Bell, Myrtle P., et al. “Making Black Lives Matter in academia: a black feminist call for collective action against anti‐blackness in the academy.” Gender, Work & Organization 28 (2021): 39-57.
This article, like many others written by Black women academics before it, advocates for a concerted effort to combat institutionalized racism and White supremacy. Bell (47) analyzed the long history of Black women academics’ attempts to confront anti-black racism through the lens of black feminist theory. In addition, we bring the current movement, Black Lives Matter, to you. The relationship between anti-black violence and academic achievement is noteworthy, but it is also crucial in the battle against anti-blackness inside the academy, where anti-blackness is more likely to manifest itself in the form of derision, disdain, and disgust towards Black staff and students. Non-Black friends, we feel, have a key role to play in the fight against anti-blackness and liberal White supremacy, both of which are on the rise. Anti-Blackness and White supremacy are similar to secondhand smoke in that they have a negative impact on those who are in close proximity to them.
A collective movement is required to demolish these ideologies. Many people believe that the zero tolerance discourse began in the school environment, but this is not the case, according to research. One analysis produced by the Advancement Project revealed that one of the very first instances of zero tolerance wording in school punishment manuals was a copy-and-paste job taken from a U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration guideline. Students of color are suspended at a rate that is four times greater than that of white students throughout the country, while Black girls are suspended at a rate six times higher than that of white girls. When compared to the overall student population, Black females account for almost one-third of all referrals to law enforcement and more than one-third of all female school-based arrests, although making up just 16 percent of the female student population.
Loyd, Jenna M., and Anne Bonds. “Where do Black lives matter? Race, stigma, and place in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.” The Sociological Review 66.4 (2018): 898-918.
Using the zip code 53206 as a metaphor, this paper explores the link between the waning trust in the police and the political pledges to care about the plight of African-Americans. The book focuses on how liberal and conservative rhetoric about 53206 conceals the roles that decades of deindustrialization and labor acts of violence, metropolitan racial and wealth segregation, public school and welfare restructuring, as well as deindustrialization and labor assaults, play in producing racial inequality in the context of growing racialized poverty, ongoing police violence protests, and rising violent crime rates. Criminology, urban poverty, and racialization of space are all examined in the context of the study’s scope. According to them, political officials’ rhetoric about saving Black lives and the discursive creation of 53206 have had the opposite effect, strengthening police authority while further deteriorating already-decrepit areas like Milwaukee’s Northside.
Elias, Amanuel, et al. “Racism and nationalism during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 44.5 (2021): 783-793.
In a tweet on March 20, 2020, then-President Donald Trump referred to the coronavirus as the “Chinese Virus,” claiming that the term was “not discriminatory in the least.” This is due to the fact that it originates in China. It is a product of China. It was slammed as xenophobic and racially unpleasant by critics. It was also suggested that it may put Chinese and Asians in risk. These underprivileged populations, such as Chinese and Asians, were disproportionately harmed by the racist and discriminatory reaction to COVID-19, which took place all around the globe. It has long been the case that contagious illnesses are associated with “othering.” This association was re-established during the COVID-19 epidemic, when the White House utilized racist rhetoric to associate the virus with Chinese people. It was pointed out by White (2020) that “verbal and physical assaults on persons of Asian origin, as well as descriptions of the sickness as the Chinese virus, are all tied in this historical tradition of equating epidemic disease danger and commerce with the migration of Asian people”. People of Asian ancestry were targeted by the COVID-19 virus, which sparked a political kind of ethno-cultural prejudice. It has been difficult to find material on how COVID-19 has been used to perpetuate racial stereotypes and anti-Chinese bigotry.
Mosley, Della V., et al. “Critical consciousness of anti-Black racism: A practical model to prevent and resist racial trauma.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 68.1 (2021): 1.
It has long been known that racism may lead to negative outcomes, such as racial trauma. The harmful effects of racial trauma on Black people need the development of treatments that foster resilience to anti-Black racism and prevent its occurrence. Critical awareness is typically considered as a prerequisite for resistance and freedom. Black Lives Matter activists were interviewed in order to better understand how individuals transition from being aware of anti-Black racism to taking action to prevent and battle racial trauma. Constructivist grounded theory, critical-ideological lenses, as well as Black feminist-womanist lenses, were used to co-create a model of Critical Consciousness of Anti-Black Racism As part of CCABR’s three phases, anti-Black racism may be seen, processed, and critically reacted to through observing and analyzing it. Here, the model’s many categories and subcategories are discussed in detail and backed up with reference. For Black people and psychologists who work with them, this study’s findings and discussion provide context-rich and practical approaches for avoiding and rejecting racism. An explanation for the link between critical thinking, critical action, and critical thinking is provided by criminological consciousness theory. It is argued by theorists that critical reflection on structural oppression may lead to a conviction in one’s own ability to influence change (critical agency), which can then lead to socially conscious activities to correct oppressive power structures (critical action). Students may evaluate the social and political conditions that exist in their society, especially those that may restrict civic participation, educational opportunities, and economic progress for themselves and their classmates, by critically reflecting on the conditions they face. Adolescents may take part in political and civic activities that change their communities by gaining a critical understanding of sociopolitical reality. In the same way, a reciprocal relationship may be made between those who engage in critical action and those who reflect on their actions.
Blood Clotting Mechanism Essay Example For College
Blood clots are due to one of two pathways. This is the intrinsic pathway, which takes place when a clot forms on the inside of the bloodstream as a result of an underlying anomaly or a blood vessel harm. Second, once blood is subjected to the outside surroundings after damage, such as an icicle penetrating, the extrinsic pathway is activated. Irrespective of how the clot formation operation starts, the clot structures in the same way. It’s alluded to as the potential mechanism. The term “coagulation” relates to the procedure of blood clotting. Platelets, as well as numerous factors found in blood plasma such as proteins, calcium, enzymes, and vitamin K, play a role in the clotting process.
Small, repeated traumas in everyday life result in minor vessel injuries, increasing the risk of spontaneous haemorrhage. Extrinsic injuries can cause bleeding by severing vessels, which must be treated quickly. The vascular wall must have normal resistance and contractility, and the platelets, as well as many other factors involved in the coagulation process, must have normal concentrations and activity (Junge, 2006). When air enters the wound, the body responds by forming a platelet plug; the severed collagen and other chemicals from the wound attract platelets, which seek out damaged tissues and adhere to them.
The platelet plug is only a stopgap measure. The hormone thrombin then triggers the conversion of fibrinogen, resulting in the formation of a thin fibrin meshwork. These fine fibrin threads mesh with platelets to form a blood clot, which pulls the edges of blood vessels together. This movement squeezes out the serum, which is mostly blood plasma, and platelet-derived growth factor signals smooth muscles and fibroblasts to repair the injured area, preventing bleeding or blood loss entirely (Clemetson, 2012).
An axonic reflex causes localized, transient vasoconstriction in response to injury to the vessel and its overlying structures. Its physiologic significance is unknown, though it is possible that by slowing circulation, this mechanism facilitates platelet accumulation along the vessel wall and at the site of injury (Clemetson, 2012). Their platelets quickly clump together. They work in part by mechanically plugging the wound in the vessel. But it appears that their ability to release a series of agents that initiate and regulate the haemostatic process is far more important.
Hemorrhagic shock is a clinical syndrome that is distinguished by lessening in blood capacity caused by blood loss, as a result, cardiac output and organ perfusion are reduced (Klabunde, 2011). Both internally and externally, blood can be lost. The severity of hemorrhagic shock is determined by the amount and rate of blood loss. When the bleeding stops, the arterial pressure gradually returns to normal, as long-term compensatory mechanisms restore normal arterial pressure, the heart rate slows. When there is more blood loss, the recovery time is longer. Fluid administration to raise blood levels, for example, can hasten recovery. Significant blood loss can be fatal, and resuscitation is essential because chronic hypotension causes organ failure and death.
When blood pressure falls, the sympathetic adrenergic system kicks in, which stimulates and constricts blood vessels. Sympathetic activation has a little direct impact on the brain and coronary arteries. arteries, so vasoconstriction in other organs can benefit these circulations by increasing systemic vascular resistance and arterial pressure. Reduced organ blood flow causes systematic acidosis, which chemoreceptors detect, due to vasoconstriction and decreased arterial coercion (Klabunde, 2011).
The lymphatic anatomy has long been thought to perform a detached role in the control of immune function by hauling antigen-presenting cells and dissolved antigens to local lymph nodes. Lymphatic endothelial cells significantly alter immune function explicitly by attenuating immune cell entrance into lymphatic capillaries, portraying antigens on major histocompatibility proteins, and modulating antigen-presenting cells, as per the latest report.
The lymph system controls immune responses by transferring bacteria, foreign antigens that could have joined as an outcome of a snip, particulates, exosomes, and lymphocytes to local lymph nodes and lymphatic tissue frameworks. Immunity is regulated at various levels, both assertively and casually. Immune cell entrance through the opening and mobility through the lymph system are effective techniques of lymph immune system response regulatory oversight.
Phagocytosis is a complex process in which cells in almost every organ system remove pathogens and debris. Activation of the inflammatory pathway is usually followed by phagocytosis, which promotes pathogen elimination and inhibits their growth. When skin is severed as a result of an injury, bacteria enter the body and begin replicating. Injured cells respond by releasing histamine, which causes blood vessels to dilate, causing them to leak. This causes inflammation at the site of the wound or injury. When bacteria enter the body, neutrophils respond by phagocytosing them and killing them in large numbers. T cells swing into action to offer aid in directing the lymphatic system response by marking cells for phagocytosis and releasing perforin to puncture any injured or rather the affected region cells (Murray & Wynn, 2011).
Macrophages too make a move by getting to the injured site to consume any marked material not excluding the toxins that may have found a way into the body. Pro-inflammatory macrophages are usually available fairly soon after a scar form, preceded by pro-wound curing macrophages that aid with connective tissue restructuring and development by significantly decreasing the protective immunity (Murray & Wynn, 2011). Thus, upon completion of the coagulation process, lymphatic capillaries aid to reduce swelling by absorbing excess fluid.
Clemetson, K. J. (2012). Platelets and primary haemostasis. Thrombosis research, 129(3), 220-224.
Junge, T. (2006). Blood clotting mechanism. Surgical Technologist, 38(10), 12.
Klabunde, R. (2011). Cardiovascular physiology concepts. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Murray, P. J., & Wynn, T. A. (2011). Protective and pathogenic functions of macrophage subsets. Nature reviews immunology, 11(11), 723-737.
Book Analysis: Not A Crime To Be Poor Sample Paper
The book, Not A Crime to Be Poor: Criminalization of Poverty in America, by Peter Edelman, explores the inner aspect of inequality and poverty in American societies and exposes how the criminal justice system continues to punish the poor, keeping them in an unending cycle of poverty. The author points out that poverty in America has been criminalized by a justice system that imposes extremely high fines and fees for minor offenses and crimes that mostly occurs in poor neighborhoods. The excessive fines and fees have doomed thousands of offenders to years in prisons, thus perpetuating the same cycle of poverty.
Edelman argues that successive governments since the time of President Ronald Reagan have systematically failed to address poverty in inner cities by aiding skewed justice systems. Through the Reagan era, anti-tax revolution, local and state governments were pushed to milk revenues from ordinary people through unreasonable fees and fines. The criminalization of poverty is entrenched through skewed housing ordinances, the unfavorable bail system, unfair child support enforcement, and mass incarceration of minor offenders who cannot afford high fines and fees handed over by the justice system. The book explores the entrenchment of poverty in Ferguson, Georgia, and other parts of America through justice systems that governments use as moneymakers.
The author makes a strong argument on the systematic entrenchment of poverty and makes a strong case for reforms that need to be made regarding inequality, access to services, and poverty. According to the author, the criminalization of poverty is not only limited to money but extends to many other areas of social life. For instance, playground confrontations that the principal could address are now sent to court, the street families are arrested for sleeping in public parks, and women are evicted for frequently asking for police protection against domestic violence. The author presents his views strongly and offers solutions that governments and individuals can adopt to address them.
The author’s main argument is that the poverty experienced in American society is partially a product of an unfavorable judicial regime. Edelman’s main argument is that both state and local governments have criminalized poverty through unfavorable judicial policies and skewed enforcement. The author clearly defends his thesis and line of thought by drawing practical conclusions based on realities in places like Ferguson and Georgia, thus robustly defending and supporting his arguments. Edelman draws conclusions from real-life places and happenings to effectively defend his arguments. The author also gives suggestive solutions at the end of every chapter, thus strengthening his views and opinions about the criminalization of poverty in the United States of America.
The issues addressed by the author border on the ethical approach to dealing with community and societal challenges. One ethical school that can be used to address the issues raised in the book is the utilitarianism framework. The utilitarianism framework is based on the ability to predict future consequences of an action. Utilitarianism defines ethical actions based on how many people they benefit. The more the people an act benefits, the more ethical it is considered. Utilitarianism is framework has two branches; act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Act utilitarianists act for most people’s best interest regardless of personal benefits and feelings and societal inhibitions like laws. Rule utilitarianism focuses on benefiting most people through the justest and fairest means available.
The problem addressed by Edelman in the book regards unfair and unjust justice system that has criminalized and entrenched poverty in American society. Therefore rule utilitarianism approach is best suited to address the challenges and problems raised by the author. Formulating legal procedures favorable to the poor and making fines and fees affordable will afford each offender a just and fair trial at life. The rule utilitarian would play a critical role in ensuring that there is justice and fairness in the judicial and other social systems, thus ensuring the poor are not disenfranchised.
Corporate social responsibility is a major aspect of every organization that claims to be a good corporate citizen. Organizations have a great responsibility in shaping and influencing the communities around them. Organizations claiming to focus their corporate social responsibility towards eradicating poverty and ensuring justice should tailor their programs to address the problems raised in the book. Programs such as forming and funding legal support groups for the poor, petitioning local and state governments to review legal fees and fines, and empowering the incarcerated will address the challenges raised by Edelman. Investing in education programs focused on poor neighborhoods is another way corporates can help alleviate the challenges exposed in the book.
Although corporate social responsibility is a key aspect of every responsible corporate citizen, it has to be justified and, most importantly, beneficial to the stakeholders. Therefore, the proposed corporate social responsibility approaches for addressing the challenges raised by Edelman should be justifiable. The first justification is that people in these communities are their immediate customers, and as such, the organizations need to support them in areas of need. The second justification is that such programs could be potentially aligned with the corporates’ values, mission, and vision. Finally, such programs are likely to give the involved corporates more visibility, thus increasing and improving their brand image.
Individual businesses and HR professionals have an important role to play in addressing the problems raised by Edelman. Businesses, being a part of the community, should invest in uplifting the people’s living standards and communities around them. The businesses can also address the challenges by offering the people economic and social empowerment through direct employment and job-creating initiatives. The businesses can also use their business brand and personality to lobby and petition for a favorable justice system that does not perpetuate the vicious cycle of poverty. Individual HR professionals can play a role by developing workplace policies that support community work and volunteering. The HR professionals can help in addressing the issues raised by ensuring fairness at the workplace, particularly during recruitment, ensuring that the deserving candidates are not discriminated against based on their community and incarceration backgrounds.
In conclusion, the book was exciting and one of the most factual books to read. The book has a lot of information that is useful mainly to anyone seeking to understand the menace of poverty and inequality in America. One of the most exciting chapters of the book is the last chapter which outlines and discusses seven programs that are impacting the lives of the poor. The chapter makes it clear that it is not all doom and gloom as there are thousands of people working in communities, prisons, and the judicial systems to alleviate poverty and its impact on American society.
The book taught me never to negatively judge people or dismiss the unfortunate because, at times they are problems that are not of their own making. After reading the book, I developed a different view of people with records of incarceration and bail issues. The book made me understand that some of these people are hardworking, good citizens who the country’s justice system has simply shortchanged. The information presented in the book is very useful to anybody willing to understand and address the issue of poverty and inequality in the United States of America. The book was a great read loaded with valuable and practical information, and I would recommend it to anybody looking towards understanding the issue of poverty in one of the richest countries in the world; the United States of America.
Edelman, P. (2019). Not a crime to be poor: The criminalization of poverty in America. The New Press.