Black Footed Ferret Sample Assignment

Over the past thirty years, there have been few effective endeavors to restore endangered species to viable populations. One instance is the black footed ferret, scientifically identified as Mustela nigripes, which was once deemed the most endangered mammal in the United States. This tiny carnivorous creature is similar in size to a mink and primarily dwells in the Great Plains and Intermountain basins.

Once, the ferrets and prairie dogs lived together in the same area. The ferrets relied on the prairie dogs for food and shelter. However, efforts to control the prairie dog population through trapping, gassing, and poisoning greatly reduced their numbers. These programs had a significant impact on decreasing the ferret population as well. However, the main reason for their decline was the loss of suitable habitat and prey. The remaining habitat became fragmented, making it easier for ferrets to become extinct due to various factors like a lack of potential mates, negative genetic effects from inbreeding, environmental events, and diseases that affected both ferrets and their prey.

In 1974, the ferrets were thought to be extinct. However, in 1981, one of these animals was found in Meeteetsee, Wyoming. Sadly, it was killed by a dog while eating from its food dish on a ranch. The rancher then took the dead animal to a taxidermist specializing in such species. This discovery offered a unique chance to revive this endangered species. Tragically, in 1985, a severe disease affected the small ferret population and led to the capture of most remaining animals. Consequently, a program for breeding these ferrets in captivity started and their reintroduction into their natural habitat began in 1991.

The ferret is classified as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act, along with more than 900 other species. Currently, there are over 3000 species waiting to be included in this list. Regrettably, during the 1980s, more than 34 species became extinct while awaiting protection (Cohn, 1993). Consequently, it is crucial to assess whether the ferret program accurately represents the national endeavor to revive endangered species.

The 1973 Endangered Species act (ESA, as amended, U.S. Congress 1983, Bean 1991) contains the United States policy on endangered species, including the ferret and numerous other plants and animals. The legislation aims to prevent further extinction and restore species currently at risk of extinction. The popularity of the ESA lies in its goal to protect species from complete elimination. However, the process of saving a species is intricate, as evident in the case of the ferret. This case exemplifies how the ESA is implemented, highlighting the efforts of state officials and others in restoring species and the challenges that arise in recovery plans. Essentially, the rescue of the ferret serves as an example of how the ESA functions in reality.

Despite the small population discovered in Wyoming in 1981, there was an expectation of a prompt and organized initiative to save America’s most endangered mammal. Many universities, conservation organizations, state and federal agencies, as well as local individuals were enthusiastic about providing assistance. Together, they had significant resources including financial means and expertise in population genetics, managing small populations, conducting field research, operating breeding facilities, and supporting zoo staff. The only requirement was a properly coordinated program to successfully restore the ferret population.

The ESA states that the federal government, including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, is in charge of coordinating recovery efforts. Initially, when establishing the ferret program, federal officials had multiple choices available to them. They could have decided to act as administrators of a major hospital, gathering a team of skilled professionals, offering sufficient funding, equipment, and facilities, and relying on their expertise to aid in the patient’s recuperation. Nevertheless, this approach was not selected.

The ferret program was administered in a distinct manner. In accordance with Section 6 of the ESA, states were to be involved to the greatest extent feasible. At the start of 1982, Wyoming was entrusted with the primary role in ferret restoration by the federal government. However, issues quickly arose.

According to a formal resolution by the American Society of monologists (1986:786), there is a call for various organizations such as the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Wyoming Fish and Game department, state wildlife departments, and numerous conservation groups to expand their recovery efforts beyond what the current program is offering.

According to Miller et al. (1996:208), the FWS, or Fish and Wildlife Service, is recognized as the national entity responsible for maintaining professional restoration programs. The authors argue that Region 6 of the FWS failed to prioritize the recovery of the ferret as a national program. While it may have been easier for Region 6 to comply with Wyoming’s agenda in the short term, this strategy has likely hindered long-term recovery efforts. The authors emphasize that individuals or organizations in a position to improve conservation should not simply offer financial support, but should also invest time and attention into the cause.

The Wyoming Game and Fish department prioritized returning the ferrets to the wild in Wyoming, even if it might not have been the most suitable location for their reintroduction. Despite the existence of better sites in other states, the department’s unwavering focus on Wyoming hindered them from exploring this alternative. According to the Greater Yellowstone Coalition (1990), this emphasis on state-level concerns outweighed the broader national recovery efforts.

According to The Wilderness Society, only around 3.2 percent (approximately 16 species) out of the 495 listed in 1988 are currently undergoing recovery. Additionally, there are worries that about 3.6 percent (18 listed species) may have already gone extinct. These statistics raise doubts about the act’s effectiveness in achieving its main goals. The General Accounting Office (1992) supports this argument by stating that out of sixteen species removed from the list, five have been successfully recovered, seven are confirmed as extinct, and four have been reclassified due to misinformation.

Two federal audits have evaluated the implementation of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), specifically focusing on the endangered species program of the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The results showed that there is a lack of centralized information necessary to assess the overall effectiveness of the program. Additionally, many required recovery plans for species have not been developed and approved. Further examination of 16 recovery plans revealed that almost half of the specified tasks remained incomplete, even though these plans had received approval over an average period exceeding four years. FWS officials attributed this issue to limited funding. The inspector general from the Interior department strongly criticized the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, accusing them potentially leading to species extinction (Holden1990).

The destructive impact of human activities has profound implications for various aspects such as biology, ecology, economics, and ethics. It is crucial to recognize that the prosperity of humanity relies on a flourishing biosphere. Although there is increasing awareness regarding the significance and efficacy of measures like the Endangered Species Act in protecting biodiversity, these efforts have not successfully halted or alleviated the intensifying global extinction crisis. The gravity of this problem becomes apparent as numerous species confront the imminent risk of daily extinction.

Despite being considered a global example, the ESA has its shortcomings both in substance and symbolism. The past few years have shown both biological and political trends that highlight the problems with this powerful tool to address the extinction crisis. The promised implementation has not lived up to expectations. The process of protecting species under the ESA is lengthy and complex. Once recognized as needing protection and listed, conservation programs must undergo design, approval, and implementation. Currently, there are around four thousand species in the United States awaiting the basic protections offered by the ESA, with several hundred potentially already extinct, including many plant species. Apart from the listing process, there are numerous steps, activities, and processes involved in ESA implementation. Unfortunately, the rate at which species are going extinct is outpacing the development of effective policy responses to prevent it.

The black footed ferret serves as an illustrative case that exposes issues within the conservation process and shortcomings of traditional methods. The ferret restoration program faced various challenges, further contributing to its infamous reputation among the general public as well as the scientific and conservation communities.

To enhance the policy-making process for biodiversity conservation, it is crucial to openly, honestly, and realistically address the problem. We need to transform our understanding of species preservation into more productive and efficient conservation advancements. In essence, we must revamp the procedure for recovering endangered species.

Literature cited

  1. American Society of Mammologists. 1986. Recovery and restoration of the black footed ferret. Journal of mammology 67:786.
  2. Bean, M.J.1983. The evolution of national wildlife law. Prager, New York.
  3. Cohn, J.P.1993. Defenders of biodiversity. Government executive national journal, April:18-22
  4. General accounting office. 1988. Endangered species: Management improvements could enhance recovery programs. GAO/RCED 89-5. GPO, Washington.
  5. Holden, C.1990. Ecology hero in the interior department. Science 250:620-621.
  6. Miller, B.J., R. Reading, C. Conway, J.A. Jackson, M.A. Hutchins, N. Snyder, S. Forest, J. Frazier, and S. Derricson. 1994. Improving endangered species programs: Avoiding organizational pitfalls, tapping the resources, and adding accountability. Environmental Management 18:637-645.
  7. Reffault, W. 1991. The endangered species lists: Chronicles of extinction? P.77-75. Island Press, Washington.

Globalization: Integration Of Economics And Societies Around The World

Definition of Globalization Globalization is the system of interaction among the countries of the world in order to develop the global economy. Globalization refers to the integration of economics and societies all over the world. Globalization involves technological, economic, political, and cultural exchanges made possible largely by advances in communication, transportation, and infrastructure. There are two types of integration—negative and positive. Negative integration is the breaking down of trade barriers or protective barriers such as tariffs and quotas. In the previous chapter, trade protectionism and its policies were discussed.

You must remember that the removal of barriers can be beneficial for a country if it allows for products that are important or essential to the economy. For example, by eliminating barriers, the costs of imported raw materials will go down and the supply will increase, making it cheaper to produce the final products for export (like electronics, car parts, and clothes). Positive integration on the other hand aims at standardizing international economic laws and policies. For example, a country which has its own policies on taxation trades with a country with its own set of policies on tariffs.

Likewise, these countries have their own policies on tariffs. With positive integration (and the continuing growth of the influence of globalization), these countries will work on having similar or identical policies on tariffs. Effects of Globalization According to economists, there are a lot of global events connected with globalization and integration. It is easy to identify the changes brought by globalization. 1. Improvement of International Trade. Because of globalization, the number of countries where products can be sold or purchased has increased dramatically. 2. Technological Progress.

Because of the need to compete and be competitive globally, governments have upgraded their level of technology. 3. Increasing Influence of Multinational Companies. A company that has subsidiaries in various countries is called a multinational. Often, the head office is found in the country where the company was established. An example is a car company whose head office is based in Japan. This company has branches in different countries. While the head office controls the subsidiaries, the subsidiaries decide on production. The subsidiaries are tasked to increase the production and profits.

They are able to do it because they have already penetrated the local markets. The rise of multinational corporations began after World War II. Large companies refer to the countries where their subsidiaries reside as host countries. Globalization has a lot to do with the rise of multinational corporations. 4. Power of the WTO, IMF, and WB. According to experts, another effect of globalization is the strengthening power and influence of international institutions such as the World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and World Bank (WB). 5. Greater Mobility of Human Resources across Countries.

Globalization allows countries to source their manpower in countries with cheap labor. For instance, the manpower shortages in Taiwan, South Korea, and Malaysia provide opportunities for labor exporting countries such as the Philippines to bring their human resources to those countries for employment. 6. Greater Outsourcing of Business Processes to Other Countries. China, India, and the Philippines are tremendously benefiting from this trend of global business outsourcing. Global companies in the US and Europe take advantage of the cheaper labor and highly-skilled workers that countries like India and the Philippines can offer 7.

Civil Society. An important trend in globalization is the increasing influence and broadening scope of the global civil society. Civil society often refers to NGOs (nongovernment organizations). There are institutions in a country that are established and run by citizens. The family, being an institution, is part of the society. In globalization, global civil society refers to organizations that advocate certain issue or cause. There are NGOs that support women’s rights and there are those that promote environment preservation.

These organizations don’t work to counter government policies, but rather to establish policies that are beneficial to all. Both the government and NGOs have the same goal of serving the people. The spread of globalization led to greater influence of NGOs especially in areas of great concern like human rights, the environment, children, and workers. Together with the growing influence of NGOs is the increasing power of multinational corporations. If the trend continues, globalization will pave the way for the realization of the full potential of these two important global actors.

Robert Maxwell Biography And Impact

Robert Maxwell, the infamous tycoon who is remembered as much for his personality and ethics in his business dealings as he is for his accomplishments.

Soldier, publisher and patriot, a man who spoke 9 languages; in 1923 Robert Maxwell was born in Czechoslovakia. He was and is a mystery in many respects. Even his birth name is questionable.. Maxwell had many reasons to rebel against the norms of the world. One of these was the Holocaust. Although Maxwell personally escaped the horrors of the Holocaust, he lost his parents and four brothers and sisters to the Nazis. He fought with the British against the Nazis and was awarded a British Military Cross for his wartime accomplishments.

After the war Maxwell had seven children with his French-born wife Elizabeth. He would soon begin work on his business empire as well. He was a very strong person who knew what he wanted. Robert Maxwell was used to keep a high image even during bad times, he depended on bankers and high society people to keep high credibility. This man was used to having whatever he wanted wherever he was overall he led an extremely luxurious lifestyle.

Between his death in 1991 and the end of World War II Robert Maxwell was able to build one of the largest publishing and communications empires in the world. He accumulated approximately two billion dollars worth of family assets and was the fifth or sixth biggest media group in the world.

His companies included the Mirror group of newspapers, Maxwell Communications, Nimbus Records, P.F. Collier, Official Airline Guide, Prentice Hall Information Services, Macmillan publishing, the Berlitz language schools, and Pergamon Press, a technical publishing company.

The road to success was not straight up for Maxwell. He experienced numerous financial ups and downs over the forty years following Word War II. Pergamon Press, one of his first acquisitions had to be sold in the 1960s but Maxwell eventually bought it again and was forced to resell the company during the 1980s.

Publishing was not Maxwell’s only pursuit. His companies also included numerous television industry interests fifty percent ownership of MTV in Europe, twenty percent of Central TV, twelve percent of the French TFI station and Maxwell Cable TV. Most of these holdings are through Maxwell Entertainment Company, which also was a major provider of European television programming. Maxwell’s business interests also included online pursuits such as the Official Airlines Guides, a front-runner in online flight information and reservations.

Only two years before his death Maxwell’s finances were going down by 1990 he was running out of cash he was secretly buying his own shares so that they maintained high prices. Maxwell concealed his financial problems by secretly selling other peoples shares that were deposited with Maxwell’s recently established bank. He and his closest son Cavan used these shares to raise loans. These secretly sold shares in FIRST TOKIO TRUST investment fund were worth £57 million. The funds directors discovered that shares were missing and investigations took place at this stage.

He was desperate to repay his debts his next target were pension funds he offered in one of the company’s. With this company he was using advertising, encouraging customers to stay and in return he was making promises. Among the pension funds; shares plumed by Robert Maxwell, certificates of 25 Million shares clearly owed by the mirror pension fund, bankers Goldman Sachs sold them on Maxwell’s instruction. But proceeds were not handed over to the pension funds instead it was paid from the banker straight to Maxwell.

He was smart he always chose companies or individuals he thought he could manage. Hence, after a major disagreement with his personal assistant that left him, Maxwell was going through depression because he felt lost and knew that she had all sorts of important information. Pressure accumulated and he didn’t know whom to speak too.

His next attempt was when he went and bought the US Daily News, and was extremely popular in the US while ignoring the empire back home. Meanwhile, directors of FIRST TOKIO remained quiet about his business affairs because they knew they were in fault and reputation was concerned. Maxwell was still stealing millions from wherever he could and towards the end of 1991 bankers were demanding immediate repayment of loans.

At the time of his death Maxwell had approximately four hundred interrelated companies and most of them in serious financial difficulties.

As mentioned in the introduction, Maxwell is more remembered for his personality and his business ethics than he is for his accomplishments. Aside from his numerous personalities he has been associated from everything from his close ties with the Israeli Intelligence agency the Mossad, links with Israeli arms dealers and spies, and associations with the Russian KGB.

Even the events surrounding Maxwell’s death remain a mystery. There is considerable speculation that he was pushed into the ocean waters rather than falling in after a heart attack as the official explanation details. Others speculate that, distressed over his financial situation that had declined rapidly, he committed suicide and actually jumped from the yacht. There is even speculation that he is not actually interned in his grave.

Robert Maxwell also appeared as a Polish cavalry officer, a French infantryman, and a paratrooper major. Through it Maxwell was authorised, presumably as a part of his role in British intelligence, to appear in any location in any uniform and rank he decided upon. Interestingly, however, Maxwell’s actual rank was only that of staff sergeant.

Maxwell lived a life of luxury dining on the finest foods, residing in the finest hotels, intermixing with the world’s royalty, famous and powerful, yet his personal etiquette were most of the time despicable to say the least. With his death his many secrets and underhanded business dealings began to fall apart under public scrutiny. His companies came under the investigation of both European and U.S. interests and these investigations even include a probe by Britain’s Serious Fraud Office, and this is exactly where ethics comes into place. Robert Maxwell was doing all sorts of illegal activities, however bankers and important officials were involved; they kept quiet and because of ignorance it resulted as big costly mistakes. These important guardians weren’t anyone, they represented very important institutions such as:

After this case was in the open, lots of them got affected and indeed were thrown out. In the Maxwell case, the boards of directors in his companies were to blame, they had to limit his doings or oppose them. But however we should consider there positions and think of what they could have done.

Maxwell was a freewheeling entrepreneur with aggressive public relations tactics. He cared little of what people thought but only of what he could gain. He was powerful but not well liked. During his life (or lives) he wove a web of mystery and intrigue, he amassed a fortune and begun to lose a substantial portion of that fortune. With this death it was discovered that many of his companies were broke and that much of his $4.5 billion in debts were based on multiply committed collateral. One of the most incriminating of his life’s actions was his unscrupulous use of $767 million from worker pension funds under his control. Debates over his life and diversions, however, will loom well into the future.

Perhaps Maxwell’s life is best summed up by the Rupert Murdoch Sun’s headline that ran shortly after Maxwell’s death:


 Robert Maxwell. VIDEO (The Downfall)

 Information online Inc. ROBERT MAXWELL: THE PASSING OF AN ERA.

 McCarroll, Thomas; Anne Constable and Adam Zagorin. BUSINESS: SCANDAL Maxwell’s Plummet Burdened by huge, previously unreported debts.

 Ward, Hiley. (1998, Feb 28). Flash! Splash! Crash!, Editor & Publisher.


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