Brown Vs Board Of Education And Equial Rights For African Americans Sample College Essay

The United States finally outlawed slavery after a bloody civil war tore the nation apart. After a brief Reconstruction period that allowed a small measure of political and economic participation by Black Men, states began to enact “Black Codes” or laws that were meant to keep the black population from voting, owning property, and other means of citizenship.

The 1896 Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson established the separation from whites and blacks. Central Arkansas wanted to do a test of integration of blacks in an all white school after segregation was declared unconstitutional in the 1954 Supreme Court decision from B v. B.

9 students were chosen to be apart of that test and included: Melba Pattillo Beals, Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Gloria Ray Karlmark, Carlotta Walls LaNier, Thelma Mothershed, and last Terrence Roberts. The nine students that attended Central High School in Little Rock faced daily tragedies in their time.

Efforts were made during the Reconstruction Era 1865-1877 that were designed to help free slaves, but failed. And the Thirteenth Amendment was declared in 1865 by The House of Representatives also by Abraham Lincoln, he was president at that time and fought to established free slaves only because it wasn’t easily going by Congressmen.

But in 1864 before the new laws were set Abraham Lincoln prepared to declared the 13th amendment but many Democrats decided not to help and when the law was passed from a vote to 119-56 it was passed throughout the states to be certain; December 1865, these three Amendments failed.

The 13th Amendment States “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction”.

Also the “14th Amendment promises” that African Americans are permitted Citizens and will have the same equal protection just as other citizens which was passed on July 9, 1868. This meant that the 14th Amendment made former slaves Citizens of the United States, also gave them the equal protection by the Law. This law failed because the states did not care to do right by the 14th amendment mainly by southerners also Slaves and African Americans weren’t getting the equal protection that was declared to get by the 14th Amendment .

The 15th Amendment was passed on February 26, 1869 which made promises to black males to vote, and meant that it was “the beginning of a struggle for equality” for African Americans, these laws were all efforts for a start of equal laws for African Americans. The laws were a failure of reconstruction because of Black codes, which were to limit a point against the freedom of black individual slaves formed by Jim Crow’s System “separate but equal” meaning blacks would supposedly have the same equal rights as whites also to be segregated from whites and they were to affect freedom of African Americans. The South was most effective because it was easily passed by their Congress, there wasn’t anybody who cared to say no to that law also it decided where African Americans go to school, eat in restaurants, sit and etc. these three amendments also outlined the free slaves as citizens, and equal protection, and punishment only for the crime they have commited to but when the 14th Amendment was passed throughout the states and it was failed as a law, meaning nobody did right by that law,or contributed to speak up about it. In 1891 many citizens committee’s test the Jim Crow law on the separate car law and the court case of Plessy v. ferguson established the ruling of Jim Crows “separate but equal law” because on June 7, 1892 Plessy sat on a white compartment purposely to stop that law, meaning that it was barley equal but very much separate and he was arrested the same day, argued that the law of Jim Crow was unconstitutional and the Supreme Court ignored Plessy and still charge against him. On May 15th, 1896 The Supreme Court made its decision about the Plessy v. Ferguson case granting it a constitutional law in Louisiana.

Paving its way for African Americans to have equal education with the triumphs that came with Brown v. Board which made The supreme Court decision on segregation in the Civil Rights Movement along with Brown V. Board the NAACP was formed in 1909, February in New York they were a group of interracial activist inspired because of the Springfield race riot in 1908 in Illinois which happened of the murder of two black men being arrested for a crime they did not commit against white people, also they were killed by a mob that managed to burn down forty homes which encourage the form of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The NAACP help with the case of McLaurin v. Oklahoma in 1948 this was a Supreme Court case about a student who went to Oklahoma University named George McLaurin in 1948. This case was about how George was getting mistreated by the professor of his school and how he was violating the equal protection of the 14th Amendment by telling McLaurin to sit outside of the classroom, this shows how the professor was keeping him from learning also because he was enrolled as a segregated basis meaning he could not associate, or sit with the other white students and that is being unequal. In 1950 George McLaurin sued the professor, The Supreme Court ruled that the school did violate the 14th Amendment and he got justice because the professor was endangering his education to graduate. “The Supreme Court stated that the restrictions impaired and inhibited his ability to study, to engage in discussion and exchange of views with other students and to learn his profession. The school violated McLaurin’s right to equal educational opportunity”. Which This all was a very important triumph for the NAACP to help end school segregation. Six years later In 1954 on May 17th The Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren made his final decision to declare the segregation of schools unconstitutional in the ruling of Brown v. Board and the Civil Rights Act from violating the 14th Amendment in Topeka Kansas. Which publish the justice for the Plessy v. Ferguson case and ended the “separate but equal” law, set by the Supreme Court 60 years before, this was another triumph for the Civil Rights Movement because in the NAACP and other fought to put a end to the Jim Crow status law. Directly in the year of 1955 on May 31’ Earl Warren had moved in forward and in acted desegregation “with all deliberate speed” from The Brown even though a lot of discussions, opinions, and feeling were almost negative about this new change in law. The new law had been out In Arkansas the southern states began to follow the Brown’s order and start to segregate their public schools. Central High was one of the schools that started to integrate from a test in 1954 Brown v Board, the nine students that attended Central High School in Little Rock faced daily tragedies in their time as in name calling of their race, trash being thrown at them, and also large groups of people staring at them like they were a very big outcast. This encouraged others to fight Jim Crow’s system of segregation, paving triumphs for the Civil Rights Movement. Also after this executive order, was placed on September 23, declaring the Federal Troops to help the peace of Little Rock while Arkansas started integrating.

When African Americans got the right to vote it was automatically gonna be a very large amount of black voters and from that time which paved the way for more equal right meaning blacks also wanted to more equality because African Americans were still being mistreated. And from The Little Rock Nine encouraged The freedom March in Selma and paved its way for more people to support the fighting of equality for blacks fully and turned out to be a important reason for the Federal Government to reconsider more specific, “national” voting rights. This all started with the increasing amount of people that came to the march starting from March 7 when John Lewis lead the march on March 7th and than before the passing of President Kennedy he promise for a new law. This all was established after he died by President Lyndon B. Johnson and declared the new voting bill six days later. The year of the 21st Century is a triumph for Brown v. Board also segregation because some schools in Philadelphia are integrated high schools, middle schools, and elementary schools which is good from the time when slaves were first free to now going into the year of 2019. In conclusion these Civil Rights Acts paved the way for segregation to stop Jim Crow’s law also for the equal rights for African Americans also equal Education which all encouraged people across the nation to speak up and start to desegregate.

Is The Education System Racist

Education is an important factor for us to learn and is a tool that is going to help us succeed in life. For years a group of minorities have been denied the privilege to continue with their education and attending whichever school they wanted to. Not only they have been placed at a low school that leads them to have more disadvantages than others. In fact, they have been discriminated based in the characteristics that define them and their culture. Now the question that we should ask each other is how as a society have helped the kids that are deprived from their education. School racism is also leading families to homeschool their student because all of the challenges that they have had to face. As stated in the article the Washington Post it says, “African Americans now make up about 10 percent of all homeschooled children in this fastest- growing form of education” ( Mazama 1). The statistics show that the group of minorities has had an increase of 10% dropping out of school that has led to homeschooling. In my opinion education is an important factor that is going to help us surpass the expectation that society has of us as a group of minorities. An aspect often leads to racism is an amateur teacher.

Mainly white teachers use stereotypes that there have been heard to integrate them into the schools. As stated in the Auburn article it says how, “She is openly preaching a covert face war, many of us Santos 2 look at her actions and are surprised by her open racism. Yet, the casual racism that she advocates entering our schools already exists” (Rashid 2). Schools should be a place where we feel safe and not be judge over our skin color, race or religion. For some people school is the only environment where they are wanting to feel safe, because they don’t have someone that pays to them at home or ask them how their day was. The teachers are getting payed to help us gain some knowledge not to criticized us. These cases go unreported to not affect the image of the school and the publicity. As stated in the HuffPost it says, “There were over 2,000 allegations regarding racial discrimination in schools that were not previously publicly reported” (Klein 2). This supports the idea that cases are not being reported and they are going unpunished to not hurt the image of the school. Not only parents believe that all of the schools are the same, but they will deny their own children from attending school because these cases are not being payed attention to. “However, allegations of racial discrimination against black student continue to make the bulk of overall allegations” (Klein 17). The major group of race that has been in the center of attention because racism is the African Americans.

Many students believe that is right to discriminate each other because they follow the same footsteps as their parents. It also depends in how your parents have educated you, and how you are able to manage a situation in which you have to be respectful to others. “She openly declares that she is trying to teach children that they are worth less than their peers” (Rashid 1). This shows how we are teaching our children to have so much hate inside of us and be talking down on others. According to Auburn it says, “She encourages others to enter civic institutions and destroy functioning communities” (Rashid 1). Not only they are planting hatred inside of them but, the want to create organizations that are going to split communities away. Santos 3 The doctrine separate but equal that there was before from 1896-1954 stated how it was okay for there to be racism amongst each other. This doctrine violated the 14th amendment which was that no person born in the United States should be prohibited from their privileges. After the civil war the 14th amendment guaranteed rights to all citizens regardless of color. Until 1954 there was a case named the Brown v. Board of education, where separated schools for black and white should not be constitutional.

In page 44 in the Brown V. Board education book it sated how, “No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due” (Gold 24). In the constitution it states how you should not be taken away the right of your life, in which those lines fall education. “For the first time an American court had ordered a public school to desegregate” (Gold 32). An accomplishment was made by making a public school to be desegregated. This law made it possible for the African Americans and the whites to attend the same school without racism being present. The case Brown v. Board of Education was named for Oliver Brown daughter Linda Brown. “Seven-year-old Linda Brown had to walk six blocks through a dangerous railroad yard to catch a bus, then she had to ride for about a mile to get to Monroe School, where she attended third grade” (Gold 7). This is unbelievable because she is a seven-year-old which she is barely growing up and not being able to attend a school closer. “She was up and ready at 7:40 am and she finally entered her classroom at 9am” (Gold 7). Linda was a persistent person which meant that even though if it was a cold morning she still had to go to school. There was another school much closer, Summer Elementary School which was less than four blocks from where she grew up in Topeka, Kansas.

The school principal would not let her attend because the school was racist it would only attend whites and not blacks. These cases led to other people protesting and fighting for what is right. Not everyone decides to stand for this cause because they believe that afterwards this would have other consequence come with it. For Santos 4 example, prohibiting their children from attending any school, or even going to jail as Rosa Park did, for sitting in the front of a school bus because she believes that it was unfair to sit in the back where there were a lot of seats in the front of the bus. I was surprised by all the information that I have discovered and all of the case that were unreported. There were protest that lead to the Brown v. Board education that had a major turnaround point in ending segregation. If it wasn’t for the Brown v. Board education case minorities wouldn’t be in the same school as the whites and they would had more disadvantages in education. This was a major achievement because if it were not for these cases some of us wouldn’t be receiving an equal education. For example, for me is important because as a minority I am able to attend any college, not worrying that some schools won’t accept me because of my race, religion and etc. Now no student will be taken away the opportunity to attend any school they want based on their physical appearance. Therefore, there has been many changes now that history has evolved in helping children show their full potential in a school of their choice.

Worldwide Prosperity And The Columbian Exchange

Nathan Nunn, a Canadian economist and the Frederick E. Abbe Professor of Economics at Harvard University, wrote an article in the Journal of Economic Perspectives called The Columbian Exchange: A History of Disease, Food, and Ideas, in which he stated that “European contact enabled the transmission of diseases to previously isolated communities, which caused devastation exceeding that of even the Black Death in fourteenth-century Europe. Europeans brought deadly viruses and bacteria, such as smallpox, measles, typhus, and cholera, for which Native Americans had no immunity to. On their return home, European sailors brought syphilis to Europe. The disease was known to have caused great social disruption throughout the Old World” (Nunn 164). Syphilis was the most deadly disease that was spread as a result of the Columbian Exchange; the strain that was spread was the most lethal strain which often resulted in the death of its host before the germ spread. There were horrible effects of this illness which usually occurred right after the transmission of the disease such as rashes, ulcers, extreme fevers, bone pains, and it more often than not led to death (Crosby 125). Irwin Sherman, a biology professor who taught at the University of California, stated that venereal syphilis was one of the twelve diseases that reformed the world as we know it today (Nunn 166). In addition to the devastations in Europe, the Europeans involuntarily brought diseases to the Americas which the Americans had no immunity to. This event leveled the Native American population in the early 16th century (Grennes 93).

The exchange of goods between the Old World and the New World had a correlation to the population increase from 1650-1950 (Crosby 168). Historian Alfred Crosby supported the idea that the Columbian Exchange was needed in order to have a population outburst in the two centuries following it. This also played an important role in the Industrial Revolution because the transfer of staple foods enabled the Revolution to happen (Nunn 167). Studies show that the transfer of Old World crops and animals vastly widened the Americas ability to feed and take care of the native and alien citizens. Also at this time, Europe’s population was rapidly growing, but there were not enough supplies to nourish all of the new citizens. Although instead of depopulating the lands, they were sending people by the boatloads to live and colonize in the Americas. These increases in population were mainly the result of the increase and improvement of the food supply, which was reliant on the Columbian Exchange. Alfred W. Crosby Jr., Professor of American Studies, History and Geography at the University of Texas at Austin wrote ‘The Columbian Exchange’ in which he stated; “In such societies starvation and malnutrition are usually significant checks on the population growth; therefore, an increase in the food supply will produce an increase of people.” The new crops acquired from the Exchange permitted growth in new soils and different seasons which overall led to a larger food production, which also had correlation with the population increase (Crosby 168).

Thomas Grennes, a Professor of Economics and Agriculture at North Carolina State University, wrote the Columbian Exchange and the Reversal of Fortune in which he stated that the Columbian Exchange was the “greatest human intervention in nature since the invention of agriculture, and it had an enormous effect on the Americas and the entire world”. Through this monumental exchange of goods, the number of cultivable plants in America doubled or tripled. Not only America got benefits, other than gaining plants and animals the Europeans brought back technology that included iron tools and wheels. Just like the Americans the Europeans increased their agricultural productivity by planting Native American crops in favorable places in the New World. Europe would be tremendously different today if it were not for the Columbian exchange, Ireland would not have potatoes, and Italy would not have pizza because there wouldn’t have been any tomatoes. These countries are known for a food item that wouldn’t have been possible without the exportation of crops during the Columbian Exchange. (Grennes 93).

The Columbian Exchange introduced a broad spectrum of new crops high in calories to the Old World including potatoes, maize, and cassava. These were important crops from the New World primarily because they had the capability to grow in the Old World conditions. Also where these plants were cultivated, the Old World staples were not able to be grown because of unsuitable conditions. The most influential of these crops was the potato because humans can actually sustain a healthy diet on just potatoes and milk or butter because they provide the vitamins A and D which the potatoes did not. Studies conducted also show that there was a twelve percent increase in population after the introduction of the potato to the Old World. It was also theorized that after the introduction of the potato there was a forty-seven percent increase in urbanization rates (Nunn 170). This trade also sparked the exchange of foods that were lower in calories but still important in the world today. These foods include vanilla, tomatoes, tobacco, and cacao. Tomatoes, for example, are a supreme source of vitamins A and C, they provide more nutrients to the human body than any other fruit or vegetable, and there has also been proven health benefits from eating tomatoes. Without the Columbian Exchange, we would have not had these foods which are important to everyday life and health. It was not just coincidental that Old World plants flourished in the New World and New World plants flourished in the Old World, the different species of plants and animals evolutionized in different climates and how to control certain pests. But when relocated the plants were able to escape the pests and rodents that had coevolved with them in their previous location (178).

In the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries the Columbian Exchange brought detrimental effects to Europe and the Americas, such as the European sailors who brought syphilis back to you Europe after their voyage to the New World or when the Europeans involuntarily brought diseases to the Americas where the Native Americans had no immunity to (Nunn 164). These events were tragic and decreased the population at the time, but the Columbian Exchange had more positive effects in the long term of civilization. For example, studies have shown that the exchange of goods between the Old World and the New World had a correlation to the population increase from 1650-1950 (Crosby 168). Also, the transfer of crops and animals between these worlds gave the Americas the ability to feed and care for their native and alien citizens. This was possible because the number of cultivable plants doubled or tripled in the Americas through the vast exchange. The Columbian Exchange not only benefitted the New World, but crops high in calories were introduced to the Old World from the New World which helped the diets of the Europeans (Grennes 93). These points back up the inference that the Columbian Exchange had detrimental effects in Europe and America but had more positive effects in the long term of civilization.