Biombo And Casta Painting Tradition Similarities Essay Example For College

Introduction

Casta paintings were used to portray racial mixing – so-called mestizaje. Usually, it represents a couple (alone or with children) and an explanation of the ethnic and racial peculiarities.

Casta painting tradition

First of all, it seems appropriate to identify the notion of the casta painting tradition to compare it to the biombo. It is New Spain’s secular colonial painting devoted to the illustration of the racial hierarchy. Spain colonies consisted of a range of ethnoracial groups including Blacks (both slaves and free) and Indian tribes. When Spaniards moved to their colonies in the New World, they moved their traditions and religion as well. However, the absence of some religions such as Muslims or Jewish determined them as respectable ones while Blacks were considered as the lowest social level of the society due to their transposition to the New World in the role of slaves and color of skin. Indians also were positioned lower than Whites even though the existence of their republic was recognized. All the Whites behaved as nobles. In other words, Europeans transferred their system of plebeians and aristocracy. The notion of pure blood was placed on the top. However, plenty of casta persons were assigned different ranks in diverse documents. It shows that the determination of the casta was fluid and depended on a particular case. A great majority of casta paintings were detected in Spain. It supposes the idea that they were used as souvenirs to demonstrate local people’s truthful and colorful life of the New World.

Biombo and casta painting tradition common features

The biombo under analysis is a screen made in the casta painting tradition. The painting reveals plenty of details of the mode of life and traditions of New Mexico at that time. For example, looking at the painting on the biombo, it is possible to identify the typical clothing of that social class. Moreover, it presents everyday objects, flora, and fauna as well as architectural features of that time. It is very significant to point out the fact that the painting is labeled with a number and lettering creating a type of taxonomy similar to the scientific one. It confirms the fact that people became aware that they might be categorized according to their ethnic origin.

In its turn, the latter is an expression of the Enlightenment. In particular, people began to think about scientific and philosophical issues that were important for the development of society. In addition, it should be stressed that the exact purpose of casta paintings is not identified. Generally, it is considered that they underline the purity of blood and classify society according to social castas. Such a separation is a characteristic of the colonial mentality. In its turn, the biombo also goes in line with the above. It also reflects the supremacy of Whites, particularly, Spaniards. Therefore, the biombo made in casta painting tradition might be considered as a thorough description of the daily life and social background of lower castas in New Mexico.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it should be emphasized that casta painting tradition is an integral part of the art of the New World, namely, Mexico, and Spain. It depicts racially mixed couples and their children. Casta paintings reveal the social and domestic contexts of the eighteenth century. Precisely speaking, they reflect the hierarchal society with the supremacy of Whites. Besides, the biombo reflects the principal features of the casta painting tradition.

The Threat Of Economic Autonomy Of France

In the current world, globalization can be viewed both in a social context and in economic terms. For instance, it can address the unity and international openness of people all around the world, but it can also mean global trade, international political and economic associations, and so on. Thus, the extent to which a country can preserve its autonomy and impose its will on others in the age of globalization largely depends on the particular aspect of globalization that is under consideration.

O’Neill et al. discuss the case of France in both contexts. They highlight that the country is experiencing difficulties due to globalization. For example, economic and political autonomy has proved to be extremely difficult to achieve in the current global situation, primarily because France is part of the European Union. The recent economic crisis within the European Union has undermined the country’s ability to conduct certain domestic reforms that were aimed at increasing French economic autonomy (O’Neill et al. 195). Thus, France is now committed to ensuring the financial stability of the European Union, and in most cases, this commitment comes first, before the country’s desire for economic autonomy.

Nevertheless, the lack of financial independence due to the country’s active participation in the global economy did not prevent the preservation of French social and cultural autonomy. O’Neill et al. explain that, as a legacy of the French Revolution, the French have a powerful sense of citizenship (152). Moreover, French people show a serious commitment to the promotion of the same values that were established during the Revolution: Even the country’s decision to get involved with the European Union was seen as a strategic tool to pursue French ideals rather than as a measure to achieve stability and ensure global cooperation (O’Neill et al. 197). This is exactly why the public’s support of the European Union has been decreasing in recent years (O’Neill et al. 153)—instead of becoming a stage for the country to promote its ideals in other parts of the world, being involved with the European Union has turned out to be a threat to the economic autonomy of France.

Another example of France’s social and cultural autonomy can be seen in the country’s ability to accommodate people of different ethnicities and religious beliefs while at the same time keeping a distinct national identity. As O’Neill et al. state, “It has long been a sacrosanct pillar of French political culture that national identity trumps religious or ethnic identity” (152). The country allows people of different religious and ethical backgrounds to be considered rightful French citizens, which undoubtedly strengthens the people’s sense of belonging, thus creating an independent nation. Through the complicated history of the country, French identity became the key feature of its citizens, thus creating a firm opposition to the forces of globalization.

Overall, I believe that preserving autonomy and imposing their will on others is a difficult task for any country. We can see that France’s attempts to promote its values on the global level have not been particularly effective, whereas its economic autonomy has largely been threatened by international trade and participation in international political and economic associations. However, a strong legacy has allowed the country to preserve its cultural autonomy by maintaining a national identity, which is supported and embraced by the citizens.

Work Cited

O’Neill, Patrick H. et al. Cases in Comparative Politics. W.W. Norton & Company, 2015.

Economic Growth And Expansion

Economic growth and the following expansion are nearly inevitable for any company with regular revenues and a good reputation within the target market. As soon as a company gains an impressive reputation in the target market, it gets an opportunity for further growth. The latter can be facilitated by gaining more weight and acquiring new business partners, particularly, buying stocks of smaller companies (acquisitions), or establishing a partnership with a company of a similar influence (mergers).

The acquisition of smaller companies, as well as creating mergers with the companies of the same scale, also helps considerably when it comes to choosing an appropriate risk management strategy. There can be no doubts that a company with greater assets and influence also has to deal with much greater risks, particularly, the risk of losing an impressive amount of money due to wrong investments. A merger relies on the group captive (Rejda “Introduction to Risk Management” 49), which will provide the company the support that it will need in the worst-case scenario.

Speaking of mergers, one must mention that the given strategy also works rather well for the companies that are willing to expand. With a partner company acquired through a merger, however, some risks may be avoided or at least reduced to an appropriate degree. Indeed, such a technique as a noninsurance transfer will help reduce the cost of risk considerably. A group captive, which a corporation may have, appears to be more efficient than a single captive of a small company.

Apart from the company owners, insurers also benefit from mergers or other forms of mutual company holding. To start with, there is the so-called title of the Advance Premium Mutual, which presupposes that the insurer becomes the policy holder instead of being merely a stockholder. The upgrade in the status allows for more flexible relationships with the company and, therefore, increases the chances for an increase in dividends (Rejda “Types of Insurers and Marketing Systems” 90).

Also, once the company that uses the services of a particular insurance firm becomes a merger, an insurer gains the opportunity of choosing a cheaper and more accessible method of raising new capital. Thus, the insurance company also gains the chances for further expansion and, therefore, higher revenues. Also, once a merger or a company that has expanded through acquisition starts using the services of a particular insurance company, the latter gains an opportunity to enter new domains more easily.

The status of the Advance Premium Mutual is not the only reason for insurers to encourage mergers and acquisitions, though. Agents and brokers also benefit from providing their services to mergers. For instance, such fields as “a life insurer acquiring a property and casualty insurer” (Rejda “Types of Insurers and Marketing Systems” 91) become available. More to the point, for an Advance Premium Mutual insurer, it becomes possible to manipulate stock options to “attract and retain key executives and employees” (Rejda “Types of Insurers and Marketing Systems” 91).

Works Cited

Rejda, George. “Introduction to Risk Management.” Principles of Risk Management and Insurance. 11th ed. Prentice Hall. 2004. 41–60. Print.

“Types of Insurers and Marketing Systems.” Principles of Risk Management and Insurance. 11th ed. Prentice Hall. 2004. 88–106. Print.

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