Building An Innovation Ecosystem Sample College Essay


Good business ideas do not necessarily have to be based on one’s self-interest, but on what the masses want or need. Therefore, the constraints that come up provide focus and shape problems while depicting the exact challenges to overcome at the same time. Although complaints alone can stifle and kill creativity, it is imperative to realize that innovation does not necessarily mean perfection; it should be born from the interaction between vision and constraints. The initial step, therefore, is to be open to new ideas.

In the case of Silicon Valley, the area’s development was accelerated as a result of the Stanford University’s growth venture (Shapira, 2005). Frederick Terman, an engineering professor, recruited new students and professors from the region and supported the different projects they were operating on in a bid to retain them at the university (Shapira, 2005). Varian Associates and Hewlett Packard were some of the projects that he supported from inception, and even encouraged them to set up offices inside the campus (Shapira, 2005).

Most of the new entrepreneurs overlook the importance of culture of innovation and entrepreneurial spirit. The surrounding environment should have enough self-confidence that enables the new business starters to take massive risks in their wake. The risk-taking culture of Silicon Valley is what allowed the young entrepreneurs to be hopeful and start their small ventures (Shapira, 2005). Additionally, for a technological venture to succeed, the surrounding economy must be quite diverse technologically, so that it supports the convergence of the Internet, hardware, and software products amply. Proper utilization of these three products is a substantial boost to the upcoming venture (Why research on Digital Ecosystems?).

Open source economy

Yochai Benkler wrote that, over the past few years, a new trend has come up in the software world whereby a few volunteers have been coming together to form alliances that beat even the strongest of MNCs (Benkler, 2007). These volunteers engage in a type of production referred to as “peer production” whereby the involved parties undertake self-assigned production practices. Since one undertakes the chore that a person is most familiar with, results are guaranteed. Everyone has a say in the production process, and they strive to coordinate with other parties, thus leading to satisfactory outcomes (Benkler, 2007).The products generated from peer production are usually free software.

In a fresh ecosystem, having an open source production creates a symbiosis of people who care about the innovation itself, as opposed to those who just follow orders to satisfy their bosses. Furthermore, the presence of the Community enables the innovators to assess the activities of the people, and thus decide what to provide them with (Benkler, 2007). This form of social interaction leads to highly decentralized social production. Therefore, the process is open to anyone to create, innovate, and share a new product, either alone or with others. Therefore, the entrepreneurs are able to find the right production people. The GNU/Linux operating system is a project that incorporated thousands of people in its development, which led to creation of quite a complex program (Benkler, 2007). However, managing the economics of such a project is quite complex since it is quite diverse.

Online Marketplace

Social relations and exchanges have gradually become extremely influential over the Internet. This is of particular significance in countries which face a myriad of issues in direct communication. In such regions, having an online platform facilitates collaboration and the ever expanding professional network. In some contexts, however, it is even more efficient to have these platforms since the quality of information generated demands the best person to be found in the quickest and cheapest possible way. In addition to that, the diverse community comprised of individuals and small businesses requires an online marketplace where they can trade millions of products and services daily.

Research and Development

Most of the people are more interested in working for other companies, as opposed to making something of their skills and talents. Reward and stability, therefore, take the place of risk and possible 50/50 chances. However, it is essential to understand that a starting-up company will not provide the same returns that Multi-National Companies (MNCs) get instantly. This is one of the reasons why fresh talents rush to look for jobs instead of investing in their own businesses.

There is a serious need to form collaborations between MNCs and government agencies. Enabling MNCs to locate their research facilities within the home country can be such a prodigious advantage since it makes use of all the available local resources empowering the locals to be more innovative and creative in their ventures at the same time (Jackson, 1991). Moreover, for an innovation ecosystem to thrive, it must incorporate both material resources and human capital, which are tied together by the research and commercial economies. For an innovation ecosystem to develop, Government Research and Development processes must be applied to nurture the ecosystems in a bid to develop technology (Jackson, 1991). For instance, Varian Associates and Hewlett Packard got the attention of the Government, which started funding their projects, and this in turn gained Stanford University some revenue (Shapira, 2005).


For an innovation system to thrive, a few factors have to be put into consideration. For starters, the location of the new venture is quite significant. A business must ensure that its location supports its cause. As in the case of Hewlett Packard, the situation of its premises within Stanford University was an immense advantage. Secondly, funding of the venture is of equal importance (Shapira, 2005). For a business idea to materialize, it must have adequate funding so as to be able to thrive in a reasonable amount of time, or else it will die in the initial stages.

Thirdly, Government policies go a long way in ensuring that a new venture succeeds. Government policies can either hinder or promote entrepreneurial development. Age distribution is also quite relevant since the workforce in charge of the venture must be highly capable of producing the expected results. For instance, the projects in Stanford thrived because the workforce ranged from 25 to 44 years of age, which made it highly effective and mobile.

Language can also either make or break a new project. The language your workers use to communicate highly determines how well they perform since they have to understand each other well enough. Moreover, educational qualifications of your selected workforce should reflect the level of knowledge one expects to put into the venture. In addition to that, the support services in the area should be experienced enough to promote the development of the venture. For instance, marketing and finance services should promote the growth of the stake to venture the capital through advertisement and better access.

As stated earlier, constraints and challenges can discourage new entrepreneurs, but, coupled with vision, they can make a particularly strong business venture. The unpredictable economy can be quite discouraging. In the case of Silicon Valley, the overdependence on the economy was quite dangerous since its downturn could have led to extreme losses of the businesses therein (Benkler, 2007).

Secondly, high-tech innovation can be quite a challenge in that products in the market are constantly changing. Therefore, it may be quite hard to move with the rapidly changing demand (Benkler, 2007). As if that is not enough, technological development translates to skyrocketed housing prices, infrastructural deterioration, and declined standards of living. With this in mind, a new venture may fail to take off due to fear of the entrepreneur(s).

However, focusing on the constraints may blindside one from viewing the available opportunities. For a venture to grow and adapt easily with the changing times, it must focus on the possible development opportunities that it could use to its advantage. For instance, Silicon Valley set its sight on prospective business opportunities, such as the convergence of the Nanotechnologies, Biotechnologies, and Internet Technologies and thus developed new products based on that (Benkler, 2007). Therefore, the market was able to identify it with the emerging sectors, thus making it succeed even more. Showing strength in other areas different from what the market identifies with a venture gives one a stronger competitive advantage as compared to their competitors.


Benkler, Y. (2007). The Wealth of Networks Peer production and sharing. Web.

Jackson, D. J. (1991). What is an Innovation Ecosystem? Science, 253(5015), 1-13. Web.

Shapira, D. P. (2005). Economic Development and Analysis. Web.

Why research on Digital Ecosystems?. Towards Innovation Ecosystems. Web.

Electronic Health And Medical Records


In the era of the modern technology, electronic health records are used to keep the information about patient’s mental and physical conditions, personal background and various illnesses (Carter, 2008). Using this approach allows retrieving the data rapidly and avoiding the loss of the information. For instance, nurses can easily access and evaluate the condition of the patient by using electronic records. It could be said that this technological innovation has a beneficial impact on the quality of healthcare and increases retaliation of the patient to use the services of the medical facility. This trend takes place since this technological novelty reduces the waiting time (Poissant, Pereira, Tamblyn, & Kawasumi, 2005). Furthermore, it is evident that this aspect optimizes the storage of information and reduces the space required for this procedure. Overall, it could be said that it has a beneficial impact on the quality of the healthcare delivery while applying the concepts of patient-centered care.

Consequently, the primary goal of this paper is to access the nature of electronic records with the assistance of the examples. Meanwhile, the significance of the personal experience cannot be underestimated, as it emphasizes the potential impact of electronic registers on the individual traits. Thus, highlighting positive and negative matters will help evaluate the benefits and possibilities for improvement of electronic records. In the end, the conclusions are drawn to summarize the findings and determine the future development of the phenomenon.

Examples of the Topic

As for the examples of using patient records, there are electronic medical records and electronic health records. In this case, the electronic medical records imply paying substantial attention to the medical issues only (Manca, 2015). Using this technology helps physician represent the information and testing visually in the form of charts and graphs (Manca, 2015). It could be said that this type of electronic records has a positive impact on the effectiveness of the physicians and the quality of healthcare. Nonetheless, it does not increase the accuracy of medical prescriptions and diagnoses.

In turn, another example is electronic health records. The primary difference from medical records is the fact this kind of registers discovers the state of the patient from different angles. It takes into account medical, psychological, and physical condition of the patient (Menachemi & Collum, 2011). Based on the factors provided above, it could be said that this type of documentation offers explicit data about the patient’s current condition (Menachemi & Collum, 2011). This aspect increases the accuracy of prescriptions and helps minimize medical errors. A combination of these features explains the reasons for the prioritization of electronic health records in the medical institutions.

Personal Experience

Despite pursuing a career in the nursing sphere, my personal example pertains to receiving medical assistance in the hospital. To focus on the positive experience, the quality of the service was extremely high, and I was able to receive the medical prescription within the limited time. These aspects highlight two advantageous features of using electronic health records, and one of them is the easy retrieval of information and simultaneous cost-efficiency (Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma, & Aggarwal, 2015). Therefore, another one is referred to as the improved quality of healthcare services (Ozair et al., 2015; Poissant et al., 2005).

Nonetheless, the negative experience was present. Continuous sharing of data and its free access developed my concerns about the safety of the stored information. It is widely known that “technologies can introduce some hazards”, and this aspect makes the stored information vulnerable (Ozair et al., 2015, p. 73). It remains apparent that this issue is a challenge to the modern healthcare due to the rising importance of technology. However, one of the potential solutions is to focus on electronic safety while minimizing the possibility of information leakage. In this case, securing electronic health records with “an encrypted password” is one of the basic options to improve safety (Ozair et al., 2015, p. 73).


In the end, originally, electronic health records were meant to optimize the effectiveness of the decision-making, increase cost-efficiency, and improve the quality of the healthcare. Nonetheless, the findings depicted above highlight that despite the initial positive intentions, the electronic health records might elevate the issues of confidentiality and ethical concerns. In this case, focusing on the information security is one of the solutions to avoid the development of these matters. As for the future of the topic, it will continue being under the debate. Its compliance with legal issues will always be the major concern for the medical practitioners and governmental authorities (Friedman, Parrish, & Ross, 2013).

It could be said that this research offers new insights, as it provides the evaluation of the electronic health records from the personal perspective. In this case, focusing on details will have a beneficial impact on the overall quality of the healthcare. In this instance, this study and assessment could be viewed as a first step for the future research, which discovers the issue not only from the point of the medical facility but also considers an individual viewpoint of a patient.


Carter, J. (2008). Electronic health records: A guide for clinicians and administrators. Philadelphia, PA: ACP Press.

Friedman, D., Parrish, R., & Ross, D. (2013). Electronic health records and US public health: Current realities and future promise. American Journal of Public Health, 103(9), 1560-1567.

Manca, D. (2015). Do electronic medical records improve quality of care? Canadian Family Physician, 61(10), 846-847.

Menachemi, N., & Collum, T. (2011). Benefits and drawbacks of electronic healthcare system. Journal of Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 4, 47-55.

Ozair, F., Jamshed, N., Sharma, A., & Aggarwal, P. (2015). Ethical issues in electronic health records: A general overview. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 6(2), 73-76.

Poissant, L., Pereira, J., Tamblyn, R., & Kawasumi, Y. (2005). The impact of electronic health records on time efficiency of physicians and nurses: A systematic review. The Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 12(5), 505-516.

Disturbed Sensory Perception As Nursing Diagnosis


A nurse should determine the presumptive nursing diagnosis that furnishes details of the concrete symptoms of the illness and defines the patient’s problems. It is defined after collecting the essential information about the health condition and the personal data of the patient. The suppositional nursing diagnosis is required to give detailed information on the health status of the individual and specify the current and potential difficulties of the patient. It should define the obvious physical and psychological indicators that represent the body’s response to external triggers as well as reflect on the course of the disease development.


It is essential to examine and analyze the physical findings to define the presumptive nursing diagnosis. Such aspects of the comprehensive medical history as FH, SH, PMH, CC, HPI, ROS, medications and other should be investigated to obtain an overview of the patient’s medical history and background (Ackley & Ladwig, 2014). Regarding the current patient, the woman is 32-years-old, she is normally healthy, has four children, leads a normal lifestyle (no drug or substance abuse), and she denies to have any of the diseases listed in the medical checklist.

However, as per the information and data presented to the ER, Jessica has the chief complaint. The patient affirms to have a sudden worsening of vision in the left eye, though she has not been injured in any way. The woman claims to have pain when moving her left eye and she has had an obvious worsening in vision during several hours. According to the description, the patient is incapable of defining colors. During the course of the examination, Jessica seems to be anxious. As per the eye check, the visual acuity in the left eye is 20/200 compared to 20/30 in the right eye. The patient cannot assess the visual fields in the left side; additionally, the pupil responsivity to light examination is reduced in the left eye. The optic disc is bloated, the I-XII intact but the horizontal nystagmus is present. The patient is diagnosed of the Disturbed Sensory Perception (visual) due to left eye organ alterations as well as altered sensory reception as evidenced from the nursing check (Gordon, 2010). Further, the woman has altered sensory acuity. In addition, Jessica is diagnosed with Anxiety evidenced by the psychological reaction to health factors. The patient experiences stress related to the diminishing health status, pain in the eye, and the fear of losing eyesight.


The plan of care provision for this patient will include several nursing interventions and evaluations. In terms of cognitive stimulation, the patient should be oriented to time and space; whereas regarding the environmental management, she should be provided with the access to the supportive means and devices (Hickey & Brosnan, 2012). Jessica should be referred to the ophthalmologist, and the nurse has to check continuously all the changes in the patient’s health status and emotional wellbeing.

In terms of the teaching plan, most importantly, Jessica should be informed about the low-vision clinics and healthcare institutions aimed at providing help in the cases similar to hers. Further, she will be instructed in using the appropriate lightning and methods to boost the reading skills (Hickey & Brosnan, 2012). The patient will be taught to use the means and devices that will help to resolve her vision problems.

The purpose of the presumptive nursing diagnosis is to identify the health problems that the patient experiences. The nurse should gather the information about the patient’s health status and personality, as well as his or her comprehensive medical history. The nursing assessment of the patient’s condition is a continuous, systematic process that requires the observational and communication skills; nevertheless, it cannot substitute the doctors’ assessment but serves as a platform for it. The presumptive nursing diagnosis should be adjusted during the course of the disease and treatment and should consider the moods of the patient who may be experiencing the influence of the disease. The nurses should reflect such nursing interventions in the plan of care, which imply their actual professional.


Ackley, B., & Ladwig, G. (2014). Nursing diagnosis handbook. New York, NY: Elsevier.

Gordon, M. (2010). Manual of nursing diagnosis. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Hickey, J., & Brosnan, C. (2012). Evaluation of health care quality in advanced practice nursing. New York, NY: Springer.

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