Booker T. Washington Advocates A Program Of Industrial-vocational Education Sample College Essay

Written Assignment

1. Booker T. Washington advocates a program of industrial-vocational education as the best vehicle for African-American advancement in the late 19th and early 20th century. He did so because he truly believed that it was possible for African-Americans of the period to “prosper in proportion” by learning “to dignify and glorify common labour, and put brains and skill into the common occupations of life…”(Harlan, 1974). He concluded that pushing the issue of social equality was wrong, as it would alienate white people, making it that much harder for African-Americans to move forward.

2. W.E.B. Du Bois advocates a program in which higher academic study, meaning a college education, as the best vehicle for the advancement of African-Americans in the late 19th and 20th centuries. He was of the view that, while it was important to have African-Americans proficient in the industrial and vocational areas, it was also important for them to attain a higher education, as it would allow them to compete on a higher level with White America. Without that higher education, African-Americans would remain in the same position within American society: as second-class citizens.

3. Washington’s hand-fingers metaphor is alluding to the relationship between African-Americans and White-Americans. He states that in some areas, they will always be separate, just like fingers can separate when necessary. However, all the parts of the hand can work together to complete a certain task, and that is how African-Americans and White-Americans must work together to achieve the overall task of progress for both groups.

4. Du Bois believed that Washington’s speech was a compromise, in the sense that Washington was willing to sacrifice the need for African-Americans to gain political power, civil rights, and higher education for his personal need to placate White America by having African-Americans remain in a subservient position within American society.

5. Washington founded Tuskegee University in 1881.

6. Du Bois earned his PhD in sociology from Harvard University.

7. Du Bois, in “The Negro Problem,” defines exactly what he means and how it affects African-American society. It emphasizes educating the most able 10% of the African-American population in America by allowing them to attain a college education. He believed it was crucial for this select group to be educated, so as to develop a class of African-Americans that could compete within White America and be successful while doing so.

8. Du Bois is quite correct in his assessment of the ideas held by Washington. Although he respects Washington for what he has accomplished, he is extremely opposed to the ideas that Washington holds. Du Bois feels the time of African-Americans being subservient to White-Americans must come to an end. He believes any man who is not willing to fight for rights guaranteed to him through the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution is not a true man.  Although Washington, in his response to Du Bois’ and others’ reaction to his ‘Atlanta Compromise’ speech, attempts to state that he is in favor of African-Americans gaining the rights long-denied to them, he immediately falls right back into the views he put forth in his speech. That alone is evidence that Du Bois was correct in his assessment of the speech.

9. Their upbringings played a definite role in their beliefs. Washington retained that subservient attitude that slaves had to maintain in order to survive daily life in the South. He may have been fortunate to have experiences of white people treating him with some degree of dignity, and this may be a contributing factor to his insistence that African-Americans work together with White-Americans rather than agitate for their rights. Du Bois, through living in the North and being part of a wealthy family, most likely had experiences that did not entail overt racism like that seen in the South. Yet, he would still be viewed as a second-class citizen simply because of his race. Therefore, because he knew he was of the same quality and caliber as whites, he was more adamant in securing the rights African-Americans had been denied, for he knew he was entitled to them.

10. One particular disadvantage was that both men were somewhat idealistic with regard to their ideas. They knew that their ideas could be combined, but made no attempts to do so. However, they both had an advantage in that the large following they had included some support from White America. In a way, both men were advocating education of some sort, and despite those White-Americans who felt African-Americans were not intelligent, there were many more who did believe that African-Americans were intelligent and worthy of expanding that intelligence. The fact that both men were advocating something productive for their race met with approval for some of White America.

Starbucks Case Study

Using the full spectrum of segmentation variables, describe how Starbucks initially segmented and targeted the coffee market? Starbucks initially targeted the coffee market using several segmentation variables such as, A. Geographic segmentation: dividing a market into different geographical units such as nations, states, regions, countries, cities or even neighborhoods. By placing their Starbucks locations in areas where the upscale more educated female customer would be able to access it. B.

Demographic segmentation: dividing the market into segments based on variables such as age, gender, family size, family life cycle, income, occupation, education, religion, race, generation and nationality. Starbucks initial customer was a highly educated, wealthy individual, who is predominantly white and more times female. Their target customer was someone who was able to come into the location and shoot the breeze with the barista, who would come into the location on a daily basis, or even twice a day. The locations where set in an upscale neighborhood or in city.

That allowed the person a third place to go other than work or home. A place to sit and read or meet up with friends and hang out. C. Gender segmentation: dividing a market into different segments based on gender. Starbucks target customer was scaled towards females. They wanted people that were set to a certain lifestyle. That liked the personal experience that was being offered, the personalized greeting and the chance to talk with the baristas. D. Psychographic segmentation: dividing a market into different segments based on social class, lifestyles, or personality characteristics.

Again Starbucks was clearly using this segmentation, going after the upper class, the female who had the time to spend and get that experience that they were trying to offer. Question 2 What changed first- the Starbucks customer or the Starbucks experience? Explain your response by discussing the principles of market targeting. A. I believe the Starbucks customer changed first. A year before the economy started to drop is when Starbucks first started to feel the change. The once loyal customer base was starting to dwindle fast. They were losing their target customer.

People were no longer spending their money on the luxury item that Starbucks coffee was. Once Starbucks finally realized what was happening they had no other choice but to change the Starbucks experience. Their new customer was not interested in spending time talking with the barista, they wanted a good cup of coffee and quickly. They also wanted more options offered such as food and other specialty drinks. B. Market targeting: the process in evaluating each market segments attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter into.

Starbucks had to make some changes to try and compete with so many other companies that entered into the coffee market that Starbucks had once cornered. Starbucks branched out into selling breakfast parings which really started Starbucks way back onto a road of profits. Starbucks then introduced Via which is its own version of instant coffee that comes in a single serve package. That was offered at $1 each or 12 for $9. 95, this was a great idea that now offered people that didn’t have time to go to a coffee shop or have access to a coffee pot to still be able to have a quality cup of coffee.

This also allowed Starbucks to enter a whole now category and sell this product in grocery stores. After two years of testing Starbucks now offers flavored coffee’s that you can purchase in any grocery stores. In vanilla, caramel, and cinnamon. Question 3 Based on the segmentation variables, how is Starbucks now segmenting and targeting the coffee market. A. Starbucks has changed so much since its first opening, when it offered a quality cup of coffee or espresso. To a company that offers so much more, from the popular Via which is an instant coffee, to the new flavored coffee that can be bought in stores.

Sine four out of five cups of coffee are drunk at home Starbucks new it had to branch into this segment and get its products into people’s homes. Then Starbucks purchased Seattle’s Best, which would allow it to branch into such markets like vending machines, coffee carts, fast food restaurants like Subway and Burger King, movies theaters and convenience stores. Branching out to customers that normally would not purchase their coffee from Starbucks. Question 4 Will Starbucks ever return to the revenue and profit growth that it once enjoyed?

Why or why not? A. I don’t think Starbucks will ever return to a place where it was growing at such a fast pace. I believe that Starbucks has seen its peak when it was in the best of the best. I do however believe that even though Starbucks is mot growing at such a fast pace as before that it will still stay very profitable. If Starbucks continues to create new inventive ways to branch out into new markets like it has been doing I believe that it might make more money that way. Appealing to the masses is better than appealing to a small group.

Compare And Contrast Fashion

The world of fashion is something that has tremendously evolved through the decades. There has especially been a huge growth in the study field of fashion. Two of the most in demand careers are fashion merchandise and fashion design and although both careers deal with the same subject and have some similarities, they also have many differences. Both occupations have a common background with some minor changes in detail; they also differ in career choices offered by the industry, and most importantly each profession requires a different degree.

Fashion merchandise is defined as the point where fashion and business meet. Fashion merchandising involves marketing fashions to various retail stores, boutiques, and wholesalers. The mission of a fashion merchandiser consists of connecting different fashions to consumers and anticipating what your clients will be interested in. Fashion merchandise does not center on fashion alone; it requires a devoted business sense and comprehension of assorted marketing strategies and techniques.

On the other hand fashion design is defined as the art of the application of design and aesthetics or natural beauty to clothing and accessories. Fashion design is influenced by cultural and social freedom, and has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories. Some work alone or as part of a team. They must consider who is likely to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn.

They work with different materials such as; pattern, color, texture, and diverse styles. Although both professions deal with the fashion industry one is more inclined to business and the other is more inclined to art. It is not necessary to be really artistic and creative to be a fashion merchandiser; however it is necessary to be artistic to be a fashion designer. The amount of careers in the field of fashion has grown immensely within the last few decades and the demand for more designers and merchandisers is astonishing.

While many workers were losing their jobs due to the recession, it seemed as if the fashion industry did not get impacted by this very much. Fashion merchandising has a vast amount of careers one could generalize in while design only focuses on one. Some of the careers merchandise offers is: management, buyer, seller, visual, trends, display, store owner, and the list goes on. On the other hand designing deals with the design of the garments or accessories.

Although, you can divide it in specific fields such as: drawing, sewing, construction, course design, etc. hey all lead to the same destination, and that is designing the product. However, when you study merchandise, you get a little taste of all the aspects of the merchandise field and then generalize in one. A big advantage to that is that you are able to change your specific line of work at any time without having to go back to school, for example going from working at a retail store as a buyer to opening your own boutique to writing editorials for a top magazine. Getting a degree is one of the most important steps in pursuing a career.

Whether it is for design or for fashion it is standard to get an education and a degree in order to reach your goal. Although both professions require a 2-year or 4-year degree they are not going to be the same degree. When studying design the courses required are hands on, sewing, drawing, textile, fabric, fashion trends, etc. Unlike design, merchandise is more inclined to math and business, reading, and writing; however you are still required to take many of the design courses.

It is important to know the basics, being fashion, however one takes you to the business side while the other the more artistic side. As explained before these two professions have many similarities especially the most important being that they both deal with fashion. But, once you have decided what occupation you are interested in it is important to see what field that falls into. You cannot be an assistant to a major designer like Karl Lagerfeld if you do not have experience in design nor can you open an accessory store without having experience in merchandise.

The reason for this is simple; if you do not have the experience and knowledge necessary in either then you may not be as successful as expected. When I first started school 5 years ago, I was not aware of the merchandise program and took fashion design for a year, I decided I did not like drawing nor did I like sewing and I changed my major to business until I was informed about merchandise. I wasted a couple years and a lot of money and this is why being aware of the careers and what it takes is so important.

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