Breastmilk Is Best For Newborns University Essay Example

Breastmilk is the perfect food for a newborn as it contains the correct nutrients. Besides, it is designed in a way that is easily digestible such that it is gentle to the baby’s growing body systems, intestines and stomach. New mothers are advised to breastfeed exclusively for six months. This means they should only feed their newborns breastmilk for the first six months and combine breastfeeding with solid foods until the baby is 1 or 2 years old. Although there exists infant formula used to feed newborns, the feed does not surpass breastmilk on the grounds of digestion, cost and accessibility and remains the most suitable for newborns. The following discussion argues why breastmilk is ideal for newborns by addressing its health benefits on the baby and the mother and how it differs from infant formula.

One advantage breastmilk has over formula is that it contains healthy nutrients that foster the growth and development of the baby. When a mother gives birth, her breasts produce colostrum which is essential as it enhances the baby’s immune system and promotes its growth and development. Mainly, the nutrients in breast milk include proteins and carbohydrates, which are easily absorbed and used by the infant. Besides, these nutrients in breast milk are suitable for developing the baby’s nervous system and brain. Research studies indicate that breastfed babies score high in intelligence tests when tested at an older age. Breastmilk contains various types of fat that help the eyes of the baby to work better.

The next advantage breastmilk has over infant formula that makes it the most suitable for newborns is that it is developed by nature and changes as a baby grows. One thing to comprehend is that breastmilk has advanced over millions of years to fit the baby’s needs. Breast milk is accessible whenever the newborn requires it and is clean, free and at the right temperature (John Hopkins Medicine, 2023). Baby formula manufacturers may have tried to match the components of breastmilk, but formula can never be the same as breastmilk. For instance, one must warm a formula milk bottle before feeding the infant. Besides, as the infant grows, the breastmilk transitions and aligns its components to meet the baby’s nutritional needs and has fewer feeds. Also, the breastmilk changes in composition and volume based on the age of the baby, nursing frequency and time of the day to enhance health growth (Sanchez et al., 2021). As such, breastmilk, being a natural substance, surpasses formula as it is purposely developed in the mother’s body to meet the baby’s nutritional needs. Therefore, terming breastmilk is the perfect food for an infant.

Breastmilk helps keep the baby healthy by providing the proper nutrients. Besides, the milk prevents infections which fosters the growth and development of the baby. Breastmilk contains many disease-fighting aspects that prevent moderate to severe conditions and hospital admission (Sanchez et al., 2021). Studies done on breastfeeding infants indicate fewer ear, lung and digestive infections. In line with preventing infections, breastmilk helps protect premature babies from having necrotizing enterocolitis, a severe intestines infection(Sanchez et al., 2021). Mainly, a baby grows and develops well if the body remains healthy. Besides, breastmilk enables the baby’s body to fight off infections, making the illness less severe. The ability of breastmilk to prevent infections makes it perfect for an infant as it enhances growth and development.

Breastmilk does not only prevent infections but also helps prevent other fatal conditions. Studies show that breastfed babies have a lower risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) than those not breastfed. Besides, breastfed babies have a low probability of contracting skin issues linked to allergies and asthma. Typically, formula-fed infants have a high possibility of having milk allergies. Breastmilk lowers the chance of the infant having digestive problems and diarrhea (John Hopkins Medicine, 2023). On the other side, the formula can alter healthy bacteria in the infants’ intestines, which makes it difficult to digest and fight illnesses. This is because the intestines’ beneficial bacteria aid digestion and fight illness. Other conditions that breastmilk prevents include leukemia and other terminal illnesses as they grow, such as diabetes and obesity.

Breastfeeding offers health advantages for the baby and mother as it allows the mother to bond with her newborn. This connection benefits the mother psychologically as they connect with the newborn and impacts their decision to breastfeed. Mothers who formula-feed their babies report that breastfeeding creates a closer bond between mother and child than formula-feeding (Green, Killings & Clare, 2021). In line with psychological benefits, breastfeeding lowers the risk of postpartum depression in new mothers. Mainly this illness affects not only the mother but also the health of the newborn, particularly when it comes to caring for the child. Breastfeeding enables a mother to ward off postpartum depression, allowing her to care for her newborn, and promoting the infant’s growth and development.

Breastmilk is natural and suitable for the baby as it contains vital nutrients that foster growth and development. Nevertheless, breastmilk, a natural and renewable food source, provides eco-friendly benefits worldwide. There are no packages to store breastmilk compared to infant formulas and other alternatives for human milk that need packaging that may eventually be dumped in landfills. Hamilton (2015) asserts that for each one million formula-fed infants, one-hundred and fifty million formula containers are used and they may be dumped in landfills. Besides, infant formulas must be distributed from one place to another so that families can access them. Breastfeeding requires mothers to eat small quantities of calories to produce enough milk for the infant; it does not require transportation to distribute, fuel to prepare or containers. Therefore, it decreases the amount of carbon footprint by conserving energy and resources.

Those in opposition that argue that breastmilk is not the best for infants may say that the milk may be insufficient for the growth and development of the infant if the baby has various health problems and the mother has a particular health condition. If the baby has low blood sugar or dehydration, the health practitioner may advise the mother to include liquids, formula, and breastmilk to help her recover. Besides, a doctor may recommend that a mother stop breastfeeding her newborn if she has certain infections that can be passed to the newborn through breast milk. Also, if the mother uses alcohol or other drug substances, the doctor may warn against breastfeeding as this may adversely impact the growth and development of the infant. These arguments are valid as they apply to inevitable circumstances that aim to protect the development and growth of the infant. However, breastmilk remains the best food for newborns as it contains the proper nutrients, is free, prevents infections, fosters a connection between mother and child and confers benefits to the environment.


Green, V. L., Killings, N. L., & Clare, C. A. (2021). The historical, psychosocial, and cultural context of breastfeeding in the African American community. Breastfeeding Medicine, 16(2), 116-120.

Hamilton, A. E. (2015). Development of environmentally friendly messages to promote longer durations of breastfeeding for already breastfeeding mothers. Health communication, 30(3), 231-240.

John Hopkins Medicine. (2023). Breast Milk is Best. Retrieved from Johns Hopkins Medicine:

Sánchez, C., Franco, L., Regal, P., Lamas, A., Cepeda, A., & Fente, C. (2021). Breast milk: a source of functional compounds with potential application in nutrition and therapy. Nutrients, 13(3), 1026.

The Organisational Behavioural Issue Of Employee Retention In The Hospitality Industry During COVID-19 Sample Paper


The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically affected the hospitality industry, leading to widespread closures, job losses, and working challenges that have significantly impacted employee behaviour, specifically, their decision to stay at their current jobs. According to Elshaer and Azazz (2021), during the pandemic, many employees in the hospitality industry also had to deal with the added stress of increased health and safety concerns, which could have further impacted employee retention. The sudden shift to remote work and the implementation of new safety protocols has created a unique set of challenges for employers and employees alike, making it increasingly difficult for employees to remain motivated and have high morale. Understanding and addressing these challenges and their impact on fundamental employee behaviour, such as employee retention, is crucial for the industry’s long-term success (Elshaer and Azazz, 2021). This new challenge has prompted this research article to study employee retention in the hospitality industry during the COVID-19 pandemic, examining the shifts experienced by both employers and employees and identifying strategies for improving retention in this challenging environment such as this. Critical assessment of the employee retention aspect of employee behaviour can be used as a foundation for dealing with such an unprecedented challenge in the future. This paper aims to analyse the high turnover rates and low retention among employees in the hospitality industry during the Covid-19 pandemic. This paper has a literature review comprising a scoping review that discusses the behavioural issue of employee retention. Further, the report discusses the summary of the literature review findings and recommendations on ensuring employee retention during the post-pandemic period.

Scope Review

Employee retention refers to ensuring that the human personnel of a company is motivated to continue working for extended periods (Gorde, 2019, p.331). It is a crucial concept for organisations as it directly impacts their ability to remain successful and competitive (Xuecheng, Iqbal, and Saina, 2022). For example, if an organisation is dealing with poor employee retention, they face issues with their usual operations as they keep disrupting the achievement of different roles. Das and Baruah (2013, p.8) argue that even the protracted well-being of businesses is tied to their ability to retain their human personnel constantly. This is because of their ability to effectively carry out different roles that contribute to quality products and services and consumer happiness and contentment (Martin, 2005). More precisely, in the hospitality and tourism industry, the ability to retain employees is critical as it is tied to the image, reputation, and quality of the products and services of businesses (Kusluvan et al., 2010, p.172). This research will evaluate employee retention issues during the Covid 19 pandemic for companies in the hospitality industry.

Literature Review

A review of research before the COVID-19 pandemic, employee retention in the hospitality industry was already a significant aspect of employee behaviour. A literature review of studies conducted before the pandemic highlights several causes of low retention in the industry and solutions companies have implemented to address these issues. One of the leading causes of low retention in the hospitality industry is a lack of job security and career advancement opportunities (Devasia, 2018). A study by the International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management found that many employees in the industry view their jobs as temporary or part-time, which can negatively impact retention ((Bauer and Erdogan, 2012, p.17). Additionally, a study by the Cornell Hospitality Quarterly found that many employees in the industry do not see clear career advancement opportunities, which can lead to high turnover rates.

Another cause of low retention and high turnover in the hospitality industry was poor working conditions, including long hours, low pay, and lack of benefits. A study by the Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research found that many employees in the industry are dissatisfied with their working conditions, which can negatively impact retention (Abdou et al., 2020, p.4). However, to address these issues, hospitality companies implemented several solutions to increase satisfaction and motivation levels. Agarwal (2021, p.3) finds that offering competitive pay and benefits can improve retention in the industry. Additionally, many companies have implemented employee training and development programs to help employees advance their careers. Elshaer and Azazz (2021, p.12) argue that providing a supportive work environment can help improve industry retention. This includes implementing policies that promote work-life balance, such as flexible scheduling, and creating a positive and inclusive culture.

Additionally, in their article, Kusluvan et al. (2010, p.176) argue that organisational behaviour and retention of employees are linked to human resource management roles of ensuring proper remuneration, constant coaching of skills and talent, as well as the assurance of employee well-being and job surety. The article further argues that the hospitality and tourism industry has human resource management practices that are notorious for reducing the inducement of employees to remain working in their particular service companies (p.177). The primary cause of retention issues in the industry is the fear of losing jobs. It is the human resource management’s role to ensure the security of job positions (Elshaer and Azazz, 2021, p.2). This was showcased after the covid-19 pandemic impacted the hospitality industry, causing numerous employees to lose their jobs. Due to the closure, many employees’ perception of job security in the hospitality and tourism industry was negatively influenced, a factor that has augmented the organisational behaviour issue of employee turnover in the industry (Elshaer and Azazz, 2021).

Additionally, research illustrates that the pandemic prompted issues with employee retention among tourism and hospitality companies due to poor working conditions because of regulations and policies that were put in place (Yin, Bi, and Ni, 2022). This was evident mainly in the small number of employees allowed to work concurrently in the same hours because of the policy of minimal physical contact and interaction. This factor was despite many hospitality enterprises being containment areas for those affected by the virus (Yin, Bi, and Ni, 2022). Because of this, the covid-19 pandemic facilitated an increasing issue of the organisational behaviour of employee retention in the tourism and hospitality industry.

Research Gap in Literature

The literature review showed that employee retention within the hospitality industry had been widely addressed, its challenges addressed, and possible solutions proposed and tested. However, the challenge of the Covid-19 pandemic was unprecedented, and there are very few studies addressing the issue of employee retention. This presents a research gap for this organisational behaviour issue to be addressed. For instance, other results show a direct relationship was identified between the style of leadership, employee retention, and employee well-being during the covid-19 period. Many scholars had previously recommended findings on HRM in hotels and employees’ well-being, arguing that HRM practices provide a strategic edge in all hotel functions, as a result, influences hotel operations. (Agarwal, 2021, p. 4). Another article also argues that employee turnover in the hospitality Industry is a massive issue as it costs 1.5 times the departing employees’ income (Abdou et al., 2022).

Guarantee work security is essential to leaders, as shown in the articles above, which indicate a negative standing in employee job security. Moreover, HRM plans determine employee behaviour in times of uncertainty, such as Covid-19. Another researcher gap identified is the lack of HRM policies governing moments of uncertainty, as shown during the Covid-19 period. Abdou et al. (2022) also highlighted a positive correlation between negative employee job satisfaction and high employee turnover. Further research is required around HRM policies in the hospitality industry that addresses the well-being of employees and other stakeholders and an evaluation of changes applied. The equity theory developed by John S Adams explains the relationship between employees’ job satisfaction regarding how they are treated and retention (Miner, 2005, p.116). In addition, this work is studied within the environmental context of the Covid 19 pandemic, which is a high-level threat and causes a lack of control across various industries in different locations worldwide.

Summary of literature review findings and analysis

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the hospitality industry, leading to widespread closures and job losses. Employee retention has become a critical issue as businesses begin to reopen and recover. The literature review revealed some central issues in the hospitality industry during the pandemic and how they have influenced employee retention. First, the sudden shift to remote work and the implementation of new safety protocols have created challenges for employers and employees. A study by the National Restaurant Association found that nearly 3 million jobs in the restaurant industry were lost between February and April 2020, with many restaurants facing closures and significant reductions in business (Nhamo et al., 2020, p.189).

Loses of Hospitality Industry During the Pandemic

A survey conducted by the American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) in April 2020 found that 80% of hotels had laid off or furloughed employees, and nearly half (47%) of hotels had temporarily closed. (Haryanto,2020, p.2) This sudden shift in the industry has led to increased job insecurity and uncertainty, which can negatively impact employee retention. Secondly, the pandemic has also led to changes in consumer behaviour, with a shift towards contactless and digital services. This has forced many businesses to adapt and invest in new technologies, which can put additional pressure on employees and increase job insecurity. A study by Yin et al. (2022, p.540) found that the pandemic has accelerated the digitalisation of the hospitality industry by several years, with many businesses now relying on digital platforms for reservations, payments, and customer service. Thirdly, the pandemic has also led to increased health and safety concerns for employees in the hospitality industry. A study by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) found that employees in the hospitality industry are at a higher risk of exposure to COVID-19 due to the nature of their work. This added stress can negatively impact employee retention, with many employees choosing to leave their jobs due to increased health and safety concerns (Haryanto, 2020, p.4). The literature review shows that the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the hospitality industry and employee retention. The sudden shift to remote work, changes in consumer behaviour, and increased health and safety concerns have all contributed to increased job insecurity and uncertainty for employees in the industry. Addressing these issues will be crucial for improving employee retention in the long term.

Causes of high employee turnover

Causes of high employee turnover

In summary, the articles and studies discussed above illustrated the importance of positive organisational behaviours in influencing employee retention. Because of the covid-19 pandemic, the tourism and hospitality industry has challenges with employee retention. This factor is mainly because of the pandemic that caused a high loss of jobs and insecurity of positions.

Recommendations on how to ensure employee retention in the industry

Ensuring that human resource management practices within the industry advocate for the overall well-being of employees (Xuecheng, Iqbal and Saina, 2022). According to the article by Kusluvan et al. (2010, p.176), there is a positive reliance on the organisational behaviour of ensuring employees’ emotional and psychological well-being is taken care of and improving their desire to remain working for a company. Because of the covid-19 pandemic, this was disregarded. This is because employees had to spend long hours of labour under threatening conditions close to people with the virus (Yin, Bi, and Ni, 2022). Therefore, hospitality and tourism companies should strive to incorporate a working environment that fosters positive overall well-being for their employees to ensure their retention is guaranteed.

The hospitality industry should improve the surety and security of their employees’ work positions to ensure high retention (Gurchiek, 2010). This recommendation is in line with the main issue causing high employee turnover in the industry discussed earlier (Elshaer and Azazz, 2021, p.2). Research illustrates that companies that guarantee surety of job positions positively motivate employees to remain working for protracted periods (Gurchiek, 2010). This can be done by involving them in decision-making regarding crucial issues in adverse organisational and operational shifts (Valackiene et al., 2021). For example, most hospitality and tourism stakeholders can involve their employees in discussing the division of labour and working hours to abide by the physical distancing policy. This improves their sense of security in their jobs and guarantees their physical, emotional, and psychological well-being is taken care of, thus improving their retention.

Human resource managers within the hospitality industry can also ensure that they recruit suitable talent to carry out the various roles (Ghani et al., 2022). This recommendation is based on the fact that employees with the skills to carry out the roles assigned are more likely to remain in the organisations (Walden University, 2019). This is since they are well equipped with either a theoretical or practical understanding of their roles, meaning they can easily carry out their jobs with minimal stress. Even so, the industry should ensure that all other factors are conducive and positively contributing to motivating the employees to continue being productive and working for their organisations.


As discussed, the assurance of security and well-being while working are crucial contributors to improving the retention of employees within organisations. Because of this, it is essential that the tourism and hospitality industry work towards improving their working environments to ensure the employees are positively influenced to remain working within their organisations. Research on various solutions on how to make work tedious task lighter for employees in the hospitality industry to reduce tasks on employees and improve well-being and job satisfaction.


Abdou, A.H., Khalil, A.A.F., Mahmoud, H.M.E., Elsaied, M.A. and Elsaed, A.A. (2022). The Impact of Hospitality Work Environment on Employees’ Turnover Intentions During COVID-19 Pandemic: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Conflict. Frontiers in Psychology, [online] 13. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2022.890418.

Agarwal, P. (2021). Shattered but smiling: Human resource management and the well-being of hotel employees during COVID-19. International Journal of Hospitality Management93, 102765.

Bauer, T. and Erdogan, B. (2012). An Introduction to Organisational Behavior v. 1.1. [online] USA, pp.1–776. Available at:

Das, B. and Baruah, M. (2013). Employee Retention: A Review of Literature. IOSR Journal of Business Management, [online] 14(2), pp.8–16. Available at:

Devasia, S. (2018). Organisational Behaviour and its Importance in Management – Robert Kennedy College Blog. [online] Robert Kennedy College. Available at:

Elshaer, I.A. and Azazz, A.M.S. (2021). Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic, Unethical Behavior in the Name of the Company: The Role of Job Insecurity, Job Embeddedness, and Turnover Intention. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(247), pp.1–15. doi:

Ghani, B., Zada, M., Memon, K.R., Ullah, R., Khattak, A., Han, H., Ariza-Montes, A. and Araya-Castillo, L. (2022). Challenges and Strategies for Employee Retention in the Hospitality Industry: A Review. Sustainability, [online] 14(5), p.2885. doi:10.3390/su14052885.

Gorde, S. (2019). (PDF) A Study of Employee Retention. [online] ResearchGate. Available at:

Gurchiek, K. (2010). Job Security, Company Stability Are Most Important, Generations Agree. [online] SHRM. Available at:

Haryanto, T. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and international tourism demand. JDE (Journal of Developing Economies), 5(1), 1-5.

Kusluvan, S., Kusluvan, Z., Ilhan, I. and Buyruk, L. (2010). The Human Dimension. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51(2), pp.171–214. doi:10.1177/1938965510362871.

Martin, R. (2005). The Power of Happiness. Rotman Magazine, [online] pp.5–9. Available at:

Miner, J. B. (2005). Organisational Behavior: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. one (Vol. 1). Me Sharpe.

Nhamo, G., Dube, K., Chikodzi, D., Nhamo, G., Dube, K., & Chikodzi, D. (2020). Impacts and implications of COVID-19 on the global hotel industry and Airbnb. Counting the Cost of COVID-19 on the global tourism industry, 183-204.

Valackiene, A., Meidute-Kavaliauskiene, I. and Činčikaitė, R. (2021). Ensuring Employee Job Security When Implementing Changes in the Company: A Case Study of Lithuanian Industry. Sustainability, 13(15), p.8383. doi:10.3390/su13158383.

Walden University (2019). 6 Strategies to Reduce Employee Turnover. [online] Available at:

Xuecheng, W., Iqbal, Q. and Saina, B. (2022). Factors Affecting Employee’s Retention: Integration of Situational Leadership With Social Exchange Theory. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2022.872105.

Yin, J., Bi, Y. and Ni, Y. (2022). The impact of COVID-19 on turnover intention among hotel employees: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, [online] 51, pp.539–549. doi:10.1016/j.jhtm.2022.05.010.

Chlamydia In Pennsylvania University Essay Example

Years of potential life lost aged 75 per 100000 people in Pennsylvania continue to increase. Approximately 7600 years are lost due to individuals’ deaths below age 75 in the 100000 population, which range between 4100 and 10700 years of life lost across the United States counties. This increased loss of potential life is caused by significant health concerns such as sexually transmitted infections, commonly chlamydia, lack of access to exercise opportunities, adult obesity, and adult smoking. In a 100000 study population of newly diagnosed chlamydia cases, 481. 9 new cases had been recorded as of 2019. This implies that new cases per 100000 individual ranges from 116.5 to 1284.9 across counties in the United States (County Health Ranking & Roadmaps, n.d.). This is highly a matter of concern since chlamydia remains one of the most reported men and women sexually transmitted infection cases in the United States.

Chlamydia, as a sexually transmitted infection, usually has no symptoms; however, it might cause permanent damage, especially for the women’s reproductive organs. Unlike women, untreated chlamydia in men rarely poses life-threatening damage; nevertheless, it often causes epididymitis or painful testicular swelling. On the other hand, untreated chlamydia in women might result in ectopic pregnancy or inability to get pregnant, pelvic inflammatory illness, and other life-threatening conditions where the fertilized eggs develop outside the uterus. According to Kumar et al. (2021), chlamydia takes a larger percentage of medical costs channelled to non-viral sexually transmitted infections, particularly in Pennsylvania, and direct medical costs in the United States remained more than $691 million in 2018.

The creation of a community health center program will help address the issue of sexually transmitted infection, chlamydia, in Pennsylvania since the increased scarcity of healthcare services in most communities highly impact sexually transmitted infection treatment and prevention for people within the United States (Valentine et al., 2021). Therefore, creating a health center program will help reduce the increase of reported cases by building control capacity and local sexually transmitted diseases. The program supports the evaluation, implementation, and planning of interdisciplinary interventions and is innovative primarily to advance community wellness, promote personal health, and identify societal concerns, which might lead to disparities and come up with interventions to solve the increase of chlamydia cases in Pennsylvania. In addition, the community health center program is an ideal method to reduce the stigma linked to sexually transmitted infection prevention in Pennsylvania (Valentine et al., 2021). Overcoming the impact of negative health factors of sexual healthcare, such as stigma in most states, remain a major challenge that can mostly be solved with health community programs that frequently interact with the patients.

Nurse practitioners play an essential part in influencing health policies that can be used to reduce chlamydia cases in Pennsylvania since they have the power to influence healthcare organizations and systems and implement health policies to offer good health outcomes for patients. They often offer first-hand patient care, which implies that their work entails translating health procedures and policies during one-on-one patient interactions. Hence, the three ways that a nurse practitioner can use to influence policy innovation to help solve the increasing cases of sexually transmitted infections in Pennsylvania include evaluating existing policies and pointing out opportunities, missing components, or inefficiencies to enhance the affordability and delivery of care to patients with chlamydia. The next step involves proposing new policies that meet health needs in their daily practice. Finally, meet with lobbyists, administrators, and policymakers to offer clinical understanding to policy proposals.


County Health Ranking & Roadmaps . (n.d.). Pennsylvania. County Health Rankings & Roadmaps. Retrieved from

Valentine, J. A., Delgado, L. F., Haderxhanaj, L. T., & Hogben, M. (2021). Improving sexual health in U.S. rural communities: Reducing the impact of stigma. AIDS and Behavior26(S1), 90–99.

Kumar, S., Chesson, H. W., Spicknall, I. H., Kreisel, K. M., & Gift, T. L. (2021). The estimated lifetime medical cost of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis in the United States, 2018. Sexually Transmitted Diseases48(4), 238–246.