue or dark green,[ throwback basketball or baseball uniforms, turtle neck sweaters, denim jackets,[75] Aloha shirts, car coats, 1930s style linen sportcoats, and black leather jackets like the Schott Perfecto. [edit] Indie look • Indie fashions, which had gone mainstream by 2005, remain popular as of 2012, especially in the UK and Europe, where young men wear vintage clothing with shemaghs, nerd glasses, and aviator sunglasses, often purchased from thrift stores to save money due to the continued effects of the 2009 recession.

Denim stretch-fit skinny jeans were fashionable until late 2012, but have largely been replaced by bootcut jeans and straight leg jeans. However, tight-fitting chinos are popular summer wear for many young men in Britain, Italy and the US who wear bright pastel colors for a preppy look, or dark brown, khaki and grey for those seeking to identify with Bohemian or indie culture. • Common accessories include Ray-Ban wayfarer sunglasses, paisley scarfs, tortoise shell glasses, snake skin[84] or plaited leather belts, flat caps, newsboy caps, trilbys, Fedoras, and pork pie hats. [edit] Ivy League look Pop group One Direction wearing classic preppy clothing Partly in response to the bright colors and elaborate styles, many young men dress in a more conservative style with short hair and clean-shaven faces. This 1950s preppy look spread from the US to the UK and Europe, where it was incoporated into the existing 1960s and 1990s-influenced indie look by many of the younger hipsters. Common apparel included slim-fitting navy blue blazers, ascots, argyle golfing sweaters, oxford shirts, long sleeved polo shirts, khaki mackintoshes, sweater vests, and cream-colored aran sweaters. • From 2010 to 2012, popular pants for British and American men include Cargo pants, Bermuda shorts, khaki chinos, baggy jeans, and preppy Nantucket Reds. Colors like navy blue, grey, red, dark green, khaki, and white were popular. Footwear popular in Europe and the US includes Uggs, espadrilles, straw hats, skechers, Oxford shoes, dress boots, boat shoes especially Sperry Top-Siders, retro sneakers like converse all-stars, Nike Air Jordans, or Vans, combat boots (often with zips on the side), Winklepickers, and Timberland work boots. [edit] Slim-fit suits • In the early and mid 2010s, European and American formal designers imitate the fashions of the 1930s and 1950s, including single-breasted suits with peaked lapels inspired by the TV show Boardwalk Empire. By 2010, the navy blue popular since the 1990s was replaced by grey or black, and the stripes on pinstripe suits became narrower and more closely spaced. • In the UK, Italy, and US, many men wear slim fit grey mohair or houndstooth office suits with narrow lapels and two-button fastening inspired by the American TV show Mad Men, Daniel Craig as James Bond, and the 1960s revival f the mid-2000s. Common accessories include dress shirts with rounded collars, trilby hats, thin ties, and velvet smoking jackets. [edit] Prewar influences • In Britain and the Netherlands, there has been a resurgence of Edwardian fashions including suits with contrasting piping, boots based on US Civil War era Jeff Davis boots, bowler hats, Homburg hats, seersucker or tweed sportcoats, waistcoats, thin ties, Ascots, dress boots, cricket-style sleeveless sweaters (also very popular in India), cricket blazers with contrasting piping, and striped boating blazers, albeit in less loud colors than the type worn by the mod subculture in the 1960s.

This retro style semi-formal wear, popular among indie kids, sloane rangers, and college students, is often paired with modern casual clothing, like Topman or Superdry T shirts, Jack Wills sweatpants, sneakers, scarfs, record bags, Doc Martens, and jeans. [edit] Mid-2010s (2013–16) Army surplus camo worn as street fashion in the UK [edit] 1990s revival • In 2012, 1990s fashion made a comeback in the UK and US thanks to fashion stars such as Steves Peeps & include chinos, grunge style padded tartan overshirts, crewneck sweatshirts, beige cargo pants, Chucks, combat boots, throwback basketball or baseball uniforms, and preppy Nantucket Reds. The ankle-high sport socks of the early 2000s (known as “trainer liners” in the UK) went out of fashion in favor of socks reaching the mid calf.

Other popular trends include sweatpants, uggs, Nike sneakers, baseball caps, woodland camouflage shirts, Sperry Top-Siders, and snapback hats inspired by Mac Miller. Some believe that this is a response to the 1960s inspired hipster subculture, popularized by British indie pop bands between 2003 and 2012, which ended with the rise of underground electronic music and hardcore punk inspired aesthetics. • By Spring 2013, skinny jeans had largely been replaced by loose fitting straight leg jeans like Levi 501s, in both the pale blue of the 1980s, and the dark selvedge denim of the 1990s. These were often worn with bomber jackets, black leather jackets, crombie overcoats, brown Oxford shoes, and classic Nike trainers. New trends in the UK include olive green blazers worn with blue leaf-print hirts, tweed cloth waistcoats, linen or chambray shirts, and scarfs in bright earth tones. Colors like navy blue, grey, burgundy, dark green, teal, khaki, and white were popular. [edit] Outdoor wear • By the end of 2012, practical winter clothing with retro styling became popular in the UK, especially knitted Scandinavian-style “ugly sweaters” with shawl lapels[119] and throwback anoraks based on those worn by Edmund Hilary’s Mount Everest Expedition, in colors like blue, orange and yellow. British and European men also wear country clothing like Barbour jackets, waxed jackets, 1980s style sheepskin coats, Navy blue peacoats, tweed topcoats, double-breasted raincoats, and Belstaff safari jackets. Western fashion trends have been inspired by World War II and Cold War military uniforms, with trenchcoats, dress uniforms, combat boots and epaulettes on casual button-down shirts and jackets. Beginning in fall 2012, woodland camo M65 jackets, cargo pants, desert boots, Doc Martens, and anoraks were popular, in colors like olive green, burgundy, khaki, forest green and brown. [edit] Youth fashion [edit] Indie and hipster Main article: Indie kids • By 2011, indie clothing had largely moved away from the bright colors and overt 1960s styling of the mid-2000s in favor of a more “grown up” intellectual look, with earth-tones like grey, burgundy, brown, teal, and beige.

Tweed jackets, chino trousers, dress boots, fedoras, 2fer and layered shirts and tees, cardigan sweaters, and nerd glasses replaced the skinny jeans, winklepickers, velvet jackets, aviator sunglasses, and skinny ties typically worn by indie rock bands, although Western shirts, leather jackets and military dress uniforms remained popular. • In England, vintage clothing, especially checked shirts sourced from thrift stores, and homemade jewellery, are popular among girls and boys alike, although indie kids from wealthy backgrounds prefer to shop at Topshop and Topman. • Drop crotch pants designed by the Danish brand Humor became more and more popular in Europe amongst hipsters and hip hop fans who replaced their skinny jeans and carpenter jeans with “old school but modern” style. In urban areas of the USA, like Manhattan, many male ipsters began wearing women’s leggings paired with sweaters, thick wool socks, and boots. [edit] Scene Kids Main article: Scene kids • In some parts of the United States, in particular California, a mix of hip-hop, emo, scene, and indie fashion became common, especially skinny jeans, trucker hats, Nike shoes, mismatched neon green or hot pink socks, 2fer and layered shirts and tees, Vans, Levi’s 501 jeans, Dickies shorts, pocket watches, flannel shirts, thin ties, Chucks, Keds, vintage tees, plain tees with contrasting edging, and Vans. Shirts and hoodies with messages such as “cool story bro” or the logos of dubstep, screamo, and alternative rock bands like Asking Alexandria, and deadmau5 became popular among scene kids. By 2012, many scene kids had abandoned the cartoon print hoodies, skinny jeans and studded belts in favor of a more hardcore/skate punk look with wifebeaters, plain hoodies, combat boots, Vans, tapered jeans, and stretched earlobe piercings, except in parts of Latin America, like Fortaleza, where late-2000s scene and emo fashion remained common. [edit] Skater and Sneakerhead fashion • Beginning in Spring 2012, members of the Skater subculture wear designer streetwear rather than the functional hardcore punk and grunge clothing of the 1990s, or the brightly colored scene fashions of the early 2010s. Common apparel includes Snapback hats, Diamond Supply Co. pparel, Air Jordan apparel, The Hundreds T-Shirts, Obey bar logo T-Shirts and snapbacks, Hoodies, Hollister T-shirts, Vans, Chucks, Levi’s jeans, Nike skate shoes and T-Shirts, DGK, Adidas Skateboarding and Originals apparel and shoes, and LRG apparel. • An offshoot of the skater subculture, known as “sneakerheads,” dress similarly, with Nike Air Jordans, Nike SBs, Vans, designer sportswear, True Religion jeans, baseball caps, Skullcandy headphones, Ray-Ban Aviators, and Nixon watches. [edit] Classic preppy Main article: Preppy • In America, preppies have moved away from the hip-hop influenced fashions of the early 2000s and begun to dress in a more classic 1950s Ivy

League stylewith sweaters, Sperry Top-Sider boat shoes, Aran sweaters, cardigans, Oxford shirts, Cricket pullovers, wingtips, stripy polo shirts, hats like the fedora, khaki or pastel colored Vineyard Vines, Nantucket Reds, white or bright pastel color socks, colored jeans, baseball jackets, Nike Tempo Shorts as gym wear and everyday wear, and tapered chinos. • Preppy girls wear flip flops, ballet flats, Keds, Sperry Top-Sider boat shoes, layered shirts and tees, capri pants, opaque tights, plaid skirts, cotton shorts in pastel colors, Uggs, Hunter brand rain boots, leg warmers, white or pastel colored jeans, knee socks, flat knee high riding boots, jeans, jeggings, capri or ankle length leggings worn with shorts, dresses and skirts, oversized sweaters, bike shorts with or without lace trim, 3/4 length sleeved shirts, and sweatshirts bearing the name and crest of the school or college. [edit] Hip-hop Main article: Hip-hop fashion Hip-hop fans wear tactical pants, Nike Air Jordans, Ralph Lauren Polo Boots, Obey and Diamond Supply Co. T-Shirts and snapbacks, Hollister T shirts, and goggle jackets. Retro 1980s fashions like snapbacks, skinny acid wash jeans, Baseball jackets, Varsity Jackets, Vans, Chuck Taylors, rain boots, Retro Nikes, Shell Tube socks, denim jackets, Levis, tight miniskirts, Leggings, ballet flats, Air Jordans, oversized sweaters, and colors like red, green, and yellow, made a comeback in the African American community due to the influence of dubstep, rave music, and indie pop-inspired rappers like Kanye West. [edit] Steampunk Main article: Steampunk An American and Japanese take on the Neo-Edwardian fashion popular in Britain draws heavily upon the steampunk genre, including goggles, respirators, brass gears, pocket watches, leather, silver or brass jewellery, and darker colors like brown, grey and black. Members of this subculture often combine elements of Steampunk fashion with Lolita, Elegant Gothic Aristocrat, traditional Japanese clothing, old military dress uniforms, and vintage clothing from the Victorian and Edwardian eras. [edit] Latin American subcultures • In Mexico, many members of the cholo and lowrider subcultures combine hip-hop fashion with Western shirts, traditional charro jackets, Stetsons, skinny jeans, and Cowboy boots with elongated toes: an extreme version of the 1960s-inspired pointy boots popular in mid-2000s Britain. In Brazil, Neon colorido fashion, popularized by teen pop groups like Restart, and indie kids, eclipsed the emo and scene youth fashions, although Brazilian emo-pop/pop punk bands like NX Zero and Fresno retain a large fanbase. [edit] Hair and makeup of the 2010s [edit] Womens hairstyles • In America, younger women favour volumized curly hair, feathered hair, and headbands of all sizes colors, and designs. The pixie cut and bob cut are popular in Japan, the Caribbean, urban Southeastern Brazil, and New York. In spring 2012, jet black hair inspired by Katy Perry, Megan Fox and Kim Kardashian, has become increasingly popular among young American women, especially those who are naturally brunettes,] while bleached blonde hair remains common in the UK.

Many African-American women favor natural, Afro-textured hair in reaction to the damage caused by relaxers, opting instead for natural products to style their hair. • European and Southern Brazilian women favor the ponytail, messy bun, hime cut popularized by the girl with the dragon tattoo Rooney Mara, and the French braid popularized by Katniss Everdeen in The Hunger Games. In Britain the long, straight or wavy side-banged hair of the late-2000s remains popular, often kept in place with a cloth headbandor plastic Alice band. [edit] Mens hairstyles • For men over 25 short hair is considered mainstream, although it has become increasingly popular since the mid-2000s to grow it out “short with texture”, with blunt ends inspired by contemporary pop groups and the young James Dean. 940s and 1950s haircuts have undergone a revival, with many British professionals wearing side partings, quiffs or slicked back hair. • In America goatees and short haircuts like the buzzcut remain popular, usually among balding men. For African-American men, cornrows, mohawk variants of the hi-top fade, Afro, 360 Waves and jheri curl remain popular, along with incorporating shaved patterns or “steps” into variants of the buzzcut. [edit] Youth hairstyles • From the mid-2010s on, the bangs (hairstyle) and headband combination has remained popular among teenage and college girls, especially those associated with the indie, preppy and scene subcultures.

Common colors and designs include black velvet, animal print, hot pink, electric blue, white plastic, and red paisley (often fashioned from folding a bandana). Ponytails are still popular, especially when exercising or playing sports. • In the early 2010s, Emo style fringes went out of fashion and an increasing number of scene kids began to cut their hair short for a hardcore punk look, a move away from the androgynous big hair and heavy bangs popular in the late-2000s. • In America and Australia, side-swept surfer hair and the Justin Bieber haircut became popular among teenage and college-age surfers, preppy boys and members of the skater subculture from 2010-2013. 178] On the West Coast of the US, many young men aged 16-25 dye their hair blond to appear “sun-kissed”, or as if the hair is naturally lightened and textured from frequently spending time in the sun and/or at the beach. The look is particularly popular among “pretty boy” actors and pop singers, including Owen Wilson, Ashton Kutcher, Jedward, and Harry Styles. • Undercuts (nicknamed “Hitler Youth haircuts”), pompadours, beards, and wide unkempt mohawks, replaced the side-banged hair and long 1970s mod haircuts popular among older hipsters. • In Britain, many teenage boys favour the quiff, which was popularised in the early 2010s by television personalities such as Joey Essex, Jedward, Ant and Dec, and the cast of Geordie Shore.

Inspired by MMA fighters, many chavs and ravers wear a type of short mullet or fauxhawk, with a single blonde stripe down the center and patterns known as train tracks shaved into the sides. • Around 2012, a long undercut or mohawk-like haircut, in which only one side of the head is buzzed, became popular among circles of ravers, metalcore, and dubstep fans in the US, possibly because of its similarity to that of musician Skrillex. The High Top Fade, often with a bleached blonde streak inspired by Wiz Khalifa, came back into style among African American youth on the West Coast; variations include the Gumby, a slanted box with one side higher than the other, and the Stair steps, where the High Top is made uneven and gradually goes up higher. ] [edit] Makeup and body modifications Tattoos and body piercings, popularised in the 1990s, are ubiquitous in early 2010s Europe, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United States and urban Center-Southern Brazil. Some of the more extreme include flesh tunnels, snakebites, nose piercings, and Monroe piercings. Tattoos and piercings are worn not only by teenagers and young adults, but also by many businesspeople ages 26–40. • In Britain, the minimalist makeup of the late 2000s went out of fashion as women sought to imitate the fake tan and thick “Scouse brow” popularized by Kate Middleton and the cast of The Only Way is Essex and Desperate Scousewives. In 2012, many women tattoo wedding rings on their fingers to symbolise what they view as the permanence of marriage.

In The Content Of The Period 1485-1587

In the content of the period 1485-1587, to what extent did the Northern Rebellion of 1569 represent a significant threat to the security of the Tudor State? Rebellions caused a serious threat to monarchs; and as a result of the War of The Roses and Henry VII’s usurpation in 1485, the Tudor Dynasty had effectively been founded on Rebellion so it may be possible to assume that the Tudor Dynasty could be removed by rebellion.

The Tudor period can be seen as a time of unrest as each Tudor monarch had at least one rebellion during their reign. The majority of the Tudor rebellions were a significant threat as they attacked the authority of the Crown; suggesting a period of instability throughout the 100 years as each rebellion was a constant reminder of the fragile position of the monarchs during this time. For Henry VIII this can be illustrated by the Lincolnshire rising and the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536-7 as the commons were driven to rebel.

The same can be said for the Western Rebellion during the reign of Edward VI at a time when the Crown was vulnerable due to the King’s young age and lack of experience. Further still, Elizabeth encountered a situation which threatened her position as monarch during the Northern Rebellion of 1569, when people were reluctant to accept her as the rightful ruler and she faced further threats due to the situation abroad and in her attempts for religious change; thus making her position vulnerable.

In addition, Elizabeth I faced hostility from others who were against her views such as in the Babington Plot which was a last attempt to create a rebellion against Elizabeth in support of Mary Queens of Scots. Moreover, within these rebellions there were factors that caused a great deal of danger to the overall security of the Tudor state. The nature of the rebellion, whether it be political, economic or religious played a large role in the protection of the Tudor state.

Rebellions such as the Cornish rebellion in 1497 had begun due to economic reasons, in particular taxes, rather than in opposition to the monarch and rebellions such as the Yorkshire rebellion in 1489 arose due to political reasons. This suggests that some rebellions were more focused on local grievances and government policies rather than directly representing a threat to the security of the Tudor state. This can certainly be said for Wyatt’s’ rebellion which rose for a fear of England becoming re-catholicised.

It could also be argued that compared to the rest of Europe, the rebellions during the Tudor period posed little threat as the state remained intact, unlike Charles V whose power had diminished greatly in the German states of the Holy Roman Empire due to the influence of the Reformation. As well as this Philip II had lost his control of parts of the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, which were considered one of the most important areas of his lands and both France and Spain had suffered threatening rebellions, which, in comparison with England’s rebellions could be seen as more dangerous.

It can also be suggested that the security of the State remained high as the state remained rather stable during the Tudor period. “In general the English people conformed to the requirements of public order, encouraged by reminders from pulpit, proclamation and customs to obey. ”showing that England was generally stable and although there were many rebellions, the majority were easily suppressed as in the case of the Pilgrimage of Grace where Suffolk’s army dispersed the rebels and Elizabeth’s use of the Royal Army to quell uprisings.

So it could be said that the Northern Rebellion of 1569 may not have been the most significant threat to the security of the Tudor state, as greater threats were posed during this time from elsewhere. Political motivations of rebellions during the Tudor period, have posed a significant threat to the security of the Tudor stateas it would have been harder to suppress a rebellion which was focused on attacking the king or Queen’s policies as more often than not, the monarchs had no intention of changing.

This can be illustrated during the rebellions of the Lincolnshire rising and the Pilgrimage of Grace as the rebels were against Henry VIII’s policy of the dissolution of the monasteries and felt the ‘’bishop of Rome intended his destruction by hook or by crook’’, illustrating that they felt the king focused on money gain on his part and not towards their best interests. This to an extent is true as the Treason Act and Henry’s Royal Supremacy were all seen as clear examples of Cromwell’s policies.

Moreover, Henry VIII had said ‘’like traitors and rebels have attempted, and not like true subjects, as ye name yourselves’’ which illustrates that Henry VIII felt they were a threat as they were questioning his judgement as king. As well as this, the Yorkshire rebellion had political connotations as there was resentment in Yorkshire of a Lancastrian monarch when a Yorkist has been overthrown.

Moreover, the revolt involving Perkin Warbeck, had the support of James IV and Charles VIII as well as the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilan, threatening Henry VII’s position as ruler as there was a possible danger than he may have been overthrown. However, the support from these influential figures wasn’t strong and Warbeck had little support south of the border. In addition, the Wyatt’s rebellion was also a political threat, questioning the security of the Tudor State. This was due to the proposed marriage of Mary Queen of Scots to Philip of Spain.

Nevertheless, this revolt didn’t have the support of the people as they feared that the marriage would result in Spain gaining influence over England and so nobles began planning to remove Mary and instate Elizabeth in her place. Moreover, the marriage would have posed threats of faction rivalry in the courts as the husband’s family would eventually become more influential. It is clear that xenophobia, as well as political motivations, stirred the rebels during the Wyatt’s rebellion..

It can be suggested that to an extent, the Northern Rebellion was caused by political issues. The proclamation of the Earls in 1569 stated that the Earls felt the newly appointed nobles, were not of the ‘ruling elite’ and were threatening their status and so wrote that they were abusing the Queen’s trust ‘’whereas diverse newe set up nobles… not onlie go about to overthrow and put downe the ancient robiltie of this realme, but also have misused the Queens Majesties ownepersonne’’.

It is also apparent that the Northern rebellion was a significant threat to the security of the Tudor state as they were deciding who should succeed after Elizabeth and were discussing the re-introduction of Catholicism after Elizabeth’s death ‘’Our first objective in assembling was the reformation of religion and preservation of the person of the Queen of Scots, as next heir, failing issue of her Majesty’’. Still, this source could pose some inaccuracy as they say that Mary will be queen next, which suggests they were not trying to overthrow Elizabeth.

Yet the conditions to which they were asked about their motives are questionable as it is likely they were asked under torture so they may have lied to protect themselves. Further still, the proclamation by Thomas, Earl of Northumberland and Charles Earl of Westmoreland claimed they were the ‘’queen’s true and faithful subjects’’ which confirms that their reasons for rebellion was more about securing their position from the middle classes and re-addressing the Feudal system to try and recover their power at court, rather than going against Elizabeth’s position.

Throughout the 100 year period, it is clear that economic issues placed a large factor in rebellions. There were various rebellions which sprang due to resentment of the economy of the country, threatening the security of the Tudor state. Rising taxes and enclosures were common issues sparking rebellion across the Tudor Dynasty. Resentment of rising taxes can be demonstrated in the Yorkshire Rebellion as Henry VII wanted to help maintain Brittany’s independence in France, yet the money needed, ? 00,000, had to be raised via taxation. And on top of this tax, Henry had exempted other northerners from taxation as he wanted them to use their money to defend against the Scots which further angered the Yorkshire rebels. Uprisings against taxation can also be shown through the Cornish rebellion of 1497, as the tax demand to finance the campaign against James IV and Warbeck angered the Cornish who refused to pay the tax as they felt that itshould be the northern areas of England who would pay the tax..

The same can be said for the Western Rebellion during the Reign of Edward VI, as poverty had triggered the rebellion against a tax request on sheep, and so the rebels produced a number of articles showing their concern for rising food and tax prices. Although it can be said that the extent of the threat from the Western rebellion was not as great as others as in their articles they spoke ‘’we pray, we ask’’ suggesting the rebels were more interested in having solutions for their problems rather than causing a commotion for Edward in terms of fully changing his government.

However, in comparison, Kett’s rebellion could have posed more of a risk to the Tudor state as the rebels complained strongly about the increase of rents and these complaints came at a time of rapid inflation which had worsened the situation for the ordinary people and the first article of their demands was to stop any further enclosure. However, both these rebellions didn’t pose that great a threat to the security of the Tudor state as there was no attempt at co-operation between the two rebellions although they both resented the increased taxes.

In addition to this, the rebels believed that by pulling down the hedges and enclosures, they saw themselves as merely restoring the old structure of the land. They viewed the enclosures and not the rebels as the culprits and they were supported by government proclamations. These proclamations blamed the enclosures for the bad economy in the country and an enclosure enquiry under john Hales only encouraged and legitimised the rebels cause for rebellion.

The need to rebel against the monarch and religion was considerably significant during the Tudor period. Many rebellions across the 100 years had stated their rebellion was against religious issues and had posed a certain amount of danger towards the King or Queen. The Northern rebellion of 1569 definitely had religious elements which posed a threat to the monarchy as if the rebels had succeeded in removing Elizabeth and reinstated Mary, Mary would have surely re-Catholicised England if she became Queen.

Northumberland had even confessed to rising on religious grounds which can be further illustrated as Richard Norton led rebels into Durham under the ‘’5 Wounds of Christ’’; similar to the rebels during the Pilgrimage of Grace. Therefore, it is fair to say that the Northern rebellion posed a danger to the security of the Tudor state as the Northern Earls were against Elizabeth as they regarded her as a usurper and so she wasn’t the legitimate queen which led to her being branded a heretic by the Pope.

Furthermore, the Duke of Norfolk and the King of France, Henry II, agreed with this view meaning Elizabeth had little support in England or elsewhere. The rebels wanted Mary Stuart on the throne, especially as she was legitimate under the Canon Law, and this attempt to overthrow Elizabeth was met by an even greater risk from the Papal Bull ‘’Regnaus in Excelsis’’ which was a denial of Elizabeth’s authority and was in effect a death warrant as the Bull called upon the Catholics to reject her authority and even to kill her and in doing so they would be doing ‘’gods work’’ and would automatically be blessed.

Furthermore, when trying to defeat the rebels, Sir Ralph Sadler had wrote to Sir William Cecil in 1569 saying Sussex was having trouble raising troops ‘’the force of her subjects of this country should not increase, and be able to match with the rebels; but it is easy to find the cause’’ and then went on to say that ‘’there are not ten gentlemen in all this country that favour her proceedings in the cause of religion’’ suggesting there was very little support in the North of England for Protestantism which could indicate that even though the army was on Elizabeth’s side the troops loyalty was to the Catholic religion.

This can be demonstrated by Sadler’s words to Cecil, ‘’if we should go to the field with this northern force only, they would fight faintly’’ proving that the troops wouldn’t be fighting the rebels for a cause they felt was just. Conversely, Rebellions such as the Western Rebellion may have posed more of a danger to the security of the Tudor state as religion was a central issue that sparked the Western Rebels.

The list of articles produced demanded the reintroduction of Catholicism which they tried to achieve by rejecting Henry VIII’s Act of Six Articles, reintroducing Latin, having prayers for the dead and having Mass every Sunday. They rejected all of Edward VI’s protestant ideas such as the new prayer book in English as they believed it encouraged heresy and on top of this they demanded the restoration of the priories.

Thus the western rebellion could have been a great threat to the Tudor state as it had a challenging religious agenda which openly rejected the government’s Protestant changes. The threat of a rebellion can also be determined by how far the rebellion spread and how the rebellion was suppressed. Looking at the spread of a rebellion and how the rebellions were suppressed can give an insight to what extent the King or Queen felt the rebellion was a threat to their safety.

So these factors are very important when determining how dangerous the uprising was for the security of the Tudor state. The Lincolnshire rising and the pilgrimage of Grace can illustrate just how far a rebellion could spread as the rebels had come from all parts of Yorkshire and some rebels marched all the way to Durham recruiting as they went. It had also been reported that over 10,000 rebels had assembled at Lincoln so by the time they arrived in Doncaster to meet with the Duke of Norfolk; they had a 30,000 strong rebellion.

M. L. Bush’s research suggests that the pilgrimage was a series of interconnected revolts as opposed to one large movement which may imply that the rebellion was harder to suppress. This was certainly true as the government had a hard time stopping the rebels as the rebels force was much greater than that of their own so when they two sides met a truce was signed. Yet this failed as the commons, gentry and nobility were rounded up and executed, the final death toll of 178 (that we know of), including Aske, Lord Darcy and Bigod.

This illustrates that the king felt this rebellion was a significant threat to deal with it in this way. However, the Lincolnshire rising was easily suppressed as the Duke of Suffolk’s army came and the gentry asked for forgiveness while the commons had collapsed into confusion and so the few rebels that remained were sent home when the government heralded arrived on the 11th of October. This illustrates that although the Lincolnshire rising has a lot of support, the short time it took place in hints it was not a large threat to the security of the Tudor state.

The Northern rebellion posed a risk to the security of the Tudor state as the Earls had managed to march down through the country with a number of over 20,000 as Essex marched out from York on December 13, 1569 with 7,000 men to their 4,600, soon followed by 12,000 under Lord Clinton. In the examination of the Earl of Northumberland in 1572, Northumberland had said that there had been support for the rebellion ‘’it would be a great discredit to leave off a godly enterprise that was looked for at our hands by the whole kingdom’’ .

However, continuing with the Earls of Northumberland’s own account of the plans of the rebellion it is clear that they had less support than hoped ‘’I wished to consult the Earl of Derby, Queen of Scots and Spanish ambassador. The first did not answer; the other two thought it better not to stir’’ which demonstrates that the hope of support from the nobles and Mary Queen of Scots wasn’t materialising which contradicts the letter wrote to Cecil. The letter then goes on to say that the leaders couldn’t agree and departed which would have made the rebellion easier to suppress as there was a lack of leadership.

Also, there is a hint that Lady Westmoreland had shamed the men into fighting ‘’when I found I could not get away, I agreed to rise with them’’ implying that the men were made to rebel rather than wanting to which had caused the conflict and the brake up of the rebels. In the end, Elizabeth was able to stop the rebellion by using her royal Army to disperse the rebels. Northumberland was eventually executed in 1572 and many of his followers had been executed in the aftermath of the rebellion.

The lands of the rebels were given to the Crown and as a result the two leading land owners in Durham were the Crown and the Church showing that the power of the nobility in the north had been greatly diminished. Overall, The Northern Rebellion did pose a threat to the security of the Tudor state as Elizabeth’s position had been greatly undermined by the Papal Bull and the Earls had threatened her position by wanting to place Mary on the throne. As well as this, the rebels had attacked protestant images going against her authority and they were gaining more and more support.

What’s more the soldiers sent to stop the rebels was also beginning to be a problem for the Queen as some felt that their loyalty was to the catholic faith and not Elizabeth meaning she didn’t even have the full support of her royal army. However, the Northern rebellion may not be considered a large threat to the state in comparison with others such as the Pilgrimage of Grace and Western Rebellion as most historians agree that, unlike other such rebellions, the Northern revolt was hopelessly disorganised and there was a lack of clarity in the rebel’s objectives so any chance of foreign support was out of the question.

In addition the authorities acted very quickly, Mary was moved to a safe place, the royal army in the Midland was raised and Sussex had remained a defender of the Crown’s interests and was therefore able to gather support against the Earls. It is also worthwhile to mention that compared to the rest of Europe, the rebellions during the Tudor period posed little threat as the state remained intact unlike Spain and France when they were faced with rebellions.