British Airways: Corporate Social Responsibility Sample Assignment

British Airways is an international aviation company that offers both passenger and cargo transport services. The company has its headquarters located in London, England, at Heathrow Airport. It is the second largest airline in the UK based on the size of its fleet. Since the beginning of its operation, the business organization has undertaken a number of flights across the globe. The need to build a proper image in the communities where it conducts its activities has made the firm formulate and implement several practices to facilitate the protection of the environment (British Airways Plc, 2022). However, in the fight to protect the planet from the increasing rate of carbon emission, aviation company has made less effort to thwart the threat.

Currently, most airlines in the aviation industry, including Alaska, have adopted the use of fuel-efficient aircraft to enable them to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide gas released into the atmosphere. The approach is aimed at lowering the impact of the companies on the well-being of the planet (Guan et al., 2022). However, in the case of British Airways, the business organization is still using planes that consume a large amount of fuel, making them release more carbon into the atmosphere (Baxter, 2021). The failure of British Airways to implement the use of aircraft that utilize low petroleum products indicates less concern of the corporation on matters of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The business organization is not acting because the focus is to maximize profit through lowering expenditure on new aircrafts.

The company’s failure to adopt the use of such fuel-efficient aircraft has made it have a poor record of CSR in the aviation industry. It is expected that any company should take an initiative that allows it to manage and control possible risks that might impact the environment where it operates (Baumeister, 2020). British Airways does not behave as expected to protect the environment because the management do not regard the responsibility as part of their accountability. Therefore, they are not willing to release part of the incomes to manage the consequences of the operations in the environment.

The poor record in CSR practices is contributed to several reasons. For instance, the company is aiming to generate a large amount of revenue for its shareholders. To achieve this, it must rely on airplanes that carry more cargo which requires adequate power. This makes the firm use aircraft operating on four engines (Cui et al., 2022). The approach is to enable to receive high income from the transportation of passengers and cargo. The technique is making the business organization self-interested, thus, ignoring the needs of the people it is serving.

Furthermore, the management of British Airways Company has a number of policies that prevent it from engaging in projects that might require intensive capital. For instance, acquiring fuel-efficient airplanes will imply investing heavily in the project, which can lower the returns. This might lower the shareholders’ reward making the company attract fewer investors (Yang et al., 2020). Such fear prohibits the business organization from undertaking appropriate actions that improve its CSR. If the firm would purchase and implement the use of aircraft that consume less petroleum, it will be contributing effectively to lowering the carbon footprint in the atmosphere, which is essential for society.

In order for British Airways to improve its CRS practices, the management team should formulate effective policies and guidelines. When a company has proper procedures for determining its operations, it becomes easier for the organization to undertake some projects without considering the effects on investors (Saxena et al., 2021). For instance, guidelines on acquiring fuel-efficient aircraft will be essential in enabling the firm to increase its focus on obtaining such resources that allow it to protect the surrounding environment.

The other viable approach to minimize the excessive emission of carbon in the atmosphere is to define optimal flight paths. British Airways is operating in several countries across the world, making it to cover long distances from one point to another. The management should configure proper routes that will allow the airline to pass in regions that are less occupied by people (Parast, 2021). Even though the approach might be insignificant, to some extent, it will enable the company to reduce the impact of direct carbon dioxide in society, such as acidic rain.

Similarly, the company should expand its engagement in green projects such as planting trees and preservation of water bodies. The management body should set aside enough funds to finance programs such as protecting and establishing various forest covers in areas that are adjacent to its flight paths (De Stefano et al., 2018). The practice will ensure the company compensates for the respective communities its operations affect (Rehman et al., 2022). Conserving the ecosystem will be essential in enabling the planet to withstand the severe impacts of carbon emissions.

In addition, the company should channel more funds into projects such as turning wood and household waste into aviation fuel. When such programs are implemented, the company will be able to curb and reduce the emission of carbon into the atmosphere. The practice will enhance the sustainability of the firm’s operation and its concern in protecting the overall surrounding (Lee, 2019). Such activities will ensure the business organization promotes the objective of zero carbon in the atmosphere and thus promoting its reputation.

The operations of business organizations affect the well-being of the surrounding communities in different ways. It is upon the company to create and implement effective CSR practices and policies to manage the impacts due to the business activities. However, in most cases, firms may not act accordingly to facilitate the execution of CSR, making them have a poor record. It is necessary for the corporation to formulate proper approaches to enhance its sustainability in the market. For instance, British Airways should engage in buying fuel-efficient aircraft to enable it to reduce the carbon footprint that affects the climate. When companies embrace their consequences in society and take appropriate measures, they become productive due to a high reputation.

References

Baumeister, S. (2020). Mitigating the climate change impacts of aviation through behavioural change. Transportation Research Procedia, 48, 2006-2017.

Baxter, G. (2021). An assessment of the role of ISO 14001 certified environmental management systems (EMS) in underpinning environmentally sustainable airline operations. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, 6(6).

British Airways Plc. (2022). SEC.report. Web.

Cui, Q., Hu, Y. X., & Yu, L. T. (2022). Can the aviation industry achieve carbon emission reduction and revenue growth simultaneously under the CNG2020 strategy? An empirical study with 25 benchmarking airlines. Energy, 245, 123272.

De Stefano, F., Bagdadli, S., & Camuffo, A. (2018). The HR role in corporate social responsibility and sustainability: A boundary‐shifting literature review. Human Resource Management, 57(2), 549-566.

Guan, H., Liu, H., & Saadé, R. G. (2022). Analysis of carbon emission reduction in international civil aviation through the lens of shared triple bottom line value creation. Sustainability, 14(14).

Lee, C. Y. (2019). Does corporate social responsibility influence customer loyalty in the Taiwan insurance sector? The role of corporate image and customer satisfaction. Journal of Promotion Management, 25(1), 43-64.

Parast, M. M. (2021). An assessment of the impact of corporate social responsibility on organizational quality performance: Empirical evidence from the petroleum industry. Operations Management Research, 14(1), 138-151.

Rehman, S. U., Bresciani, S., Yahiaoui, D., & Giacosa, E. (2022). Environmental sustainability orientation and corporate social responsibility influence on environmental performance of small and medium enterprises: The mediating effect of green capability. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management.

Saxena, K., Balani, S., & Srivastava, P. (2021). The relationship among corporate social responsibility, sustainability and organizational performance in pharmaceutical sector: A literature review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing.

Yang, L., Ngai, C. S., & Lu, W. (2020). Changing trends of corporate social responsibility reporting in the world-leading airlines. PloS one, 15(6), e0234258.

Recruitment Process: The Use Of Online Platforms

Abstract

The primary goal of many organizations’ recruitment process is to attract and retain the best available talent. The implementation of this key strategic issue has been defined by the rise of online recruiting platforms in the internet age. The research purpose is to investigate the impact and use of online platforms in the recruitment process. The motivation for the study aims to establish the effectiveness of the use of online platforms in the recruitment process. The objectives include investigating the online platforms used in the recruitment process and determining the impact of employer advertisement on attracting the best-suited candidates. This study’s model is based on three hypotheses: how valuable the online platforms are in the recruitment process, how easy they are to use, and the reasonableness of trusting the online platforms. The research employs a qualitative interviewing and quantitative survey strategy. The researcher used thirty respondents from small, medium, and large enterprises for the online survey. The research results indicate recruiters can use data analysis tools built into online platforms to make more informed decisions, reach many potential employees and increase recruiter trust. The study’s implication highlights that recruiters need to apply social media tools such as LinkedIn since it has a significant impact on the recruitment process.

Introduction

Few changes in business and society profoundly impacted how organizations function and create value as digitalization (Loebbecke and Picot, 2015). Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the popularity of online platforms has been growing (Popov, 2021). New opportunities are emerging, and various services are being integrated. Online platforms change how recruiters better hire efficiently. Marinaki’s (n.d) research defines digital transformation as disrupting business by completely changing the way the business operates internally or how they connect with customers. However, digital transformation is adopting technology and data solutions, such as applicant tracking systems, to reduce or eliminate administrative processes and improve operational efficiency in and across departments and hiring teams. Digitalisation affected the recruitment process (Baykal, 2020). According to Statista (Online and social media recruiting, 2022), more people are applying for employment online or via email. The increased number of online applications correlates with the increased proliferation of the internet globally.

The digital age has given rise to several recruitment activities, which companies employ to attract applicants throughout the initial stages of the recruitment process. There are two significant modes of recruitment: printed recruitment advertisements (Collins and Stevens, 2002) and recruitment websites (Allen, Mahto, and Otondo, 2007). Both are highly beneficial in attracting potential employees, but according to (Karácsony et al., 2020) research, more young people choose to hunt for a job online. It is then necessary to study which digital channels can attract employees and how they may be utilized.

The growing ubiquity of social media is prompting H.R. departments to incorporate fully-fledged social media recruiting strategies as part of their organizations’ overall human capital management practices. Social media recruiting entails using social media platforms to identify, engage, and screen employees. Social media has made a significant impact on how employers build brand awareness, attract talent and ultimately hire. Social media is primarily a platform from which to share your brand. Over time, that brand awareness will lead to candidates who actively seek out your company when they’re ready to make a career change. Utilizing social media networks will affect the recruitment process’s effectiveness since networks play a significant role in people’s lives and the recruitment process.

Today, almost all job seekers are active on social media and use it to find a vacancy or company they’re interested in. Employers have realized that many working-age individuals are millennials and generation Z, who spend significant time on social media sites. Recruiters can post about open positions on the company’s social media handles. The first part a recruiter uses social media is to get the attention of people who want to work for the organization. This allows recruiters to tap into a much broader network of candidates. This has been an incredible journey for recruiters to get more relevant profiles for their jobs. This is also important because social media reflects the candidate’s personality.

On the other hand, some applicant tracking systems started providing external add-ins for social media like LinkedIn. To make it easier for recruiters to manage the profiles. The online recruitment process identifies candidates by targeted job ads, social media sourcing, and talent engagement widgets. The candidates’ profiles are analyzed and calculated to ensure they fit the role and our company culture. The online recruitment process impacts the H.R. department as it streamlines its work.

The main goal of online recruitment is efficiency, as organizations rely on artificial technology to screen keywords before they reach the human recruiter. Online recruitment speeds up the hiring process and saves time by automating numerous manual procedures. The system develops comprehensive candidates’ profiles based on social media networking and incorporates those that meet the organization’s criteria. It streamlines the hiring process and helps organizations manage the recruitment process by bringing all recruiting duties and tools together. These tools include job boards, company websites, video interviewing, and applicant testing tools. All these tools are accessible through a single interface and thus are simple to use. In addition, online recruitment enables organizations to monitor, track and manage candidates’ progress from a single location. The online recruitment process’s impact on the candidate allows continuous engagement, thus limiting the lack of reaction from organizations. Online recruiters build search engine optimized career sites onto the social media sites, thus keeping track of all applicants and prospective candidates who view the job adverts. Online recruitment platforms integrate powerful analytics that optimizes the hiring process.

The platforms collect a massive amount of data, calculate recruiting indicators and generate reports. These reports provide valuable information regarding the components of the recruiting process, such as bottlenecks that need to be tweaked. This data-driven approach avoids bias in recruitment. The online recruiting platforms analyze the underlying recruitment factors automated and unbiasedly. The platforms showcase an unbiased perspective regarding gender, ethnicity, or nationality. LinkedIn uses this system to estimate attrition rates and employee metrics such as former workplaces. Social media recruiting supplements other conventional recruitment methods. The complementary system enables employers to identify passive candidates who fit the organization’s culture. The objective of this study is to explore how social media influence the online recruitment process with a focus on LinkedIn.

Literature Review

The study focuses on investigating the use of online platforms in recruiting employees. Digital transformation is a term used to describe bringing new technologies into the realm of human resources. The theoretical framework presented by Mahmood and Ling (2017, p. 179) can be used, which “consists of three independent variables (I.V.s) such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and trust towards dependent variables (DV) intention to use.” Considering these elements, certain hypotheses may be made concerning the role of online platforms in the recruitment process.

Factors Influencing Jobseekers' Intention to Use Online Recruitment Websites for Job-seeking Purposes Mahmood and Ling 
Figure 1. Factors Influencing Jobseekers’ Intention to Use Online Recruitment Websites for Job-seeking Purposes Mahmood and Ling 

Individuals searching for a job need something to make them feel like it is the right organization. People nowadays think much when choosing the work environment, which, in some cases, can slow down the recruiting process (Kusuma et al., 2020; Team, Bugeja, and Weller, 2018). Thus, managers need to advertise their brands online (Newman et al., 2021). Similar to strategic positioning, creating awareness by reminding who someone is and what they do guarantees reaching new candidates and retaining those already employed. As a result, it is appropriate to utilize the theoretical framework chosen for this study.

Recruitment is among the human resource elements that significantly impact an organization by bringing potential employees into an institution. Barreto and Alturas (2018) described recruitment as an activity conducted by an organization to bring new employees into the company. Recruitment is a necessary measure accompanied by the selection that helps bring in a new balance into finding and sustaining the quality of staff in any given organization. The process used to hire workers varies from one organization to another; nonetheless, the modern occupational environment stresses the relevance of technology in completing workplace responsibilities. According to Mahmood and Ling (2017), workplace stress exposes investors and companies’ owners to the challenges of picking the right workers. On the other hand, Laroche et al. (2012) challenge the economic world on the essence of e-recruitment. The emergence of the coronavirus pandemic in 2019 shaped the phases and portfolio of organizations.

The challenges of workplace relationships broadened H.R. managers’ knowledge. E-recruitment benefits both the hired employee and the businesses implementing such frameworks in their day-to-day operations. According to Newman et al. (2021), the recruitment process influences employees’ commitment to new workspaces. Comparing traditional recruitment methods to the modern digital tools used in individual employment demonstrates the impact of online recruitment. Using online tools and social media platforms to develop staff directly impacts current employees. The intensity of physical hiring interviews creates biases in cases where online platforms are used to interview new employees. The group believes that online interviews make job access easier than traditional hiring processes (Barber, 1998). There is no scientific evidence that online recruitment is more effective than traditional hiring.

Although, there are platforms available to managers and business owners to attract top talent to the candidate pool. As Laroche et al. (2012) point out, the most famous is LinkedIn, which allows companies to connect with potential employees. This type of platform enables internal recruiting teams to attract and source people who convert to applicants (Laroche et al., 2012). They offer a variety of tools to aid with marketing activities, including job distribution, social recruiting, and candidate relationship management (Koch, Gerber, and De Klerk, 2018; Newman et al., 2021). The majority of these are comparable to those that enable inbound promotion within the relevant departments. Businesses utilize them to advertise job positions, cultivate interest and participation, and solicit submissions.

The organization’s processes and activities with the primary goal of discovering and attracting potential employees are what recruitment means (Barber, 1998). For organizations to be more selective in the hiring process and assure high-quality recruits, recruitment activities and practices are designed to develop a broad pool of competent candidates (Schmidt and Hunter, 1998). Candidates’ job choice decisions and the many techniques that can assist in recruiting become more efficient were studied by researchers like (Barber, 1998; Dineen and Soltis, 2011). According to Strohmeier (2020), there has been a significant increase in research on digital HRM and digital transformation, although most past studies have focused on how digital technologies affect HR-related tasks. (Baum and Kabst, 2014; Nikolaou, 2014) examines how well company websites and social networking sites attract job applicants. However, (Baum and Kabst, 2014) research states that the influence of recruiting activities on applicant attraction influences employer knowledge by combining high (website) and low (printed) information activities. In addition, the use of high-information recruitment procedures has greater favorable benefits on the employer’s understanding of possible applicants than utilizing low-information recruitment practices, according to Baum and Kabst (2014). As a result, it is critical to evaluate the importance of online platforms and their ease of use in the organization’s staff recruitment process (Gilch and Sieweke, 2020). This evaluation is key in leveraging the employment market as it shifts online due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the sudden economic slowdown has led to a global recession that changed business approaches and the labor market. At such a time, companies have had to adopt an agile workflow approach to sustain their operations (Dupré, Chatry, Kornprobst, and Michalun, 2020). As the lockdown became mandatory in most countries (Dupré, Chatry, Kornprobst, and Michalun, 2020), multiple organizations had to transition to a remote working environment. The worst issue in this situation is that majority of them were not prepared. This increased the desire for digital transformation. The phenomenon named digital transformation represents the integration of technology into human resource work (Marinaki, n.d.) states that it is acquiring data solutions and technology to reduce or simplify administrator tasks while improving the efficiency of operations across multiple departments of an organization. In the process of recruiting, it is a way of reducing the workload. Managing numerous job submissions becomes easier in employee recruitment (Spychaa et al., 2019, p.282). Additionally, it can be argued that it is the primary reason for some firms’ low staff turnover rates (Barreto and Alturas, 2018). Before the use of technical assistance to recruit individuals to work for a particular company, the process was tedious (Van Esch and Mente, 2018, p.270). Handling many people simultaneously strained recruiters, which often led to the selection of the wrong candidates.

Recruiting new employees online allows a business to utilize internet-based solutions, such as job listings, advertising, social media, and company websites, to source and employ the top candidates. Using the internet to search for new employees (Nichols, 2019) has made it easier to get candidates and do interviews and the necessary paperwork to hire and train them. It provides an organization with an inexpensive and efficient way (Okolie and Irabor, 2022) to fill positions. Some benefits offered by this approach include helping a brand gain a competitive edge, a better applicant pool, and fewer resources being consumed. Additionally, (Okolie and Irabor, 2022) argued that automation could be utilized to interact with a great number of applicants at the same time. Nevertheless, for 2021, it is forecasted that approximately two hundred million full-time employees are no longer in employment (Newman et al., 2021, p.1381). Recruiters, thus, must prepare to receive a large number of applications. With the assistance of the proper technology, they can easily sift through the submissions and shortlist the most qualified candidates. It also allows one to sustain high hiring standards regardless of the number of applications.

Many technologies exist that can aid in managing many individuals, such as interview scheduling and pre-employment testing. As a result, the more digitized the company’s recruitment process is, the easier it can be utilized. An effective tool helps people achieve a certain goal with less effort, and so far, the online platforms have proven successful (Okolie and Irabor, 2022). Carrying out recruitment digitally ensures that one can easily handle numerous applications (Saad et al., 2021, p.3). By the start of 2016, the number of people per opening was fifty-nine on average, reducing further to thirty, three years later. This was due to a growing economy and a drop in the rate of unemployment (Brandão et al., 2019, p.274). (Wessel et al., 2021) contends that simply digitizing the firm’s products, services, and procedures is insufficient; rather, the organization itself needs to adapt and embrace a digital identity and culture to achieve the goal of attracting and retaining employees.

Another factor that makes online recruiting effective is that analytics are easier to find. Recruitment technology offers one exclusive access to real-time and updated information overview (Nichols, 2019). It allows an individual to locate any areas of growth that aid in executing the best strategy (Newman et al., 2021, p.1382). Moreover, it will also offer instant updates as well as data on issues happening with the employees that guarantee adjustment according to requirements (Brandão et al., 2019, p.276). It has simple and easily comprehended dashboards that permit one to view critical metrics and reach quicker conclusions.

This, in turn, allows one to make necessary changes in the recruiting tactics faster. With the assistance of the information from the technologies, for example, assessment scores, it is possible to automate interview schedules. According to Mahmood and Ling (2017, p. 479), one of the elements influencing Jobseekers’ intention to use online recruitment websites for job-seeking reasons is trust, which refers to online users’ overall perception of the trustworthiness of online service providers (Amin et al. 2014). They also concluded in their theory about Factors Influencing Job Seekers’ Intention to use online recruitment websites; such online recruitment websites will increase individual motivation to apply for jobs online because they trust the website and secure their information. This should then be beneficial and valuable to a recruiter, allowing for more convenient management of applicants’ information. But the need to analyze whether trusting internet platforms with our information is necessary as the more a corporation digitizes its recruitment process, the more concern for trust.

Although online recruitment of workers has several disadvantages, it benefits organizations as a method of hiring employees. To begin, developing online hiring tools is an expensive and time-consuming process. In comparison to the traditional hiring process, using social media to create jobs for youth exposes organizations to additional costs that could be used to boost productivity or employee welfare. Online recruitment requires a subscription fee. Facebook, for example, makes money through gigs; as a result, advertising job openings online puts organizations in the difficult position of needing additional funding. Additionally, the requirement for Twitter and Instagram membership complicates the hiring process. Additionally, Marinaki (n.d.) suggests that determining the effectiveness of online employee hiring can be challenging. Consensus on the best platform to use makes the framework difficult, if not impossible, for multinational corporations. While employment is a formal issue in business and management, the application of the online recruitment process gives the tool an informal feel. A business that utilizes the online job posting technique may present an inaccurate picture of the affected organizations (Gilch and Sieweke, 2020). As a result, e-recruitment removes the incentive for competitive workers to apply.

In this study, three hypotheses will be tested to see if they use of online platforms in this post-pandemic era will have a significant impact on the recruitment process:

  • H1: Online platforms are valuable in the recruitment process
  • H2: Online platforms are easy to use
  • H3: Trusting online platforms will be completely reasonable.

Methodology

Research Philosophy

Attracting and retaining talent is still a major issue in many organizations’ talent management strategies. According to Islam et al. (2019), traditional recruitment methods do not work well in attracting new employees to any available job vacancy. The main reason for this is that job application methodologies only focus on a limited number of action potentials, failing to provide organizations with appropriate access to critical individuals. Such methods only produce less talented individuals and passive employees who cannot propel the company forward (Vedapradha et al., 2019). Modern tools have been developed in the form of social media to assist in recruiting new employees suitable for any job.

Growing globalization and modern technology have resulted in significant changes in the labor market. With the rapid advancement of modern technology, online recruitment is now a viable option. According to Stamolampros et al. (2019), online recruitment is a current procedure that uses the internet and tools to allow for vacancy applications, online reception, triage, and response. Online recruitment takes place over the internet via advanced communication structures or email. The procedure is designed to attract the attention of people who meet the qualifications for the job opening.

Online recruitment also entails maintaining an up-to-date and efficient database that aids human resource professionals in searching for specific requirements in a candidate’s profile. The procedure entails posting job openings on the internet, having an online form for candidates to fill out, and having an electronic database to store the information received (Chase-Lansdale et al., 2019). According to Intindola et al. (2019), the process takes place on a variety of platforms, with organizations using their official website to notify candidates of open positions. Organizational websites serve as the primary means of communication between job seekers and the organization. However, there are several websites dedicated to job applications and opportunities. Individuals can use such websites to find the job they want.

Job websites specialize in the supply and demand for jobs, connecting candidates and employers to their ideal positions. Candidates’ responses to available data during job hunting are influenced by their apparent competence and ease of use, according to Collier (2019). Furthermore, when the job application is narrowed down to equal chances, a candidate’s consideration functions as their perception of fairness in the job application, most common when the recruitment process consists of the selection phase (Islam et al. 2019). The selection stage of recruitment entails using the organization’s image and portraits of oneself in both the internet advertisement and the job itself. The desire of an organization to have a successful candidate can be easily attained using this concept.

Research method

Research Approach

Descriptive analysis was used to gain insight into the potential impact of social media on the recruitment process. A semi-structured interview with human resource personnel responsible for recruitment elicited information about the use of social media for recruitment. The interviews’ primary objective was to gain insight into the recruiters’ sourcing strategies and how they discovered them. Semi-structured interviews were beneficial in this study because they allowed for detailed descriptions of the subject (Bloomberg and Volpe 2012). When an interviewer provides a positioned activity that immerses the witness in their world and engages them in an explanatory approach, the interviewer can elicit more detailed information. In-depth data is defined in this analysis as an understanding of a specific activity held by actual individuals, and a scientific investigation is conducted using a deductive research approach and a mixed-method approach.

Research Strategy and Sample

The research employs a qualitative interviewing and quantitative survey strategy. The researcher used thirty respondents from small, medium, and large enterprises for the online survey; these organizations’ group influences how and/or what they do with online platforms. Taking into account the respondent’s work experience. Recruiters with more than three years of experience were placed in the first category. Respondents with less than three years of work experience were placed in the second category. All of the respondents were from the Philippines, and they were recruited through the respondent’s network, previous H.R. contacts, and former colleagues. The research strategy aimed to include all recruiters with experience in the field and those who participated in the background when social media was not yet in use in the olden days. One respondent from the United Kingdom was included in the second category. The respondent has more than three years of work experience. Furthermore, the respondent could provide brief responses to research questions. The interviewee was recruited by contacting the researcher’s supervisor and the university’s human resources department. According to the strategy, this second group had individuals who began recruiting others after social media had developed. Everyone in the group was between the ages of 18 and 57. However, the majority of the respondents were over the age of twenty-six. The majority of participants were female, and participants were recruited according to their job experience and age category.

Measuring Instrument

A 45-question uniform questionnaire was given to all of the respondents. There were both open-ended and closed-ended questions on the survey. Respondents were given five options for the questions: (1) strongly disagree, (2) disagree, (3) neutral, (4) agree, and (5)

strongly agree. The open-ended questions were aimed at obtaining opinions from participants on topics. The questionnaires were made available to respondents via a link sent to them personally. Multiple responses were not allowed to avoid data bias and inaccurate information from uninvited guests. The recruitment strategy, schedule, and social media influence were all used to select candidates. The forty-five questions required respondents to respond pertinent to the study’s theme. The questionnaire included both traditional and current questions about using social media to recruit better employees and specific questions about social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and LinkedIn, all of which provide useful information on how to use recruitment to gain knowledge. Twitter and LinkedIn, according to Meijerink et al. (2019) and Melián-González (2019), are critical social media strategies for any candidate recruitment. The questions were constructed using the recruiter’s preferred languages and jargon. The research questions were based on four main constructs: perceived usefulness of online platforms, perceived ease of use, perceived trust, and recruiters’ intention to use the platforms. As discussed in the data analysis chapter, each of the four constructs had a set of three main questions that assisted the researcher in coding the responses in SPSS software.

Data collection

Secondary and primary resources constituted the greater part of the collected data in the paper’s scenario. Researchers like (HOSAIN and LIU, 2020) have devoted a lot of time and effort to determine the effects of social media on employee recruitment. To ensure a smooth flow of the initial proposal, participants observed all first-hand accounts of actual events. Participants were also able to isolate the effects of e-recruitment among employees using artistic work, eyewitness testimony, and original literary sources. The in-depth reviews of social networking tools and software make it easier to research employee recruitment via social media. The study’s findings are based on the data collection methods used; as a result, Narang et al. (2020) and Chabbra et al. (2020) commended the use of social media scraping analysis in this research segment. The unit structural textual data incorporated in the experiment, according to Frampton et al. (2020), requires a clear definition before settling for the existing data tools. News analytics, natural language processing, opinion mining, sentiment analysis, text analysis, and scraping are all terms that learners should be familiar with.

Participants must use text analytics concepts to gather data and information to mine accurate data for the study. Artero et al. (2020) shows that facts and propaganda influence data retrieval from online platforms. Participants were divided into groups based on their ages and years of experience in the study. Because the study’s participants were mostly women, there was a risk of data bias. The researcher can obtain lexical analysis and word study frequency using text analytics techniques. The mastery and recording of pattern recognition by H.R. professionals were aided by the use of text analytics data collection design. Kang et al. (2020) contribute to the research framework by establishing links between employment and data usage online. The text analytics method of data collection was also used to create re-employment and predictive analytics visualizations.

Opinion Mining

Opinions are a type of qualitative data needed in modern scientific research. In this case, the participants were divided into small groups to gather data within the organization. Opinion mining was effective in extracting cordial relationships between organizations and their bosses, according to Van Esch and Black (2019). Participants were exposed to more data searching as a result of their direct observations made during the time. Implementing the opinion mining method of data collection accelerated the automatic linking of opinions to facts.

During the research, software such as Microsoft Excel and IBM’s SPSS played an important role in isolating and storing data and information. The researcher could link information received online and physically to the common good of the research’s goal using a computer science-related data mining method. The use of natural information in conjunction with computer-assisted language aided in the comprehension of data mining techniques in contemporary research. Computers were used to extract information from the internet, and the resulting data helped those involved in the study link news analytics and scraping.

Methodological Issues and Ethical considerations

The researchers had to consider research ethics in the publication of the results for the project to run smoothly. Golovko and Schumann (2019), standardized scientific research includes moral and ethical considerations that support specific hypotheses. Various methodological priorities were set in this case to ensure the experiment’s success. First, adequate fieldwork preparations allowed for a greater concentration of methodological considerations. The researcher had a set of work hours that allowed for efficient data collection. The researcher set aside time for data collection and ensured that every participant responded to the question because the study used online questionnaires. The researcher also conducted an online interview with one of the respondents in the United Kingdom. Van Esch et al. (2019), methodological preparedness exposes teams to anticipated challenges early enough. As a result, the project manager approved the fieldwork readiness recommendation.

Appropriateness and a data sampling strategy were also part of the methodological planning for the study. The study’s sampling units were well-designed and implemented at the appropriate time. When it came to organizing research samples on time, the researchers’ competence contributed to a lack of panic in the final minutes before the paper’s submission. The participant’s ability to recognize the importance of methodological rights and preparedness in research made the data collection process go smoothly. Furthermore, the online survey website for data collection is simple and generates favorable results.

Despite the fact that the research was fraught with difficulties, the experiment’s organizers were mindful of ethical requirements in research: the research practice and design guided participants in achieving the study’s goals and objectives. Briscariu (2019) emphasizes that the experiment followed scientific research ethics by honoring people’s voluntary participation in the study. Second, the participants in the study gave their informed consent to participate in the experiment. Nobody was forced to play a specific role in the data collection process. Other ethical considerations in the workplace include result communication, confidentiality, and potential harm.

Results and Findings

The most important stage of research is data analysis, which allows the researcher to comprehend the information gathered. This chapter entails using logical and analytical reasoning to conclude patterns, relationships, and trends based on the researcher’s observations. While numerous data analysis tools are available, this study relied on IBM’s SPSS and Microsoft Excel. SPSS and Microsoft Excel 2016 were used in the research. The researcher created tables and analyzed the data using set variables owing to the SPSS software. Meanwhile, Microsoft Excel aided in data organization and its presentation of graphs and other statistical data displays. The researcher used the premium versions of the software that is free access from the university to avoid data discrepancies and any unusual data misrepresentation with the trial versions of the software.

This chapter is divided into five major parts: data integrity and validity, quantitative analysis, qualitative analysis, results, and hypotheses. The researcher ensured that the data analyzed was valid in the first section of this chapter. Every response was subjected to a ‘validity formula,’ ensuring data integrity and validity. The researcher was able to justify the findings and make this study credible by using data integrity and validity. The second section examines the quantitative data collected during the study, such as ages and other numerical data. The qualitative data analysis section goes in-depth into a thematic analysis that assists the researcher in extracting meaning from non-numerical data. Finally, the results, hypotheses, and research design interpret the information gathered about the research design of this study. Based on previous studies on the overarching thematic area, this section allows the research to justify or dismiss the set hypotheses.

Data Analysis Model

To begin, the researcher organized and prepared the data for analysis. The data analysis model is important because it divides the entire data analysis into simple steps, eliminating data bias and ensuring data accuracy (Calzon, 2022). The researcher was able to identify different variables by organizing the data, which aided in the coding process (Castleberry and Nolen, 2018). As shown in Table 1, the organized data was then subjected to a validity test to eliminate all forms of bias and incomplete data collected. Using IBM SPSS and Microsoft Excel software, the valid data was read and coded. The latter program assisted the researcher in presenting the data collected in graphs and other statistical diagrams. The coded data were then described and interconnected with the three research hypotheses using grounded theory. Through inductive reasoning and hypotheses interrelation, grounded theory was used to interpret qualitative data. Figure 1. summarizes the data analysis model used in this study.

Data Analysis Model
Figure 2. Data Analysis Model

Research Model and Hypotheses

Research Model and Hypotheses
Figure 3. Research Model and Hypotheses

This study investigates the impact and use of online platforms in the recruitment process. Consequently, this study adopted three hypotheses that the data analysis chapter seeks to prove and disapprove: online platforms are valuable in the recruitment process (Ꞃ1), online platforms are easy to use (Ꞃ2), and trusting the online platforms will be completely reasonable (Ꞃ3). The study’s research model is shown in figure 2. The model consists of four constructs, with their item codes: perceived usefulness (PE_US), perceived ease of use (PE_EA), trust (TR_S), and intention to use (IN_US). Each of the four constructs was measured using various items.

Online Survey Data Analysis

The online survey included a quantitative data analysis, which converted the collected information into numerical codes. The researcher entered the collected data into the SPSS software for interpretation and further analysis after coding it. The online survey had thirty participants whose responses were found to be valid after a simple validity test, as shown in table 1. The data was used to confirm or reject the research hypotheses. The online survey consisted of 39 questions to determine the impact of online platforms on the recruiting process. The questions were designed to help the researcher understand how online platforms’ usefulness, perceived ease of use, and trust influenced their intention to use the platforms.

Perceived Usefulness (PE_US)

Online platforms have a variety of effects on recruitment firms. Their three main advantages impact how useful online platforms are perceived. Using online platforms like social media, recruiters can reach a large number of potential employees (Villeda et al., 2019). In comparison to traditional methods, the platforms are thought to provide an easier selection method because recruiters can easily compare potential employees (Williams, McDonald, and Mayes, 2021). Furthermore, because all activities are digitized, online recruitment saves time and money for recruiters.

Perceived Ease of Use (PE_EA)

Various processes are thought to be aided by digitization and technological advancements. Recruiters can use data analysis tools built into online platforms to make more informed decisions. The ability to save time and effort influences online platforms’ perceived ease of use (Mariani, Styven, and Teulon, 2021). Because of the platform’s built-in features can be used as an additional tool in the recruitment process. As a result, online platforms can conduct additional research on potential employees (Williams, McDonald, and Mayes, 2021). How-to materials, such as tutorials and e-books, are readily available for digital platforms.

Trust (TR_S)

The increased use of online platforms is thought to have increased recruiter trust. Online platforms are an excellent way for a recruitment firm to move forward and improve its processes (Martins, Dominique-Ferreira, and Lopes, 2021). As a result, businesses prefer to use online platforms (Martins, Dominique-Ferreira, and Lopes, 2021). Furthermore, online platforms have proven effective tools for setting high recruitment standards for businesses.

Intention to Use (IN_US)

Organizations prefer efficient processes that help them save money on various resources. Recruiters can save money using online platforms because fewer materials and learning resources are available (Shapovalova and Pavlov, 2021). Pictograms and tutorials are built into the platforms, making them more efficient (Villeda et al., 2019). As a result, online platform recruiters have a high-quality process that results in the most qualified and effective employees (Li et al., 2021). The researcher assigned each construct a unique item code for easy translation and transfer to SPSS, as shown below.

Table 1. Research Model’s constructs and items’ codes

Item Code Item Description
PE_US Perceived Usefulness
PE_US1 Saves materials
PE_US2 Easier selection
PE_US3 Reach a large number of potential employees
PE_EA Perceived Ease of Use
PE_EA1 It saves effort and time
PE_EA2 Additional recruitment tool
PE_EA3 Readily available learning resources
TR_S Trust
TR_S1 Outstanding step forward
TR_S2 Most preferred method
TR_S3 Valuable tool
IN_US Intention to use
IN_US1 Most efficient tool
IN_US2 Cost-effective
IN_US3 High standard process

The participant’s gender and age were also asked about during the online interview. The researcher gave each variable a code. The males were given the code “1,” while the females were given the code “2.” The participants were divided into two age groups: 20- 25 and 28-40 years old. Code “1” was assigned to the age group 18-25, while code “2” was assigned to the age group 26-57. Table 3 summarises how the survey responses were coded.

Table 2. Response codes

Response Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
Code 1 2 3 4 5

Results

Upon subjecting the collected data to IBM SPSS, the researcher noticed that the majority of the participants were females. Moreover, most participants were recruiters of ages 26 and above, as summarized below.

Table 3. Age and Gender Data Set

Statistics
Gender Age Category
N Valid 30 30
Missing 0 0

Frequency Table

Table 4. Gender frequency table

Gender
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Male 9 30.0 30.0 30.0
Female 21 70.0 70.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

Table 5. Age-frequency Table

Age Category
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 20-25 3 10.0 10.0 10.0
28-40 27 90.0 90.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

The importance of correlation in determining the relationship between two variables is critical in predicting the validity of hypotheses. Perceived usefulness, trust, perceived ease of use, and intention to use online platforms for recruitment processes were the four contracts studied. The researcher used correlation to assess the constructs’ quality. Although an increase in the value of a correlation does not result in an increase in the value of items, the formative constructs do have an impact on the reflective construct’s value. The study’s correlations are summarized in table 7.

Correlations
Platforms are useful Online Platforms are easy to use Recruiters Trust Online platforms Recruiters intend to use online platforms
Spearman’s rho Platforms are useful Correlation Coefficient 1.000 -.149 .135 .323*
Sig. (1-tailed) . .217 .238 .041
N 30 30 30 30
Online Platforms are easy to use Correlation Coefficient -.149 1.000 .084 -.293
Sig. (1-tailed) .217 . .329 .058
N 30 30 30 30
Recruiters Trust Online platforms Correlation Coefficient .135 .084 1.000 -.148
Sig. (1-tailed) .238 .329 . .218
N 30 30 30 30
Recruiters intend to use online platforms Correlation Coefficient .323* -.293 -.148 1.000
Sig. (1-tailed) .041 .058 .218 .
N 30 30 30 30
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed).

Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing helped the researcher to accept or reject the hypotheses based on statistical evidence. This study’s model is based on three hypotheses: online platforms are valuable in the recruitment process (Ꞃ1), online platforms are easy to use (Ꞃ2), and trusting the online platforms will be completely reasonable (Ꞃ3), as shown in figure2. This study adopted regression analysis to explore the relationship between one dependent variable and two independent variables. The study involved thirty participants meeting the required population threshold for the regression formula.

Table 6. Regression model Summary

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .444a .197 .105 .53086
a. Predictors: (Constant), Recruiters Trust Online platforms, Platforms are useful, Online Platforms are easy to use

Table 7. Regression model variables and predictors

ANOVA a
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 1.802 3 .601 2.132 .120b
Residual 7.327 26 .282
Total 9.130 29
a. Dependent Variable: Recruiters intend to use online platforms
b. Predictors: (Constant), Recruiters Trust Online platforms, Platforms are useful, Online Platforms are easy to use

Table 8. Dependent variables

Coefficients a
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 3.918 1.113 3.521 .002
Platforms are useful .238 .104 .408 2.274 .031
Online Platforms are easy to use -.104 .210 -.090 -.494 .625
Recruiters Trust Online platforms -.062 .163 -.068 -.382 .705
a. Dependent Variable: Recruiters intend to use online platforms

From the regression tables, the unstandardized B values helped determine the degree each of the predictors affects the outcome of the effects of all other predictors remain constant. A single unit of the online platforms’ usefulness increases the intention to use the platforms by 0.238 units. A single unit of the online platforms’ ease to use increases the intention to use the platforms by 0.104. Moreover, a single unit of recruiters’ trust in the online platforms increases their intention to use them by 0.062. Therefore, the online platforms’ usefulness is the largest coefficient, 0.408. The survey results on trust, ease of use, and usefulness are summarized in the frequency graphs below.

Ease to use frequency graph
Figure 4. Ease to use frequency graph

Trust frequency graph
Figure 5. Trust frequency graph

Online Interview Results

One respondent from the United Kingdom was interviewed online for the study. The respondent was asked a series of questions to which he was supposed to respond with one of the following: strongly disagree (1), disagree (2), neutral (3), agree (4), or strongly agree (5). (5). The researcher used a thematic analysis to identify and connect relevant themes to the study hypotheses. Online methods, according to the interviewee, save time but not materials. According to the interviewee, modern technology has aided in the recruitment process. On the other hand, traditional recruitment methods are inferior to online platforms. Both processes, he said, have advantages and disadvantages. For example, he stated that while face-to-face recruitment aids companies in better understanding candidates, data analytics on online platforms aids employees in better understanding candidates.

The interviewee preferred both online and traditional recruitment methods. Both methods, he said, complement each other and have different advantages and disadvantages. The respondent stated that they use Facebook and Twitter, among other online platforms, as a result of evolving technologies and social media platforms. However, LinkedIn is the most popular online platform for the recruitment process. He agreed that social media platforms had simplified the hiring process. Because there is no human connection between recruiters and candidates, the company’s main challenge when using online platforms is meeting business goals.

Data Analysis Limitations

The study’s limitations were caused by a number of factors that limited the collection and interpretation of the data. To begin, thirty people participated in the online survey, with 70% of women and 30% of men. There was a bias in the responses as a result of the gender imbalance. Second, the study was supposed to have two interviewees, but only one proceeded. As a result, the interview results were limited to a single person’s point of view. Furthermore, the results lack a global perspective because the study was primarily focused on the H.R. departments of Philippine companies. The data collected for analysis was limited due to the gender imbalance, the small number of interviewees, and the limited jurisdiction.

Discussion of Findings and Limitations

Introduction to the Chapter

The discussion of findings chapter investigates the study’s findings and discusses whether or not the researcher met the objectives. Three main hypotheses were used in this study, all of which were derived from previous research on the same topic. The findings discussed in the data analysis chapter are linked to the study hypotheses in this chapter. This chapter investigates how the study hypotheses are supported or rejected by the literature review and quantitative and qualitative data. As in the data analysis chapter, the researcher begins this chapter with a summary of the findings. The summaries include a brief description of the online survey and the results of the online interviews. Furthermore, the chapter examines the various factors that hampered the study’s success as well as those that helped it succeed. Based on the study’s findings and suggestions from the participants, the researcher makes a number of recommendations that can help the organization improve its services.

Results Summary

Online Survey

Thirty people from the Philippines took part in the online survey, and they work for a variety of organizations, primarily in recruitment. The participants were given questionnaires that were sent to them via messenger. The survey’s digitization was significant because it allowed the researcher to save time and money. The questionnaires included 45 questions and allowed researchers to collect their opinions on the online platforms’ effectiveness, ease of use, and trustworthiness. In addition, the questions looked into the respondents’ age and gender, as well as other important demographics for social media use and technology acceptance (Henzel and Hkansson, 2021). Twenty-one of the thirty respondents were females, and nine were males.

The respondents were asked about the ease of using online platforms. According to the majority of respondents, the platforms are easy to use (table 9., Appendix). The majority agreed that the availability of reference materials influenced the use of online platforms, thereby supporting the ease of use. Moreover, many online platforms have features that make the job of recruiters easier. When asked if online platforms increased trust in the recruitment process, the majority of respondents were undecided (table 10., Appendix). In the meantime, the majority of participants agreed that online platforms are beneficial in the recruitment process (table 11., Appendix).

Online Interview

One respondent was subjected to a set of questions similar to those asked in the online survey during the online interview. Because he provided in-depth answers to the questions posed, the respondents aided the researcher in comprehending the responses. Contrary to the majority of survey respondents, the interviewee stated that online platforms do not save on materials used during the recruitment process. However, he did agree that digital media makes it easier to recruit candidates. A key feature mentioned by the interviewee was the use of social media data analytics. Despite the fact that there are numerous social media platforms available, recruiters prefer LinkedIn. Furthermore, the interviewee stated that traditional and online recruitment platforms complement each other and that there is no one-size-fits-all solution.

Impact of Online Platforms Use on Recruitment Process

Perceived Usefulness

Digitization has made work more accessible in various organizations since it allows fast and efficient processes. The recruitment organizations are the most affected organizations that utilize technology in their operations. The use of social media has proved significant among organizations since it allows the recruiters to reach a more substantial number of potential candidates (Koch, Gerber, and De Klerk, 2018). Moreover, the platforms have analytics tools to generate information about their target candidates (Meah and Sarwar, 2021). Unlike the traditional recruitment process, online platforms make it easier for the selection process. For instance, the recruiters focus on candidates’ qualifications rather than individuality, which is inevitable during face-face interviews.

LinkedIn is the most refereed online platform among the recruiters since it reflects a candidate’s professionalism. The social media platform has inbuilt features that allow the recruiters to track a particular candidate’s academic and professional journey (Koch, Gerber, and De Klerk, 2018). Moreover, the platform has embedded online-course that help improve the candidate’s experience and knowledge (Meah and Sarwar, 2021). Consequently, the media help the recruiters save on materials and costs spent training the candidates (Koch, Gerber, and De Klerk, 2018). The use of analytics, educational features, and the availability of many candidates make online platforms helpful to recruiters.

Perceived Ease of Use

Technological advancements have resulted in the development of effective social media platforms and other digital platforms that are simple to use. Recruiters utilize candidate information to ascertain their effectiveness across multiple data types (Valanarasu, 2021). Traditionally, recruitment processes entail noting candidates’ strengths and weaknesses and physically interpreting the data gathered. As a result, recruitment processes were susceptible to human error. However, automated recruitment processes incorporate features that eliminate complex candidates’ time-consuming scrutiny and capability analysis. LinkedIn, for example, has a feature that generates biodata for potential candidates, including previous job descriptions and academic history. Additionally, the platform includes rating features that describe a user’s abilities in various areas of knowledge (Meah and Sarwar, 2021). As a result, online platforms assist recruiters in saving time and effort.

Online platforms enable recruiters to obtain additional information about a candidate who has already been interviewed in person. Numerous recruitment firms rely on social media and other platforms to verify information provided by candidates. Additionally, the platforms are used to monitor candidate behavior that could jeopardize the company’s social responsibility and ethical values. While social media platforms promote freedom of expression and speech, some organizations despise vices such as hate speech and discriminatory opinions (Clemons et al., 2021). As a result, recruiters utilize online platforms as additional recruitment tools.

In a highly digitized society, a wealth of information is readily accessible online. Online platforms such as Facebook and Twitter include user-friendly features. The features direct users on how to access the platform and perform tasks such as password reset. Additionally, social media platforms complement one another, making account management easier. YouTube, for example, contains videos that assist users of Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and other platforms in navigating their profiles (Yang et al., 2021). Additionally, search engines such as Google assist social media account owners with difficult tasks. Due to the availability of educational resources, recruiters prefer social media platforms.

Perceived Trust

Numerous factors contribute to recruiters’ reliance on online platforms. The platforms provide recruiters with critical information about candidates. For instance, one can learn about a candidate’s ethics and morals by looking at their social media handles and frequently engaged online conversations (Bhatia and Arora, 2022). Recruiters use this information to determine whether or not to accept or disqualify candidates. While online platforms are beneficial for recruiters, they are vulnerable to profile impersonation and the creation of pseudo accounts. Additionally, certain platforms are susceptible to hacking and other technical immoral behavior (Rony and Ahmed, 2021). As a result, many organizations incorporate platforms into their traditional recruitment processes.

Conclusion

Online platforms are valuable in the recruitment process (Ꞃ1)

Data collection, interviews, and suitability checks are all part of the recruitment process. According to the results of this study’s online survey, many recruiters agree that the online survey is useful during the recruitment process. The value of online platforms during the recruitment process is a three-fold concept: it saves time and money and sets high standards for businesses (Guo, Zhu, and Chen, 2021). The online platforms may include data collected from the internet and the use of that data in the recruitment process (Bhatia and Arora, 2022). In addition, candidates who participate in an online recruitment process may receive a link to share their information with recruiters. Meanwhile, the traditional recruitment process necessitates a time-consuming physical meeting with the candidate.

The traditional recruitment processes may involve ability tests that require the physical presence of the candidates. Moreover, the candidates may be subjected to training to gain specific knowledge as required by their employees (Tien et al., 2021). However, the candidates may not have to take the ability test and training through online platforms since some platforms support such (Hangartner, Kopp, and Siegenthaler, 2021). For instance, LinkedIn has features that allow users to perfect their skills. Consequently, the recruiters save on costs and recruit competitive candidates. Although online platforms are valuable in terms of time, costs, and standards, the platforms are subject to system errors and high initial costs affecting their significance in influencing recruiters’ intention to use them. Therefore, online platforms’ value in the recruitment process does not sufficiently explain their adoption by recruiters.

Online platforms are easy to use (Ꞃ2)

Recruiters can access candidates’ traits and competencies through features on online platforms. Companies can easily access and recruit a specific candidate using the platforms’ supportive features. For example, social media platforms such as LinkedIn have a brief tutorial that explains how to use the various buttons. Furthermore, platforms such as Facebook have built-in analytics tools that make generating user data simple (Senthil Raja and Arun Raj, 2021). Recruiters can track the effects of a user’s social comment by using the likes and dislikes buttons. Posts on social media that violate social values are met with negative feedback and dislike from other users. Recruiters will have an easier time analyzing candidate behavior as a result. Although most online platforms are simple to use, some platforms have complex steps that require technical knowledge to complete.

Trusting online Platforms will be completely reasonable (Ꞃ3)

Online platforms work to complement other recruiting processes and cannot be depended on completely. For instance, traditional recruiting methods use information gathered from online platforms for further and effective decision-making. The online platforms have several limitations, including social media absence by potential candidates. Moreover, strict data privacy laws limit the accessibility of the candidates’ information by companies. The platforms are subject to cybercrimes like hacking that may lead to distortion of information available. Consequently, recruiters may use misleading information to make decisions. Therefore, trusting the online platforms is unreasonable.

Results Limitations

Although the findings of this study can be used for decision-making in businesses, particularly in recruitment and in academia, there are some limitations to the research. The researcher only has a limited amount of time to complete the study. As a result, the study only drew a small number of participants, resulting in and/or limited results from the analyzed data. Funds also limited the research. Furthermore, this research majorly involved small, medium, and large companies in the Philippines. As a result, the study’s findings are geographically biased and cannot be applied to other countries.

Recommendations

Given the aforementioned limitations, the study suggests a number of steps that can be taken to improve future research in the same area. Future research should employ effective sampling techniques that include a balanced gender distribution and an even distribution of participants. Second, future studies should set aside enough time for data collection and analysis. The study should use a variety of data collection methods to ensure data accuracy and reliability. Because this study was conducted in the Philippines, future studies should include other countries at an international level to gain a global perspective on the topic.

Conclusion

Recruitment is critical to business success because it assists in determining employee competency and dependability. Traditionally conducted recruitment processes include face-to-face interviews and physical ability tests. Nonetheless, technological advancements have resulted in the development of virtual recruitment processes. Additionally, recruiters have found online platforms useful because they enable them to collect information about potential candidates and use that information to make hiring decisions. As a result, many organizations recruit candidates via online platforms. Recruiters can use the platforms to save time and money while maintaining higher hiring standards. While the platforms are beneficial, businesses cannot fully rely on them due to the possibility of fraud and other cybercrime. Therefore, a further study should be conducted to understand the impact of online platforms on recruitment processes.

References

Archer-Kuhn, B. et al. (2021) Recruitment in response to a pandemic: pivoting a community-based recruitment strategy to Facebook for hard-to-reach populations during COVID-19′, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, pp. 1-12.

Artero, J.M., Borra, C. and Gómez-Alvarez, R., 2020. Education, inequality, and use of digital collaborative platforms: The European case. The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 31(3), pp.364-382. Web.

Barreto, D. M., and Alturas, B. (2018) ‘Quality-in-use app evaluation: the case of a recruitment app for Portuguese SMEs. Journal of Information Systems Engineering and Management, 3(1), pp. 1-9.

Bejtkovský, J. (2020) ‘Social media platforms as an H.R. marketing tool in selected healthcare service providers,’ Marketing and Management of Innovations, (1), pp. 294-302.

Bhatia, K.V. and Arora, P., 2022. Discursive Toolkits of Anti-Muslim Disinformation on Twitter. The International Journal of Press/Politics, p.19401612221084633. Web.

Brandão, C., Silva, R. and dos Santos, J. V. (2019) ‘Online recruitment in Portugal: theories and candidate profiles,’ Journal of Business Research, 94, pp. 273-279.

Briscariu, R., 2019. The use of social network sites in the recruitment process. Management Research and Practice, 11(4), pp.5-10. Web.

Castleberry, A. and Nolen, A. (2018) ‘Thematic analysis of qualitative research data: is it as easy as it sounds?’, Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 10(6), pp. 807-815. Web.

Chabbra, N., Mehta, R. and Panackal, N., 2020. Social Media as a Recruitment tool-A study the concept, practices, and theoretical framework. Annual Research Journal of SCMS, Pune Volume 8. Web.

Chase-Lansdale, P.L., Sabol, T.J., Sommer, T.E., Chor, E., Cooperman, A.W., Brooks-Gunn, J., Yoshikawa, H., King, C. and Morris, A., 2019. Effects of a two-generation human capital program on low-income parents’ education, employment, and psychological wellbeing. Journal of Family Psychology, 33(4), p.433.

Clemons, E., Waran, R.V., Li, V., Hermes, S. and Schreieck, M., 2021. Computing and social welfare: minimizing the societal harm from digital transformation while preserving the benefits of innovation.

Collier, K., 2019. The Robot-Proof Recruiter: A survival guide for recruitment and sourcing professionals. Kogan Page Publishers. Web.

Cresswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. California: SAGE Publication Inc.

D’Silva, C. (2020) ‘A study on the increase in e-recruitment and selection process,’ International Journal of Research in Engineering, Science and Management, 3(8), pp. 205-213.

Fenech, R., Baguant, P. and Ivanov, D., 2019. The changing role of human resource management in an era of digital transformation. Journal of Management Information & Decision Sciences, 22(2), pp.166-175.

Frampton, G. K., Shepherd, J., Pickett, K., Griffiths, G., & Wyatt, J. C. (2020). Digital tools for the recruitment and retention of participants in randomized controlled trials: a systematic map. Trials, 21(1), 1-23. Web.

Golovko, D. and Schumann, J.H., 2019. Influence of company Facebook activities on recruitment success. Journal of Business Research, 104, pp.161-169. Web.

Guo, Y., Zhu, Y. and Chen, J., 2021. Business model innovation of it-enabled customers participating in value co-creation based on the affordance theory: a case study. Sustainability, 13(10), p.5753. Web.

Hangartner, D., Kopp, D. and Siegenthaler, M. (2021) ‘Monitoring hiring discrimination through online recruitment platforms,’ Nature, 589(7843), pp. 572-576.

Hangartner, D., Kopp, D. and Siegenthaler, M., 2021. Monitoring hiring discrimination through online recruitment platforms. Nature, 589(7843), pp.572-576. Web.

Henzel, V. and Håkansson, A., 2021. Hooked on virtual social life. Problematic social media use and associations with mental distress and addictive disorders. PloS one, 16(4), p.e0248406.

Intindola, M.L., Lewis, G., Flinchbaugh, C. and Rogers, S.E., 2019. Web-based recruiting’s impact on organizational image and familiarity: Too much of a good thing? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30(19), pp.2732-2753.

Islam, J.U., Hollebeek, L.D., Rahman, Z., Khan, I. and Rasool, A., 2019. Customer engagement in the service context: an empirical investigation of the construct, its antecedents, and consequences. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, pp.277-285. Web.

Kang, L., Ma, S., Chen, M., Yang, J., Wang, Y., Li, R., Yao, L., Bai, H., Cai, Z., Yang, B.X. and Hu, S., 2020. Impact on mental health and perceptions of psychological care among medical and nursing staff in Wuhan during the 2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak: A cross-sectional study. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 87, pp.11-17. Web.

Koch, T., Gerber, C. and De Klerk, J. J. (2018) ‘The impact of social media on recruitment: are you LinkedIn?’, S.A. Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(1), pp. 1-14.

Koch, T., Gerber, C. and De Klerk, J.J., 2018. The impact of social media on Recruitment: Are you LinkedIn? S.A. Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(1), pp.1-14. Web.

Kusuma, A. et al. (2020) ‘Is online media more popular than traditional media to advertise a brand in the digital age?’, Journal Ilmu Komunikasi, 3(1), pp. 16-24.

Laroche, M. et al. (2012) ‘The effects of social media-based brand communities on brand community markers, value creation practices, brand trust, and brand loyalty, Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), pp. 1755-1767.

Li, L., Lassiter, T., Oh, J. and Lee, M.K., 2021. Algorithmic hiring in practice: Recruiter and H.R. professional’s perspectives on A.I. use in hiring. In Proceedings of the 2021 AAAI/ACM Conference on A.I., Ethics, and Society (pp. 166-176). Web.

López García, J. J. et al. (2019) ‘Digital marketing actions that achieve a better attraction and loyalty of users: an analytical study, Future Internet, 11(6), p. 130.

Lopez-Nichols, K. (2019) What is online recruitment, and what are its advantages? Web.

Mahmood, N. A., and Ling, N. F. (2017) ‘Theoretical framework for factors influencing jobseekers’ intention to use online recruitment websites,’ International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(11), pp. 479-489.

Mariani, M.M., Styven, M.E. and Teulon, F., 2021. Explaining the intention to use digital personal data stores: An empirical study. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 166, p.120657.

Martins, N., Dominique-Ferreira, S. and Lopes, C., 2021. Design and development of a digital platform for seasonal jobs: Improving the hiring process. Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, pp.1-18.

Meah, M.M., and Sarwar, A., 2021. Social networking sites for e-recruitment: A perspective of Malaysian employers. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 8(8), pp.613-624. Web.

Meijerink J, Keegan A. Conceptualizing human resource management in the gig economy: Toward a platform ecosystem perspective. Journal of managerial psychology. 2019. Web.

Melián-González, S., 2019. The impact of digital technology on work. Available at SSRN 3353258.

Moraes, R. R. et al. (2021) ‘Email vs. Instagram recruitment strategies for online survey research, Brazilian Dental Journal, 32, pp. 67-77.

Muduli, A. and Trivedi, J. J. (2020) ‘Recruitment methods, recruitment outcomes, and information credibility and sufficiency,’ Benchmarking: An International Journal, 27(4), pp. 1615-1631.

Musker, M. et al. (2020) ‘Using behavior change theory to inform an innovative digital recruitment strategy in a mental health research setting,’ Journal of Psychiatric Research, 120, pp. 1-13.

Narang, M.B., Mathew, M., Dubey, M.K. and Mathew, M., 2020. The technological innovation using blockchain and social media analytics in employee recruitment. International Journal of Advanced Science and technology. Vol. 29, No. 12s, (2020), pp. 1144-1155. Web.

Newman, A. et al. (2021) ‘Data collection via online platforms: challenges and recommendations for future research, Applied Psychology, 70(3), pp. 1380-1402.

Rony, R.J. and Ahmed, N., 2021. “If my contents go viral, then I will be a celebrity”: Teens Online Behavior and Support Interventions in Bangladesh. Available at SSRN 4022511. Web.

Saad, M. F. M. et al. (2021) ‘A review of the artificial intelligence-based platform in the human resource recruitment process,’ 2021 6th IEEE International Conference on Recent Advances and Innovations in Engineering (INCREASE), 6, pp. 1-5.

Senthil Raja, M. and Arun Raj, L., 2021. Detection of malicious profiles and protecting users in online social networks. Wireless personal communications, pp.1-18.

Shapovalova, I. and Pavlov, A., 2021. Transformations in the recruiting services and digitalization. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 93). EDP Sciences.

Spychała, M. et al. (2019) ‘Competency models as modern tools in the recruitment process of employees’, European Conference on Intangibles and Intellectual Capital, pp. 282-291.

Stamolampros, P., Korfiatis, N., Chalvatzis, K. and Buhalis, D., 2019. Job satisfaction and employee turnover determinants in high contact services: Insights from Employees’ Online reviews. Tourism Management, 75, pp.130-147. Web.

Team, V., Bugeja, L. and Weller, C. D. (2018) ‘Barriers and facilitators to participant recruitment to randomized controlled trials: a qualitative perspective,’ International Wound Journal, 15(6), pp. 929-942.

Tien, N.H., Jose, R.J.S., Ullah, S.E. and Sadiq, M., 2021. Development of human resource management activities in Vietnamese private companies. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(14), pp.4391-4401.

Valanarasu, M.R., 2021. Comparative analysis for personality prediction by digital footprints in social media. Journal of Information Technology, 3(02), pp.77-91. Web.

Van Esch, P. and Black, J.S., 2019. Factors that influence new-generation candidates to engage with and complete digital, AI-enabled recruiting. Business Horizons, 62(6), pp.729-739. Web.

Van Esch, P., and Mente, M. (2018) ‘Marketing video-enabled social media as part of your e-recruitment strategy: stop trying to be trendy,’ Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 44, pp. 266-273.

Van Esch, P., Black, J.S. and Ferolie, J., 2019. Marketing A.I. recruitment: The next phase in job application and selection. Computers in Human Behavior, 90, pp.215-222.

Vedapradha, R., Hariharan, R. and Shivakami, R., 2019. Artificial intelligence: a technological prototype in recruitment. Journal of Service Science and Management, 12(03), p.382. Web.

Villeda, M. et al. (2019) ‘Use of social networking sites for recruiting and selecting in the hiring process,’ International Business Research, 12(3), pp. 66-78.

Villeda, M., McCamey, R., Essien, E. and Amadi, C., 2019. Use of social networking sites for recruiting and selecting in the hiring process. International business research, 12(3), pp.66-78. Web.

Wahba, M. and Elmanadily, D. (2018) ‘Social media usage in recruitment practices in Egypt,’ International Journal of Business Administration and Management Research, 4(3), pp. 1-12.

Williams, P., McDonald, P., and Mayes, R., 2021. Recruitment in the gig economy: attraction and selection on digital platforms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 32(19), pp.4136-4162.

Yang, K.C., Pierri, F., Hui, P.M., Axelrod, D., Torres-Lugo, C., Bryden, J., and Menczer, F., 2021. The COVID-19 infodemic: Twitter versus Facebook. Big Data & Society, 8(1), p.20539517211013861.

The Main Features Of The Surrealist Movement

Surrealism emerged around the same time as German Expressionism, in the 1920s. The French writer André Breton is considered the founder of this artistic movement. He was the first to outline his vision of Surrealism in his manifesto. Generally accepted that this movement is based on a combination of the real and the imaginary, dreams and everyday life. Each artist or writer saw the world in their way and, through fanciful forms, tried to show what the world was like for them. Using their fertile imagination, they demonstrated the bizarre shapes and singularity of thinking that made their works the most bizarre paintings and writings.

The masterful combination of each artist’s unique traits made this trend the most advanced. It is also a fact that Surrealist painters often turned to otherworldly forces, starved, or drugged themselves to create Surrealist paintings. These were the things that helped reveal the performance to the full and experience the necessary emotions for writing a masterpiece. The most famous genre representatives were Salvador Dali, René Magritte, Joan Miró, Giorgio de Chirico, and Max Ernst; photographers were Philippe Hausmann, Man Ray, and Greta Stern; cinematographers were Jean Cocteau, and Luis Buñuel.

The development of Surrealism was unusually rapid and captured people’s minds around the world. Within just a couple of decades of its emergence, the genre was already gathering full exhibitions in various parts of the world. There were branches of their own, which saw the trend a little differently and gave it further development. Surrealism existed for more than 60 years and got a new life in the 1970s as Neo-surrealism. Nowadays, people are astonished by the works of the artists of that time and still visit galleries with a big interest.

error: Content is protected !!