Biological, Ethical And Social Issues With Cancer Sample Paper

Discuss social, ethical and biological issues associated with cancer

Cancer is one of the most complex and devastating diseases that claim the life of many humans. Today there are one in three people worldwide who are affected by cancer, and almost 60% of these people will almost certainly die. 7000 New Zealanders die every year from this disease. It is the second largest killer next to heart disease. Cancer does not just affect certain groups of people, it can affect anybody and it is not just one disease, it refers to more than a hundred diseases.

Cancer is caused by carcinogens. At present, hundreds of chemicals are known to induce cancer. Normally, the body’s cells divide in an orderly way, allowing the body to grow and to heal after injury. Damage or mutations that occur to the proto-oncogenes (POG) and tumour suppresser Genes (TSG) in the genetic material (DNA and RNA) by these carcinogens bring about Cancer, which causes cells to have less control of cell division and differentiation. POGs lead to changed cells or transformed cells and cause excessive cell division. Further mutations cause the cells to become immortal. These cells continue to divide and form a ball of cells. These cells require a lot of energy and fluids flowing to maintain the high rate of the cell division. When these balls become too large for fluids to flow through, the middle of the ball dies. TSG’s act as anti-proto-oncogenes, they regulate the rate of cell division. POG’s and TSG’s constantly compete to overpower each other. These TSG’s can be mutated and this brings about a change in the control mechanism of cell division.

Cells are stimulated to divide through a growth factor. Growth factor molecules bind to cell membranes of cells and send a chemical message to a receptor in the cell membrane. The receptor sends a message through the cytoplasm to the nucleus to stimulate cell division. Sometimes when these growth factors are absent the receptor in the cell membrane is mutated to send out the message to the nucleus.

Cells are also stimulated to divide through the two proteins, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. When these two join together, this stimulates cell division. These proteins act on the growth inhibitor proteins P53 and PRP, which are growth inhibitor proteins.

Tumours may be malignant, spreading or benign, non-spreading. Malignant tumours are aggressive, invasive, and mobile. They invade healthy tissue and continue to divide. The original cancer is called the primary tumour. If the tumour is malignant, the disease may develop in other parts of the body where secondary tumours may form. This is known as metastasis. Cancer causes illness through local growth, spread to distant organs, and overall effects of the disease on the individual.

Treatments of cancer vary. Tumours may be surgically removed if they have not metastasised. Other methods are usually used if the tumour has metastasised. For chemotherapy drugs are used to kill cancerous cells as they divide. Radiotherapy is another standard way of treating cancer, ionising radiation aimed at the tumour will prevent the cells from dividing further.

So what makes cancer more special than other diseases? The answer is that there is no cure and scientists are not optimistic of finding one in the near future.

Today people are far more knowledgeable about cancer and how it may be avoided than 10 years ago. It has now been found that as many as 80% of all cancers may be avoidable. The most common types of cancer in New Zealand are female breast (14%), male prostate (14%), trachea, bronchus, and lung (12%) and colon (11%)

Given that such a large proportion of cancers may be avoidable, why isn’t there a reduction in cancer incidence? This may be because our educational programs are not appropriate and perhaps even due to people’s ignorance.

Female breast cancer and male prostate cancer can almost always be cured if detected and treated in time. For the early detection of female breast cancer appropriate programs such as monthly mammogram and breast self-tests have been introduced. But I believe that male prostate cancer has not been addressed enough (more?).

80% of lung cancers have been found to be caused by smoking. If smoking is such a huge cause of lung cancer that kills almost 150 New Zealanders every year, why can’t it be banned? This is because large multimillion-dollar tobacco companies such as Wills and Benson and Hedges have very successful advertising campaigns mainly sponsoring sports teams. Even though it seems like tobacco advertising has decreased, it was only last year when Benson and Hedges sponsored the triangular cricket series in Australia. With such a lot of income coming into the tobacco industry they cannot be taken on by small individual and private research organisations. It is also the ignorant buyer’s fault for purchasing tobacco even though it has been proven to be addictive and cancer causing. More than any other ethnic group in New Zealand, Maori girls have been found to smoke the most. This could be because they do not receive adequate support from home and family or maybe because most have a high rate of poverty since they are a minority. In New Zealand where certain cancers are at the highest incidence in the world, the government spends over 110 million dollars each year on treating patients with smoking related diseases including lung cancer. If more money went into preventing out young and Maori teenagers picking up the smoking habit, the cost might be reduced and lives saved.

Today billions of dollars are spent throughout the world on cancer especially in developed countries of the western world where a lot of money is freely available. Most of this research is carried out by private organisations and therefore ethnic minorities appeal to be included in their research.

Dietary factors underlie as many as 35% of all cancers. Of this 35%, almost 80% of the patients are colon cancer patients. The government has taken on a major preventative scheme, introducing the 5+a day dietary standards to improve the intake of more fruits and vegetables into people’s daily diets. This aims at reducing bowel cancer in New Zealand, which will no doubt save lives.

For these reasons, cancer is a contemporary issue. Biological, ethical and social issues surround it. It also seems that a lot has been done to prevent it but there is so much further to go, and this would ultimately reduce the number of lives that the cancer claims.

Auckland University New Zealand

Summary Of Satish Deshpande’s

Statesmanship’s (origin of SC- the gobo tot India act 1935 required the preparation of schedules listing the Agates and tribes forming the ‘depressed classes) summary the 1980-90 witnessed ‘the return of the repressed’- the renewed militancy and social visibility of the lower classes, During the Unnerving era, Caste was among the few traditional’ institutions that were presented as all bad, as social evils without any redeeming features.

And in 195[Yes and ass, it seemed to have no active role in urban everyday life. After Amanda, we have realized that the sole season for the invisibility of caste in the urban context is that it is overwhelmingly dominated by the upper castes. This homogeneity has made caste drop below the threshold Of social visibility. (ii if everyone is uppercase the caste identity is unlikely to be an issue, just like being Indian is not an issue in India) Furthermore, it was the upper caste Who supported the anti-caste view.

Drawbacks Of Indian sociology in study Of caste The author comments and laments at the failure of the Indian sociologists to study the modern caste system comprehensively. Indian sociology has always ride to relate the caste system to ‘villages, rituals, rites’ and so on. This is a true but partial view that risks of becoming untrue as it overlooks its partiality. We tend to think its a rural concept, not prevalent in urban areas- which is incorrect use authors experience in Chinese restaurant. Caste is in fact alive and kicking in the urban middle-class and has had a thoroughly modern makeover. Sate as seen from sociology: what is missing? The Amanda commission report offered a rare window of insight into Indian sociology, while one would have expected the other way round: sociology to shed eight on the controvert of caste. Although Indian sociologists adopted unpopular stances during Amanda and were strong proponents of the Anti-Amanda position which prevailed in upper-caste perceptions, sociologists only cared to comment only on the report rather than the problem asking the questions that a sociologist was expected to ask.

They were unable to say anything that went beyond commonsense. Thus they were no dif from journalists or politicians Who only concentrated on the consequences of implementing the Amanda report. Failed to ask sq like is caste disc still practiced in India? Has it been changing nice independence? Etc It took as big a crisis as the Amanda commission to alert us to the blind spot Of Indian sociology.

Unequal Inequalities How is the hierarchy avatar of caste differed the inequality that was at issue in the Amanda controversy? The notion of hierarchy implicated in the caste system tends to relative inequality. You cannot have hierarchy putout inequality but since almost everyone is unequal with respect to almost everyone else, being above some and below some, thus everyone is unequal and they are also in a certain sense equalized by this fact. (for egg kings are ranked below Brahmins

Which means even the highest secular power requires sanction from the priest, while the caste with the highest ritual rank is subject to the secular power of a lower rank) This is reinforced by the fact that caste in anthropology is defined as a consensual system based on complementarily- all castes in a caste system recognize the same basic hierarchy and accept/acknowledge their position within it. Moreover, they are functionally differentiated and complement each other (all of this opposed to ethnic groups).

More generally, social anthropology has distanced caste from the material world ND its political conflicts and placed it in the vicinity of religious ritual, ideology and belief systems. Thus dealing with caste in terms of religious texts, notions of purity and pollution, food sharing, notions of marriage. Such a conceptualization is a far cry from the competitive caste politics in independent India, especially Amanda era.

While Demount has conveniently overlooked the political dimension of the caste problem, the rival camp of Carnivals who inspired fieldwork during the ass and g’s and invented the concepts of assassination, dominant caste, vote-bank etc. Has its shortcomings also…. I. Exclusive reliance on traditional methodology Of intensive fieldwork by a single scholar in a small area and subsequently generalizing the observations to fit a larger area.

It has precluded any significant attempts at developing a macro-perspective based converge of the field. At the same time, sociologists criticizing haven’t come up With any alternatives themselves. Similarly with Amanda com. Report. Common Sense on Caste Inequality The prevailing heterogeneous notions in the Indian urban society are as follows…. 1. Caste inequality is a social evil and used to be very bad in the past. However, the condition of the lower castes and tribes is improving steadily since independence.

The link BTW Caste and occupation is weakening, Reservation has been successful in providing benefits but they r being monopolized by a minority, It has become a part of vote bank politics, 2, Caste has been given a new lease tot elite by its insatiability in politics. The upper castes are subsequently facing a very real reverse discrimination and backward status is DVD. 3. There is a great variation in the economic and social status of members of every caste group, This variation makes it misleading to use caste as a criterion o decide backwardness. This also leads to the ‘murder of merit with regard to job reservations. . The main aspect of caste discrimination ii_ intractability has been outlawed thus nothing much to be done legislatively. Whatever prejudices remain must be condemned and people should be educated. Limitations to the common sense (which sociologists should have identified.. ___) 1. While the situation might have improved, the measure of the improvement remains largely insignificant. 2. While the occupations among all caste groups have diversified, it is improper to overlook the social reality ii. The sigh concentration Of upper caste in preferred and lower caste in menial job conditions.

Caste as a determinant of life chances in independent India The optimism of Unnerving era prompted scholars and administrators to take at face value the stridently declared intention of building a caste less society with a caste blind state-This has led to the absence of a systematic attempt to collect comprehensive data Since independence, the Indian census has refused to ask citizens their caste. Hence, the only data available is that of scheduled castes and tribes to ensure the enforcement of constitutional safeguards, The active antipathy towards caste after independence was because of: 1.

The nationalist movement and its campaign against caste distinction, Criticism- its gross simplification to speak of the’ nationalist mute with a singular position on caste 2, A reaction against what was seen as a deliberate colonial policy to create and sharpen divisions among the Indian people. Criticisms: its dif to disentangle imperial invention from indigenous inheritance in the history of caste, Thus the post independence backlash against caste was long and sustained. This ensured that one of the paradoxical lessons of modern governance- that the Tate must measure whatever it wishes to eradicate -? would not be learnt.

As a result, the data we have on caste inequality is largely inadequate. Available data on caste inequality The author has used the 55th round Of the OWNS data conducted during 1999-00 because it provides data separately for backward classes, allowing for the first time to disaggregate the ‘other’ category. However flawed it may, its proved that caste continues to be a major faulting of economic inequality in modern India. Commonsense may tell us that lower castes are now ruling the roost, but the facts are otherwise. In rural India, more than half of the SST population lives below poverty line. 3% SC too. Despite the major phenomenon of the rural Bob’s, caste inequality has been flourishing in rural and especially urban areas where they constitute a healthy 34% tooth below poverty line populations. This data by virtue Of being from a large, national survey, cannot he dismissed as being due to inter-individual differences or statistical accidents. The non-poor are a much smaller proportion of the lower caste and relatively much higher of the upper caste. These differences are even more stark and stable in urban.

Caste inequality has thus been flourishing in rural and specially urban India, Caste and Privilege It is firmly established in contemporary common sense that the spirit of the times not only favors the lower castes, but is also actively opposed to the upper castes. However, this is mere oversight as most enclaves of privilege are still dominated by upper Castes. Some evidence that he relies on is: I. In a country where less than 10% of the workforce is in the ‘organized’ sector- which includes both public and private, the lower castes still tend to be overly under- presented in the government sector (6%), particularly in the upper echelons.

Furthermore, the representation Of the Bobs is even lower, under 2. In the corporate sector, a study of 1100 large companies which accounted for over of the turnover showed that Brahmins were the dominant caste with a large margin, On the other hand, the Shudders at a lowly 4. 2% with absolutely no representation for Sac’s or Sty’s. 3. In every field offering a promising career in the contemporary world, the upper castes dominate and the middle and lower castes are severely under represented. We have to face up to the uncomfortable truth that caste inequality has been and is being reproduced in independent India.

Questions of location: Sociology and caste in post-colonial India. Drastic and sustained differences in shares and proportions averaged across very large numbers of individuals from different social groups cannot be explained in terms of differences in individual abilities or circumstances. Just as Druthers observed that suicide though a psychological phenomenon per SE is somehow dictated by society and hence is a sociological phenomenon. Thus, the Ft-given reason of lack Of merit Of these castes is sociological nonsense. If genetic explanations are ruled out, the only reasonable expel for the situ is that of systematic discrimination.

The neglect Of caste by sociology as a discipline can be attributed to two aspects of the disciplinary positioning of Indian sociology – namely, the dominance Of economics and tilt towards anthropology and its methods, both of which have dissuaded macro analysis of caste inequality. Caste as a colonial construct: An influential strand of recent scholarship has argued that the institution of caste is largely a modern and specifically colonial invention, In this view, policies of the colonial state had the effect of substantiating what was a diffused and localized phenomenon.

The colonial power essentialist Caste (thought of it as an essence that defined India and Indian culture). Their attempts to measure it turned it form a fluid context dependent variable to a fixed immutable essence. The nexus BTW colonial power and colonialist forms tot knowledge like anthropology thus constructed the very version of caste that colonialism needed to cement its own world view. The author comments that this is highly irrelevant in discussing contemporary caste inequality. Irrespective of its historical origin, caste inequality is a fact.

Acknowledging the modernity of caste: The most important reason for the relative neglect of caste has to do with the bad dour that has surrounded caste. According to orientation, caste was other-than-modern, the prime reason of Indian’s otherness and its failure to meet the standards of modern-Western morality. And because, nationalism could not be started oviduct attaining the guise Of modernity, caste was labeled as a social evil from our unfortunate past where it should stay, and hid under a veil of ignorance.

Consequences Of Ethical Business Conduct

Page numbers Explain the ethical issues a business needs to consider in its operational activities Explain the implications for the business and stakeholders of a business operating ethically 2 Describe the social implications of business ethics facing a selected business in its different areas of activity 3 up Examine the ethical concerns of the communities in which a selected business operates. 4 MI Assess how a selected business could improve the ethics of their operations. 2. MM Assess the social implications of business ethics facing a selected business in its different areas of activity. 3. 2 Explain the ethical concerns of the communities in which a selected business operates and suggest measures that could be taken to improve corporate responsibility. 4. 2 Evaluate the impact of a selected business’s ethical behavior on stakeholders and the business. 2. 3 Learner declaration certify that the work submitted for this assignment is my own and research sources are fully acknowledged.

Learner signature: Date: Assignment brief Unit 37: Understanding Business Ethics Start date Deadline 28 January 2014 Assessor Business Ethics The purpose of this assignment is to introduce learners to the concept of business ethics and to examine its application to the conduct of individuals in organizations and to the conduct of the organization as a whole. Scenario You are a researcher with an independent management consultancy and have been asked to prepare four management reports on: 1 . The meaning and importance of ethics in the business world 2.

The implications of businesses operating ethically 3. The social implications of business ethics 4. Ethical concerns facing different communities You will need to select an appropriate business on which to base your reports. In doing so you should carefully consider the research required for this assignment and consequently the business must be a UK listed pal which trades internationally. You should check with your tutor that the selected business will provide the evidence to meet the assessment criteria.

Task 1 Explain the ethical issues a business needs to consider in its operational activities [P 1] You should examine your selected business and explain its activities from an ethical viewpoint. You should examine the business mission statement and corporate aims and objectives [or values and goals] and describe how that business is attempting to show its stakeholders that it is aware of the ethical concerns that apply. Your report will consider Operational Activities: definition of business ethics; ethical activities; values of businesses; professional ethics and individual ethical behavior.

Likewise consideration must be given to Ethical Issues: corporate governance; corporate social responsibility; environment; sustainability; human rights; corruption; trading fairly; legal and regulatory compliance; business practices; working conditions and individual ethical responsibilities. DEADLINE: January 2014 Task 2: Understand the implications of businesses operating ethically [UP] You may use the same business as used in Task 1, but may select an alternative, and examine the impact on the business and its stakeholders of the way the equines operates.

There may be conflict of interest between the different stakeholders, and you will need to explain the reasons for this. There will also be benefits and drawbacks to the business on the way it is operating and you will need to give reasons and support with examples. Stakeholders will be identified and consideration should be given to potential conflicts of interest between stakeholders, for example shareholders versus environmentalists.

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