Boeing 737 Electrical System University Essay Example


The electrical system of the Boeing 737, the most-flown commercial airliner in the world, is legendary for its dependability and efficiency. Multiple parts of the 737’s electrical system collaborate to provide juice for the plane’s essentials. Batteries, electrical buses, breakers, and inverters also fall within this category. In this article, we will look closer at the Boeing 737’s electrical system and the parts that make it tick so that the plane always has juice when needed. The report also delves into the many 737 power sources and their interconnections.

In addition, the study considers why it is crucial to do regular electrical system maintenance and what would happen if anything went wrong. The report concludes with an analysis of recent developments to strengthen the electrical system’s dependability and security. Readers may obtain a more excellent grasp of the complexity and reliability of the system, as well as the significance of regular maintenance, by examining the components of the Boeing 737 electrical system.

Keywords: Boeing 737, Electrical System, Generators, Inverters, Electrical Buses, Breakers, Batteries, Power Sources, Maintenance, Safety, Reliability.


The electrical system of the Boeing 737 is well-known for being extremely dependable and effective, making it the world’s most widely used commercial airliner (Uhlig, 2018). The 737’s major electrical components work together to power the plane. This class includes batteries and electrical buses, breakers, and inverters (Garvey, 2020). This piece will examine the electrical system and components that keep the Boeing 737 running smoothly and reliably. The report also examines the complex linkages between the 737’s power sources (Riley et al., 2019). The paper also addresses why routine electrical system maintenance is essential and the potential consequences of neglecting such maintenance (Domanska & Bludau-Dolny, 2019). The paper wraps up with a look at how recent changes have improved the safety and dependability of the electrical system (Huang et al., 2019). Looking into the individual parts of the Boeing 737 electrical system can provide the reader with a better understanding of the system’s complexity, reliability, and importance of routine maintenance.


The electrical system on the Boeing 737 is among the most modern available. It comprises numerous subsystems that work together to keep the plane flying and operational (Riley et al., 2019). There are many different kinds of wires, connectors, and distribution devices. However, the essential parts of the electrical system are the generators, converters, inverters, direct current (DC) storage batteries, and internal wiring. The aircraft’s flight instruments, electronic systems, and communication systems rely on the aircraft’s generators’ AC, DC, and critical bus power. In the event of an engine failure, the aircraft can still be powered by the auxiliary power unit (APU) and the aircraft’s other engines, which run on AC and DC power, respectively (Domanska & Bludau-Dolny, 2019). In the event of a generator failure, the DC storage batteries will automatically switch on to supply emergency power to the vital systems. The DC Essential Bus Controls, the Load Control Unit, the Electronic Load Management System, and the various circuit breakers, relays, switches, and fuses round out the electrical system. Computers are used to monitor the power grid (Domanska & Bludau-Dolny, 2019). It keeps the plane and its passengers safe by keeping track of things like the engine’s health, the fuel tank, and the electrical system’s functioning.

Boeing 737 Electrical System

The Boeing 737’s electrical system is intricate, with several moving parts providing for the plane’s power needs. The primary and secondary power buses, the flight control system, and the aircraft rely on the power supplied by the Boeing 737’s batteries in the event of an engine failure. These batteries can be either Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd) or extra-high-power Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion). Due to its high specific energy and capacity to accept large currents, the Conventional Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery is the most common type of battery installed in the Boeing 737. The latest technology of the extra high power Lithium-ion (Li-Ion) battery is lighter, has more power, and is more efficient when charging (Kumar & Veerabhadrarao, 2018).

Electrical buses

The electrical buses are the nodes from which the aircraft’s electrical system draws its primary power. The primary bus, often known as the main bus, receives power from secondary sources such as batteries or generators. The secondary bus, which powers things like the flight control system and the avionics, receives power from the primary bus. Deep discharge protection circuits are installed to prevent damage to the electrical buses from low voltage or excessive current.

Airplane circuit breakers

Circuit breakers are installed in aircraft to prevent damage from overload, overcurrent, and short circuits. When excessive current flows across a circuit, the breaker will trip and cut power. Magnetic and thermal breakers are the two most common types of circuit breakers, and they are often employed together to safeguard the power distribution system. There are several other safeguards besides these fundamental circuit breakers.


The inverters in the plane are used to change the direct current (DC) from the batteries into the alternating current (AC). This provides juice for the plane’s electronics and gizmos. In most cases, the inverters will be sized to the highest current expected to flow through the system. The total power demand and the voltage needs of the system determine the size of the inverters. The inverters are constructed to last and protect against overloads to ensure continuous operation (Young et al., 2018). Batteries, electrical buses, breakers, and inverters are some of the many parts of the Boeing 737’s sophisticated electrical system. Even though it is complicated, this system is essential for keeping the plane flying safely and providing consistent power to all its components.

Power Sources

The Boeing 737 has a sophisticated electrical system that can draw and use power from various places where needed. This system comprises a primary alternator, a primary bus, and an emergency bus. The plane’s avionics and other systems could not function without the electricity supplied by these many parts.

Main Alternators

The 737 gets its power primarily from the main alternators. One or more generators are powered by the engine(s) and linked through a driving shaft. The alternators provide power to the aircraft by producing AC (Alternating Current) energy at variable frequencies. The 737 includes a battery-powered starter-alternator for redundancy. If the primary alternator fails, this backup unit will kick in and keep the lights on (Kunz & Lucey, 2019).

Essential Bus

The essential bus is the component that transfers alternating current (AC) from the aircraft’s alternator to the many other systems. This system is intended to convert the varying voltages and frequencies produced by the primary alternator into a steady supply of direct current (DC). In a complete power outage, the critical bus will continue to function and supply energy to systems like the flight control computers, transponder, and radio systems (Kunz & Lucey, 2019).

Emergency Bus

The emergency bus is a DC model run by its own set of batteries. In the event of a total power outage or the absence of the main alternators and the critical bus, this system is intended to provide a steady DC power source. Dual flight control computers, a navigation system, an autopilot, and other avionics are often powered by the emergency bus (Kunz & Lucey, 2019).

In summary, the Boeing 737’s cutting-edge electrical system includes a primary alternator, a primary bus, and an emergency bus. This system is meant to supply the electrical needs of the aircraft reliably. In the case of a complete blackout, the emergency bus will switch to DC power production and distribution from the main alternators.


Importance of Regular Maintenance

The Boeing 737 Electrical System is crucial to the airplane since it supplies electricity to all its systems and parts. In order to keep the electrical system running smoothly, reliably, and safely, routine maintenance is required. Wiring, fuses, and circuit breakers are only a few examples of the many electrical system components spread out across an airplane. In order to avoid a catastrophic breakdown of the electrical system or aircraft, inspecting, modifying, and replacing complex components is crucial. Wear, corrosion, or other forms of system compromise should be uncovered during routine maintenance checks. Visual inspections can spot cracks, fraying, corrosion, and other forms of physical degradation. Every wire should be inspected for corrosion and degeneration, and the resistance of the circuitry should be tested to ensure proper operation. Routine upkeep is essential to toaster electrical systems’ reliability and safety (Fredrickson, 2020).

Potential Hazards of Improper Maintenance

The Boeing 737 Electrical System is extremely sensitive and must be carefully maintained. The structure of the fuselage, control, and propulsion systems can all be negatively affected by a lack of maintenance. Most significantly, power surges and overheating are possible outcomes of a poorly maintained electrical system. Arcing and sparks from this could start flames or even explosions. Inadequate maintenance can also cause problems with the aircraft’s computers, autopilot, and navigational systems, as well as with the fuel system and the power control system. Finally, neglectful upkeep can lead to potentially lethal electrical and antenna interference, interrupting signals for onboard equipment, ground communication, and navigation (McCain, 2019).

In conclusion, the safety and reliability of the Boeing 737 Electrical System depend on its being regularly and thoroughly maintained. Periodic checks should be performed to ensure that all circuitry is working properly and to replace any worn or broken parts, wires, or fuses. A safe and dependable flight depends on regular maintenance to prevent electrical surges, arcing, fires, and other possible hazards.

Recent developments

Recent advancements have been in the safety and dependability of the Boeing 737’s electrical system. Systems with more secure connections are being developed by companies like Rockwell Collins and Honeywell, which have created integrated power distribution (IPD) systems. Ethernet and CANbus, two secure networking protocols, are used in tandem in this setup (Holt, 2016). Its heightened protection minimizes the danger of attacks from inside and outside the system.

Creating more efficient and reliable components is another recent improvement to the 737 electrical system. Honeywell’s PDS Power Distribution System, for instance, is meant to be more dependable than older, mechanical-relay-based power distribution methods (Holt, 2016). Rapid Start Controllers are a part of this system; they speed up the aircraft’s readiness to fly by cutting the time it takes to turn on the plane’s various systems. The PDS also employs advanced monitoring and diagnostics technologies to improve the speed and accuracy with which problems are identified, therefore cutting down on maintenance and repair times. The overall safety, dependability, and effectiveness of the Boeing 737’s electrical system have been boosted by recent upgrades. Companies like Rockwell Collins and Honeywell are adding cutting-edge technologies to these planes to keep them current, safe, and reliable.


In conclusion, the Boeing 737 electrical system is reliable, sophisticated, and cutting-edge passenger comfort and safety technology. It plays a crucial role in today’s aircraft, and its proper functioning is crucial to the safe flight of modern aircraft. The technology is built to withstand the most severe flight conditions. Networks supply data, control, and communications for all aircraft systems, and their redundant architecture and redundancies guarantee a constant electricity supply. Electrical problems can be detected, analyzed, and remedied with the help of the system’s monitoring, diagnostic, and self-recovery features. The electrical system of the Boeing 737 is a technological wonder that makes air travel reliable and safe.


Domanska, H., & Bludau-Dolny, S. (2019). Aviation Electrical Systems: Design, Maintenance, and Troubleshooting. Springer International Publishing.

Huang, Y., Zhao, L., Zhang, W., Yan, J., Wang, Z., & Liu, F. (2019). DC/AC multi-objective optimal reconfiguration of integrated airline electrical power systems. Energy, pp. 174, 843–857.

Garvey, L. (2020). The electrical system in the Boeing 737. Retrieved from

Riley, R.D., Peitz, G.J., Lettoof, P.J., & Clausing, J.T. (2019). Troubleshooting Electric Power Distribution Systems. CRC Press.

Uhlig, E. (2018). Troubleshooting and Maintaining Your PC All-in-One For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons.

Kumar, P., & Veerabhadrarao, K. (2018). A Review of Electric Batteries and Battery Selection Criteria in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering, 12(3), 230–234.

Young, D. A., Dang, D., & Ho, T. H. (2018). Aircraft Inverter Design. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 54(5), 2348–2357.

Kunz, D., & Lucey, M. (2016). Aviation Maintenance Management (4th ed.). London: Routledge.

Hendrickson, J. (2020). Aircraft electrical systems, wiring, and troubleshooting. Aviation Consumer.

McCain, K. (2019). What are the dangers of improper aircraft maintenance? Pilot Institute.

Bollywood Songs Review Sample Essay

I chose Bole Chudiyan, sung by K3G featuring Amitabh, Shah Rukh, Kajol, Kareena, Hrithik, Udit Narayan, and Karan Johar. The song is sung in Hindu and has more than 77 million views on Youtube. Bole Chudiyan is one of the iconic songs, and many people love its dance worldwide ( Sony Music India, 2022). This song impressed me because the classical mixes have been mixed with folk sounds from the traditions of India and current interpretations, resulting in a beautiful, unique bubblegum pop sound. The slower composition of the song grabs the listeners’ attention, heart, and soul. The tempo rises unpredictably, making it even sweeter. The classical Hook, Line, and Sinker analogy can be used to explain how good the song is.

The Hook: The song begins with a slow and simple tune. Then The Line comes when the song picks the tempo, the melody becomes more recognizable, and the dancers start moving. The listener can see the foot tapping and fast-paced beats as the dancers adapt to the rhythm. Additionally, there are sharp transitions of beats from slow to fast, then back and forth. The cycle proceeds in an unpredictable fashion. The dancers and actors flow with a rhythm that is eye-catching and entertaining. The Sinker: is the last part of the song; the listener can hear a slowing tempo and apparent disappearance of beats. The sharp transitions in this song make the listener want more. The catchphrases, for example, “Leja Leja” in this song, stick around the head for quite some time. The phrases, even if the listener does not understand Hindu, are like earworms, very difficult to fail to notice.

Regarding Brendolyn’s discussion post. First, the reviewer should start with a general music introduction when writing a review or discussing a song. The introduction should include the title, the artist, and probably the studio that produced it (British council,2023). Brendolyn has not introduced any specific Bollywood song but reviewed a generalized one. Furthermore, she has yet to credit the artist or music studio that produced the song she is referring to. An introduction tells the reader what song is being reviewed or discussed. A discussion that misses the introduction is blind and doesn’t serve the reader well.

Secondly, after introducing the song, the reviewer should give detailed observations and feelings about the melody, beats, and tempo. The reviewer should use specific music vocabulary (British council,2023). Brendolyn provides anecdotal observation but doesn’t give particular music terms. For instance, she says, “the singing was something I have never heard before,” instead of describing how the song sounded. Furthermore, she explains the song rather than reviews it; for instance, she writes, “Throughout the music video, you can see the progression between the ‘couples’ love. That is something American music videos do not have.” A reviewer needs to use vocabulary like lyrics, catchy melodies, and fast-paced beats to give an opinion on a specific piece of music or part of the song.

The reviewer can also add the song’s context, like linking the musician’s life to the music, the musician’s inspirations, and the socio-political context where relevant. Bredolyn gives context but rather just in-passing. She recognizes the musicians in the song are couples. She also associates the cheetah in the music with India; this needs to be corrected because the cheetah is found in many parts of the world, not just in India. The reviewer is required to make the review interesting and relevant to the reader and avoid being biased but rather be objective in the analysis of the song. Brendolyn is biased in her review because she criticizes American songs instead of focusing on the music she has chosen to discuss. Drawing comparisons to other arts is not recommended. Brendolyns review only addresses some aspects of what a good review should look like.


British Council. (2023, March 20). A music review. LearnEnglish. Retrieved March 26, 2023, from,alsoimportanttogivecontext.

Sony Music India. (2022, May 24). Bole Chudiyan | K3G | Amitabh, Shah Rukh, Kajol, Kareena, Hrithik | Udit Narayan | Karan Johar | 4K. YouTube. Retrieved March 26, 2023, from

Business Law Cases Free Essay

Understanding the multiple areas of law is essential as the guideline on acceptable behavior or conduct across the business or social setting. Through laws, navigating emergent conflicts can prevail for successful outcomes. Reviewing the laws ensures that people follow the set protocols and seek remedies when breaches occur. Contract, product liability, and negligence laws are important when seeking legal redress. Several law elements influence decision-making and should be recognized as the foundation for reshaping the diverse areas of concern. Through the review of a contract, negligence, and product liability as it relates to John, insight can be generated into the remedies in the cases.

Scenario 1: John and Peter are keen sailors

The contractual elements that shape John and Peter’s case should shape decision-making and determination of the remedies. Focus on assessing the crucial facets of offer, acceptance, consideration, and intention. Arguably, the first part of the contract is the examination of the offer. Whittaker (2019) recognizes that the offer denotes the willingness to contract based on specific terms that ensure that it is binding once the expectations are accepted by the individual to whom it is addressed. It is crucial for the objective manifestation of the intent by the offeror to be bound by the evident offer when agreed upon by the party (Jan 2020). Thus, the offeror should be bound by the words or conduct to induce a reasonable third-party observer to accept or believe that the intention is bound to prevail. Hence, within the case, John offered £1,000 for the boat that the two parties should have examined. Peter examined the offer, the single person, verbally. Therefore, in this case, the offer is differentiated from the invitation to treat when neither party makes an offer but invites the other to execute the activity. Whether the statement is an offer or an invitation to treat centers on the intention made as evident from the willingness of John to sell at £1,000 and Peter getting the message.

Relating the case, Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball company can play an integral role in the case since John’s offer of £ 1,000 and Peter receiving the message is legally binding (Jan 2020). The willingness to sell is apparent with the two parties communicating openly. On the other hand, consideration is an important part of the contractual process that entails the promise of performance. Jan (2020) recognizes that consideration is the main element of a contract and is integral to ensuring that it is enforceable. For example, for John and Peter, the boat is the consideration that translates into consideration of the financial incentive in the contractual outcomes. Consideration should be a promise, performance, and property with a legal value that is apparent from the boat. Sometimes, a substitute for consideration can prevail, which is enforceable. Richard & Mollica (2022) emphasize that substitutes can be promissory estoppel or good faith. However, the boat’s financial value is within the assessment’s purview.

Acceptance is equally an important contractual element that shapes contractual dynamics. John and Peter should ensure that the unqualified expression of consent to the terms should prevail in examining the offer. Objective manifestation plays an integral part in the interactive process of the two parties. Most importantly, the offer should be accepted per the precise terms to ensure an agreement prevails. Nonetheless, in this case, John offers the boat at £1,000 while peter counteroffers at £950. The terms are unacceptable to John. Therefore, acceptance is an essential component that shapes contract termination among the parties.

Scenario 2: John, the cider maker

John should seek compensation based on UK product liability and safety parameters. The cause of action should be guided by the product or apples being defective since George used Sulphur in their growth. Accordingly, the action was a blatant disregard of the circular sent, which translates into seeking compensation, especially for the apples he is stuck with that are not viable for cider production. The assessment of the common law negligence action and the breach of contract should shape the case process. Central to the evaluation is showing that the product was defective, John suffered economic loss, and there is a causal link between the defects and the financial loss suffered (Jan 2020). Leveraging Consumer Protection Act Section 3, John should directly reveal that the apple is defective due to the use of unsafe Sulphur for public use. The assessment of safety standards below customer expectations should be the basis for decision-making. Emphasis on the Section should translate into assessing the factors that can be the basis for determining if the product does not meet the set quality expectations (Grajzl & Murrell, 2023). Within the product liability case is the determination of how the apples did not meet the purpose for which it was intended. Emphasis on revealing that the product is unsafe will be the standard for seeking legal redress. Therefore, the focal point of the case is to ensure that the warnings about the unsafe apple are communicated. When George was supplying the apples, he was aware that they had Sulphur, which would, in turn, affect their well-being. The standards raised in the apple description should translate into seeking compensation for the unused.

Increasing cases across the UK play an integral role in assessing product liability, such as Wilkes v DePuy, whose case was geared at the examination of defects in products (Richard & Mollica, 2022). Providing insight and guidance on the consumer protection act should point out the way forward for John. Focusing on ascertaining a defect in the product should play a direct role in the assessment of the product (Grajzl & Murrell, 2023). Identifying the destructive features that may lead to consumer injury should shape decision-making. The Sulphur is dangerous to the welfare of the consumers. Through the case, the revelation that the defective product required warnings and the transparent communication of the features that may have altered the behavior of the consumers should prevail.

Further, John should be vocal in showing that George was negligent in supplying the apples. Referring to the case Heneghan v Manchester Dry Docks Limited, the defendant can be vocal in showing that negligence was a factor that led to the defective products (Grajzl & Murrell, 2023). Recognition of the value of exact communication on the underlying product liability within the purview of breach of duty of care should prevail. George owing a duty of care to John and subsequent consumers, should influence the compensation case. With the financial loss reasonably foreseeable for both parties, it will be prudent to examine all parties’ violations. Conformity to the case should influence seeking compensation since the apportionment of liability was based on the misconduct of the supplier. The actual contribution of the supplier to the defective product should be shown to have led to the entire financial liability (Grajzl & Murrell, 2023).

On the other hand, a breach of contract should be shown with the John bringing forward the claims against George. The breach of the express contractual term relating to the product is central to the case. Showing that the circulation should be viewed as a contract, George’s misconduct did not conform to the set obligations and should be the way forward. Assessment of the goods needing quality improvement, not fitting the particular purpose, and the description needs to meet the expectations should be the way forward. The case shows that the farmer’s product features are below the set expectations within the liability parameters.

Scenario 3: John Seaview’s case

The accident happened in a public park, debilitatingly impacting John’s welfare. Therefore, John must seek compensation for the personal injury, especially when the park belongs to the local government. Arguably Heiss (2019) emphasizes that if the public park is considered owned by the local government, it will be held liable for the injuries that happen. Heiss (2019) further emphasizes the Federal, State, and local government entities previously used to protect themselves against personal injury through Sovereign immunity claims. However, in 1948, the privilege was altered when Congress passed the Federal Torts Claims Act (FTCA) (Grajzl & Murrell, 2023). The FTCA will allow John to seek financial compensation due to the injuries in the public park.

Arguably, the FTCA sets the standards for John in seeking financial compensation for the economic loss and the personal injury that occurs. The majority of the States enable the general public to seek financial compensation, which will generate an enabling platform to ensure the liability is managed effectively (Grajzl & Murrell, 2023). Central to the suing process will be John’s efforts to prove that negligence by the government had occurred that led to the public park accident. Establishing that the government had behaved so that the level of care that its ordinary prudence would have been executed in a similar instance should prevail. Central to the assessment is the review of the park, the level of frost, and whether the government’s workers had been negligent in ensuring it had thawed fully overnight. Proving that some omissions of the duty of care should be within the scope of assessment. Reasonable care should be considered to ascertain the government did not meet the operational mandate. The existence of a legal duty, the defendant’s breach of that duty, John’s sufferance of injury, and proof that the government’s breach caused the injury should be within the scope of assessment.

Through the principles of FTCA, the provision of an enabling platform to determine the breach. The Donoghue v Stevenson case should play an integral role in assessing the negligence case (Kumar & Heidemann, 2022). Arguably, within the case are the basis for ascertaining precautions, the probability of imminent loss, and the degree of loss (Golding, 2020). The parameters of loss should be geared toward revealing the economic loss that emanates from the injuries. Colliding with Kevin translated into substantial physical effects, and the resultant injury should be correlated with the breach of the duty of care. Typically, the local government maintains public parks during the snowy period.

Consequently, it has the duty of care and did not operate viably, translating into John’s harm. Further, the government did not volunteer to protect the plaintiff from potential emergent harm despite being aware of the implications on the physical welfare (Kumar & Heidemann, 2022). Emphasis on the prima facie case should be within the purview of the presentation of the comprehensive facts. Bodily harm and property loss for Kevin should influence the seeking for compensation (Kumar & Heidemann, 2022). The cornerstone of the case is establishing insight into the visible and invisible injury requirements.

Emotional distress and physical harm should shape the reflective process in the courts. Maintaining the legal arguments should also be influenced by holding the government accountable. Accordingly, the local government is called upon to correctly ensure high-quality and safe equipment is available for park management. Regular execution of risk assessment of the park is the government’s obligation (Golding, 2020). Therefore, the execution of regular checks and maintenance should translate into a safe and secure avenue for the users. Equally, in adverse weather situations, the government must ensure that the parkways are accessible and safe. If dangerous, the government should close the parks for maintenance. In this case, John will present the various facets that shape the park’s current state.

However, the government can counter-argue the negligent case based on the facets of the act of God or nature. Accordingly, the act of God denotes the severe and unanticipated natural event which is not within the scope of human control (Golding, 2020). The government can show that the frost was unexpected and could not control the impact on the park users. In line with the argument is the act of nature as a defense. The negligent defense denotes revealing that the forces of nature were not within the human intervention, and it was too late for the local government to induce thawing (Kumar & Heidemann, 2022). The lack of control in the park’s management due to nature is an effective defense in the negligence case.


Acceptance, product liability, and negligence are relevant in the three cases. Examining the three provides the foundation for canceling the contract, seeking a refund for the apples, and compensation for injuries. Assessment of the tenets of liability, contract, and negligence should remedy the case.


Golding, G. (2020). The origins of terms implied by law in English and Australian employment contracts. Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal20(1), 163-191.

Grajzl, P., & Murrell, P. (2023). A macrohistory of legal evolution and coevolution: Property, procedure, and contract in early-modern English caselaw. International Review of Law and Economics73, 106113.

Heiss, H. (2019). Insurance contract law between business law and consumer protection. In General Reports of the XVIIIth Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law/Rapports Généraux du XVIIIème Congrès de l’Académie Internationale de Droit Comparé (pp. 335-353). Springer Netherlands.

Jan, H. (2020). The principle of good faith and fair dealing in English contract law. Правоведение64(3), 312-325.

Kumar, M., & Heidemann, M. (2022). Contract law in common law countries: A study in divergence. Liverpool Law Review43(2), 133-147.

Richards, C., & Mollica, V. (2022). English law and terminology. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG.

Whittaker, S. (2019). Unfair terms in commercial contracts and the two laws of competition: French and English law and English law contrasted. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies39(2), 404-434.