Business And Management Sample Assignment

Introduction

Michael E Porter’s Five Forces Study gives a framework of analysis, appraisal, and analysis of the industry and its dangers. A system is vital for projecting the probable evolution of the competitive scenario and operates in five distinct components (Goyal, 2020). The Five Forces model works best when applied to the whole market, rather than a particular sector and its minor rivals. According to Michael Porter, the industry should be examined based on the following factors: suppliers, rivals, customers, substitutes, and new entrants. Based on this model, this essay examines Arcteryx not as a retail industry but as a component of the entire fashion industry.

Competition

Arcteryx is not alone in its focus on outerwear; several other businesses create comparable items but do not promote them as such. Patagonia, for example, produces coats, jeans, and other clothes intended for the outdoorsman or lady who enjoys spending time in cold weather locations. Their product line includes classic styles such as puffy fleece jackets and zip-up fleece vests, as well as new designs that combine comfort and function, such as their new waterproof down jacket, which has built-in insulation at critical points along its body and is ideal for colder weather conditions (Spann,2018). Arcteryx competes with other companies in the sector by creating high-quality items, giving them a competitive edge.

Suppliers

Arcteryx purchases things in bulk, giving them an edge since they can purchase goods wholesale. Purchasing in bulk allows the firm to avoid purchasing things at exorbitant pricing. Purchasing items at a low cost allows the company to compete well with other businesses by selling the commodities cheaply.

Substitutes

Arcteryx has been able to counter competition by consistently increasing the quality of its commodities and retail pricing. Arcteryx commodities cannot be substituted with others in the sector since the company’s major rivals are outdoor brands that offer the same commodities at a relatively high price. Furthermore, the organization offers a large range of items from which the buyer may choose.

Buyer

Buyers’ negotiating power is established by their ability to pay for the products or services. The firm accepts a range of payment options for goods purchased from them. Customers may pay with credit, cash, or even mobile money transactions. Furthermore, the company’s negotiating power is boosted because purchasers may purchase goods at a lower cost if they buy in quantity.

New participants

Arcteryx is now challenged by new market entries such as Chanel, Nike, and Louis Vuitton. These emerging industries have low supply costs, use comparatively lower costs in manufacturing, and their sources are relatively inexpensive. Companies like Nike have begun to teach their staff, giving them the benefit of having highly trained personnel in their job.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be said that many benefits come with being involved in this type of business. However, it is also important to remember that not every company will work out as expected, so it is best if you do your research before deciding whether this industry is right for you. The industry has been growing rapidly in recent years, and it is expected to continue doing so. Lastly, The Company’s products are very attractive to consumers, who are willing to pay more for them than for other brands. This is because of the high quality and durability of these products and their ability to provide comfort and durability in use.

References

Goyal, A. (2020). A critical analysis of Porter’s 5 forces model of competitive advantage. Goyal, A.(2021). A Critical Analysis of Porter’s5.

Spann, K. (2018). How to drive change via dashboards: An approach to measure the impact of global campaigns for a business-to-business company. Applied Marketing Analytics4(1), 37-45.

Business And Sustainability Essay Sample For College

The selected company to critically discuss the organization’s strategy is Unilever. It is a multinational company dealing with consumer goods, whose headquarters are based in London. This company sells over four hundred brands in 190 regions worldwide. The principal rationale for selecting Unilever is the availability of its vast network all over the world. Additionally, since the company holds a definite competitive advantage among its competitors, including Reckitt Benckiser, and P$G, it holds one of the largest consumer bases in its line of goods. Creating shared value implies the creation of economic values that address the needs and challenges of society (Crane et al., 2014). This can be done by redefining the productivity in the value chain, reconceiving markets and products, and local cluster development. The stakeholder approach also aims at creating mutual value and interests for all stakeholders. This company has considered aptitude growth resulting from a spurt in sales in the personal care section.

Creating Shared Value

Unilever sustains community organizations through the help of social capital for social sustainability. It can ensure the effective management of the organizations through the adoption of conservative use of the available resources and the attraction of the already available external resources. At the community level, Unilever aims to offer support at the retail level by offering expertise in the areas such as sustainable agriculture and even analyzing the lifecycle (Crane et al., 2014). This helps by reinforcing the relationship between the consumers and the company. Since the company is commanding a large market for its products in third-world countries, its products often face significant sustainability challenges. The business also aims to promote the customers’ well-being and health, thus saving many costs and improving the general environment (Donaldson & Preston, 1995). Health would be promoted by providing highly nutritious goods in a clean environment that presents the best disease-preventive measures. Notably, the environmental measures can focus on the mitigation measures of greenhouse gases and water treatment, as well as using waste products through recycling. This will help improve the general livelihood of the consumers, thus, guaranteeing them good health and productivity.

Similarly, Unilever company has realized that it cannot deliver a sustainable future on its own. Thus, they have decided to share their daily operations through the involvement of multiple stakeholders. This is through the acceptance that no business is an island, thus, helping it to create new networks. As well, the application of the sustainable development of the Unilever company involves the management of the available resources putting in mind the present and future generations; thus, through the availability and the sustainability of the current resources, the security of the current resources is assured through the health economic, natural, and societal systems of operation (Donaldson & Preston, 1995). Additionally, Unilever focuses on economic sustainability by running the businesses based on productive resources, which involves all the stakeholders since it holds the company’s future. The main difficulty involved is the distribution channel of the economic capital aimed to benefit society (Donaldson & Preston, 1995). In addition, incrementing the production levels to satisfy the dependent population would give the company a chance to undermine the sustainability processes since it advocates for material wealth obsession, competition amongst the companies, and resource extraction.

Stakeholder Perspective of Corporate Sustainability

Based on Archie Carroll’s theory, companies are seen to assume social responsibilities to the stakeholders. Similarly, stakeholders directly impact the success and performance of the business. The company’s stakeholders include consumers, suppliers, employees, communities, and investors. The company prioritizes these stakeholders depending on their importance to the business. As a significant firm in the global consumer goods market, Unilever utilizes corporate responsibility as a supportive approach to maintaining its position in the industry and sustainability of the business (Freeman, 2001). This company adopts a systematic strategy to fulfil its corporate social responsibilities. For instance, Unilever’s CSR puts the customers at the top of its production and distribution hierarchy. The stakeholder’s interests are focused on the quality of the products and the prices.

Similarly, it stresses the environmental impact of the consumer goods business. Consumers are significant because they determine the profit of the company directly. For instance, satisfied customers will increase the revenue of Unilever due to repeated sales. This company’s corporate responsibility strategy satisfies these interests through quality assurance and innovative processes for the diverse product mix (Freeman, 2001). This creates a compelling image to influence the consumers’ perception.

In Unilever company, the employees are considered the second priority in its corporate social responsibility strategy. This is because they have a direct impact on the consumer goods industry. They are much interested in career development and competitive compensation. In response to this, Unilever responds through high compensation that is competitive with the other employers in the labour market (Freeman, 2001). The holistic career development program includes the flexibility of the employees to work anywhere so long as they meet their responsibilities and general job roles. As a result, this reduces the employees’ travel, thereby ensuring corporate citizenship fulfilment.

Similarly, the investors are given the third priority in this company’s corporate responsibility strategy. For instance, if the company realizes much revenue and profitability, it will increase the investor’s satisfaction and confidence in the company. This will also lead to the company’s increased success in addressing its corporate citizenship. Notably, the program provides the suppliers with strategic plans to help them grow together with the company (Freeman, 2001). This also influences the suppliers’ business activities, thus maximizing the corporate citizenship benefits.

Besides, the communities are one of the leading players in the business’s success; their interests, including community development and environmental protection, influence how the consumers perceive Unilever company. For instance, the company gains positive consumer confidence through active community involvement. The Unilever Foundation, the leading corporate citizenship body, satisfies these interests. The Foundation plays a role in funding community programs, including nutrition, sanitation, and personal development. The stakeholder group provides positive feedback that helps boost the brand image and the corporate (Garriga & Melé, 2004). The resulting impact of this is the increased sales and attractiveness of the consumer goods from the company. Additionally, the increased market presence influences the company’s performance by using its brand image and popularity to address the community’s needs.

Sustainability Approach of Unilever

Unilever company primarily focuses on critical areas, including water conservation, greenhouse gas emissions, sustainable sourcing, and waste reduction. This is made possible through the involvement of the stakeholders and a variety of communities, thus, generating good profits for the company (Porter, 2013). This company’s entire portfolio and market have spanned based on the sustainability approach implemented in its operations. As of 2020, it had various goals with varying levels, including reducing environmental impact, enhancing livelihoods, and improving well-being and healthcare. In 2014, this company measured their sustainable living brands, consistently and continuously outperforming its average growth rate (Porter & Kramer, 2014). As well, Unilever has been able to avoid € 1 billion since 2008 through the improvement of energy and water efficiency in the factories, as well as using fewer materials resulting in less waste production. Besides, Unilever acknowledged the importance of teamwork in executing the USLP. This has been realized by working with NGOs, social enterprises, suppliers, and governmental organizations to enhance livelihoods and create opportunities for women through fighting for fairness in the workplace (Porter, 2013). Similarly, these entities help in building trust in their brands and business.

Unilever brought in new CEO, Paul Polman. He, in turn, introduced the Unilever Sustainable Living Plan (USLP). This strategy was aimed at helping one billion people in improving their health, having the environmental footprint of using and making Unilever products, and enhancing livelihood for those in the company’s value chain. After the CEO admitted that some of the ways this company adopted in doing its business had some problems, he then wanted to break the rules of the business, thus, wanting to connect the people to his new strategies (Porter, 2013). Therefore, in response to the problems he noted, he decided that he would create products that reduce the use of water. He realized that many businesses think about how to use the environment and society to be successful. Still, he thinks about how he can contribute to society and be successful. As the first step, he changed a third of the top executives and created the Unilever Leadership Executive team. He used this strategy to connect to the customers since he believed that Unilever was there for the consumers, not the shareholders.

Discussion On How Unilever Has Adopted the Shared Value

Unilever has been a pioneering and responsible business for an extended period. This can be dated back to the times of William Lever, who launched one of the most purposeful brands in the world, Sunlight Soap, approximately 100 years ago. Its goal is to strive to do more for this planet and society by enhancing people’s lives and providing high-quality products. Primarily, they are motivated to lead the channels in the future through capturing the eCommerce opportunity and pioneering innovative routes in the market. It has applied the levels of Shared Value, including redefining productivity, reconceiving products, needs, and markets, and enabling the local cluster development (Garriga & Melé, 2004). The company has been able to design products and services that address the needs of society, like safety, nutrition, environmental impact, living with disability, and even financial security. Some new markets have also been created by serving the needs of the underserved regions by redesigning the products and implementing different distribution channels (Garriga & Melé, 2004). Additionally, through self-reinforcement in economic growth, this often applies to places where the opportunity has been identified, and the masking is done by supplying the relevant product to that region.

In addition, the realization that businesses have the potential to be more effective than NGOs and governments in marketing has contributed to the realization of the solutions to social problems. The Snap Tax also provides low-income earners the needed access to tax preparation services through the phone and supports rapid refunds. Therefore, redefining the business is based on unsolved customer concerns and improving the consumers’ lives. This is often possible depending on identifying the customer groups that have been identified as poorly served (Garriga & Melé, 2004). Notably, developing a local cluster of suppliers and institutions will help improve the company’s productivity. Unilever has ensured that all the business-related benefits should be specific societal benefits as the expected outcomes for every product generated.

Discussion on how it has adopted a Stakeholder Perspective

The stakeholders’ perspective is based on three aspects, including normative, instrumental, and descriptive justifications. The descriptive aspect primarily examines the significance of each stakeholder group to the company. Often, it uses data to determine the management method’s effectiveness in achieving the company’s financial goals. Instrumental justification also considers the firms’ ethical relationship with the stakeholders, characterized by high levels of trust, information sharing and cooperation (Porter & Kramer, 2006). Also, normative justification notes that managers tend to pay much attention to the relationship between the key stakeholders. Thus, they should be given priority when making decisions.

A Stakeholder model of the corporation

Figure 1: A Stakeholder model of the corporation.

Source: https://academic.udayton.edu/lawrenceulrich/StakeholderTheory.pdf

Figure 1 describes the stakeholders as a large corporation; thus, each is responsible for affecting the other in terms of duties and rights. The owners have a financial stake in the form of stocks, and bonds, on which they expect financial returns. The employees also have their jobs and livelihood as their stake; this is limited to their specialized skills, which are limited to the market. Additionally, the suppliers determine the business’s success for the raw materials, which help determine the quality of the final product. Notably, the customers, in turn, exchange the resources for the firm’s products (Porter & Kramer, 2006). They provide revenue to the business, which acts as the lifeblood of the business. Similarly, the local community plays a role in providing the right to build the facilities. The firm should ensure that it does not expose the local community to hazards due to its building facilities, including air pollution, noise pollution, or even disposal of toxic waste.

Conclusion

Unilever is faced with some challenges in providing quality goods and services, including rapid urbanization and population increase. If not closely monitored, they can be the potential causes of environmental degradation. The marketing agencies should impose the necessary fines on the companies that contribute to the high percentage of greenhouse gas emissions to the environment. The Unilever company has enough machinery to aid in designing suitable policies for preserving the socio-economic environment (Porter & Kramer, 2014). The educational programs should also be implemented to teach the matters associated with the environment to boost decision-making concerning the issues related to sustainability. The increasing demand for resources and human actions are the major contributors to the depletion of life’s wealth and sustaining the environment’s biological system. Through some human activities, significant damage has been caused to plants and animals, leading to the extinction of some species. Due to this, Unilever company has implemented some new strategies to help regulate the impacts caused by the production and marketing process (Porter & Kramer, 2014). As a result, it has adopted the shared value approach that incorporates both the community and the firms in developing environmentally friendly and hazard-free products. To accommodate all other companies, there is a need to develop assessment measures that apply to all other companies in the global market.

References

Crane, A., Matten, D., & Spence, L. (Eds.). (2014). Corporate social responsibility: Readings and cases in a global context. Routledge.

Donaldson, T., & Preston, L. E. (1995). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications. Academy of Management Review20(1), 65–91.

Freeman, R. E. (2001). A stakeholder theory of the modern corporation. Perspectives in Business Ethics Sie3(144), 38–48.

Garriga, E., & Melé, D. (2004). Corporate social responsibility theories: Mapping the territory. Journal of business ethics53(1), 51-71.

Porter, M. (2013). The case for letting businesses solve social problems. The case for letting businesses solve social problems. TED Talks. Obtenido de https://www. Ted. com/talk/michael_porter_why_business_can_be_good_at_solving_social_ problems.

Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard business review84(12), 78-92.

Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2014). A response to Andrew Crane et al.’s article. California Management Review56(2), 149-151.

Business Development Proposal Sample Paper

Background

Dropouts Jobs and Wozniak founded Apple Computers in 1976. They founded Apple Computers, Inc. to change how people saw computers. Jobs and Wozniak wanted to create portable, lightweight personal computers (Abdukarimova, 2021). They sought a simple computer. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak built the Apple I in Jobs’ garage and marketed it in 1977 without a monitor, keyboard, or enclosure. The Apple II was the first personal computer with colour graphics. The company went public in 1980 when sales rose from $7.8 million in 1978 to $117 million.

Apple experimented with tablet computers before the iPad. Its 1993 Newton Message Pad PDAs were comparable to tablets but unsophisticated due to their limited app selection, black-and-white displays, and reliance on a stylus (Abdukarimova, 2021). Apple also produced a prototype of a more powerful tablet based on the PowerBook but did not release it. Jonathan Ive and others produced an iPad prototype in 2004. Apple decided the iPhone was more important and debuted it in 2007 using comparable technology. The business decided that the iPhone was more important than the device slated to ship.

Red Hat Inc. started when an entrepreneur met an IT nerd at a convention. Marc Ewing hacked, debugged, and created his Linux® CD distribution from his Raleigh, North Carolina, home. Ewing’s experiences at the college computer lab inspired the moniker Red Hat. “If you need help, look for the red-hatted man,” they said. When Ewing began distributing his own Linux version, he called it “Red Hat.” Grandpa’s Cornell lacrosse cap was red. Bob Young managed his computer supply catalogue business from his Connecticut couch. He started buying Red Hat Linux CDs from Ewing since Linux was becoming popular. Young was so successful marketing them that he and Ewing started their own company in 1995, naming Young CEO. He established Red Hat Software.

Identified Needs

Red Hat provides management services, products, and assistance in the following specialist areas: cloud computing, application development; storage; virtualization; and middleware. Red Hat also gives aid in virtualization. When you use cloud computing, rather than purchasing the information technology you require, you can instead choose to rent it. Businesses typically opt to gain access to their computing capacity through the internet, sometimes called the cloud, and pay for it on an as-needed basis rather than making significant upfront investments in databases, software, and hardware. A significant number of companies favour this method of payment. Application development is the process of planning, producing, and implementing software applications. It may be broken down into three stages: planning, creating, and implementing. The entire procedure is referred to as “application development,” which is an umbrella phrase. It is only possible due to the concerted efforts of many teams working together on various projects that are all connected in some way. The company needs to give the impression that there is only one storage device by combining the actual storage space of multiple distinct storage devices into what appears to be a single storage device and running applications on collections of resources. This gives the company the impression that there is only one storage device. The iPad Pro is, in point of fact, the most capable tablet the company needs; making use of it assists in finding solutions to difficulties that boost productivity and workflow.

Solution

iPad Pro is an indispensable piece of equipment for Red Hat’s services. When it comes to a creative workflow, one of the best things about utilizing an iPad is that it can be used everywhere. The management team can effortlessly sync papers and visuals across various devices, enabling them to keep working on a project without encountering any extra obstacles. When the iPad Pro is integrated into the creative workflow, it will be simpler to differentiate between one’s personal and business life. The management may test out new looks on an iPad, which is about the same size as a laptop, to determine what works and does not. The management of Red Hat can be simplified by purchasing hard disks with capacities sufficient to hold all of the company’s files. However, things have the potential to get disorganized if they hold anything and everything on these, so it is in your best interest to only save the most critical files there. The iPad pro and cloud computing systems will provide the company with a low entry barrier and a very high level of capability and relevancy to the method in which management conducts their business.

Costs and Timings

Because it will require the members of the management to engage with the market effectively and do research on the potential clients who may create a reasonable basis for the business, the business development of Apple and Red Hat companies will begin with searching for a potential lead that will cost one hundred dollars. This is because it is required that the company’s business development begin with a potential lead. The utilization of online resources and the payment of the members of the team for the time they spend searching for the prospect will contribute to the cost that must be expended. An additional cost will be incurred for the qualification of the lead and the meeting with the lead, which will cost approximately two hundred dollars and will include the cost of transport and the hosting place for the client as it cannot simply be anywhere but rather a place that offers an environment that is conducive to discussions.

In order to establish value for the iPad compared to other devices that offer the same service, Apple must invest some costs associated with offer creation. Therefore, the cost of adding value in the form of lower prices will be three hundred dollars, less than the cost of the iPad Pro, which can be purchased for $599. Building business between Apple and Red Hat will have a total cost of $ 2,000,300, which will be constituted of the subsidized cost price of two million dollars for the pads. The four components to developing business between Apple and Red Hat will have a total cost. Considering other previous businesses done with companies such as The North Face, Inc., the team members working on the creation of the new business constitute 40% of the earlier business project and 60% who are new and have not worked on such a project before. The target market is distinct but has nearly identical service expectations, particularly regarding Apple’s iPad goods. iPad Pro has been added to the mix to make the processes more effective.

Since the entire process of company development is broad and cannot be placed entirely on the shoulders of a single individual, the team will be consulted regarding their schedules and time estimates, and they will be kept informed regarding any changes to the budget. This pertains to what they forecast in terms of time and cost, as well as the question of whether or not they are basing their projections on more current projects or ones that were completed in the past. If either the timing or the costs appear excessive, there will be a discussion about the various ways in which time and money can be saved. Additionally, the issue of processes that could be skipped or condensed will be looked at, resulting in a significantly easier time maintaining the project’s current trajectory. Adding two days, a few bucks, and twenty-five per cent to the total estimate of the project will help reduce the amount of rushing and stress experienced by everyone involved, including the clients and the customers.

Regarding the timings, the captured expenses and timeliness on active projects will be completed, and the tracking of time will be done accurately. This will include the number of hours spent working on the specific jobs. The cost and timing estimates will keep the team on track to reach the overall business development goal, which the accuracy of the estimates will ensure.

SWOT Analysis

Strengths Weaknesses
Transportability – It is easier for people to carry the product from one place to another since it is small.

The design has a sleek design that makes the product look stylish and current.

The battery life is dependent on the generation of the iPad. Some Ipads have a longer battery life, while some have short battery life.

The product has not been designed to handle heavy activities such as watching Netflix or editing photos.

Opportunities Threats
Several organizations and people are opting for the iPad due to its small size.

Some pads have intelligent connectors that allow intelligent products such as the keyboard to connect.

Several companies are competing to produce similar products, such as Microsoft.

The price of the product is a threat in itself. The prices of the products in the market differ based on the company and the size of the products. Organizations that produce the products at a lower price can make the sale.

Promotional Strategy

Account Management

Account management is providing customers with service, support, and opportunities for improvement to increase their consumption of a product or service and maximize opportunities for retention, upselling, and cross-selling within the customer base (Macfee, 2020). These goals are accomplished by increasing the customer’s product or service consumption. This is done to raise the total amount of consumed product or service. Red Hat can solve the problem of giving the impression that there is only one storage device (Macfee, 2020). This problem is solved by combining the actual storage space of multiple distinct storage devices into what appears to be a single storage device and running applications on collections of resources. This creates the impression that there is only one storage device, which is beneficial for the company because it saves them time and space.

The iPad is, in point of fact, the most capable tablet the company requires, and it assists in discovering solutions to difficulties that increase productivity and workflow. Because the customer’s requirements for cloud computing, application development, storage, virtualization, and middleware can all be satisfied using one device, the iPad Pro is the ideal product to fulfil those requirements (Macfee, 2020). The iPad Air has a significantly improved overall performance as a direct result of the M1 chip, which Apple designed. iPad Air comes in a variety of new colours, and it also includes a new Ultra Wide front camera with Center Stage for a more natural experience during video conferencing, a USB-C port that offers up to two times faster transfer speeds, and lightning-fast 5G on cellular models, all while maintaining the same affordable price point.

In addition, iPad Air comes with a USB-C port that offers up to two times faster transfer speeds and lightning-fast 5G on cellular models. Because it is compatible with the most up-to-date accessories, users can push the boundaries of their creativity while increasing their productivity level. Tablets such as the Samsung Galaxy Tab S8 Ultra and the Microsoft Surface Pro 8 are examples of devices in direct competition with the iPad. On the other hand, iPads continue to have a significant advantage over their rivals in the tablet business, and the reason for this advantage is not hard to fathom at all. These devices often have an appealing appearance, are constructed to last, are jam-packed with functions, and can do several jobs. If the Red Hat organization were to start providing its employees with iPad pro, it would be able to give them the best possible services and ensure that their work would be completed most efficiently and fruitfully imaginable. Therefore, it would be better to purchase the iPad pro for catering for the urgency of attaining the productivity rate.

Financial plan

The projected financial plan for the next five years is as indicated below. The projections are made on the assumption that the Hong Kong economy will be stable. The values are in $ HK.

Apple Ipads
Projected Income Statement for Five years
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Revenues 100000 115000 126500 139150 153065
COGS 50000 53000 56180 59550.8 63123.85
Gross Profit 50000 45848 48537 51376 54374
Distribution costs 8000 8400 8820 9261 9724.05
Marketing and Admiration 30000 30600 31212 31836 32473
Market Research 3000 3060 3121.2 3184 3247
Interest loan 2000 2040 2080.8 2122 2165
Net Income 7000 1748 3303 4973 6765

Net Income

The company’s net income is expected to be highest in the first year of operations, dropping in the second year but increasing from the second year to the fifth year of operations.

Recommendations

The business is operating in the technology industry, which is dynamic. For the business to continue being profitable, it must adapt to the changing needs. The organization has to have a fully funded innovation department responsible for producing new products that meet the changing customer needs. This strategy, combined with the account management strategy, will ensure the company’s long-term success.

References

Abdukarimova, M. (2021). Company Overview for 2017-2021: Apple vs Microsoft. International Journal Of Current Science Research And Review04(07). https://doi.org/10.47191/ijcsrr/v4-i7-21

iPad. Apple. (2022). Retrieved 15 September 2022, from https://www.apple.com/ipad/.

Kottler, P. (2012). The Teardown: Apple iPad Mini. Engineering &Amp; Technology7(12), 90–91. https://doi.org/10.1049/et.2012.1231

Leśniak-Moczuk, A. (2016). Vision, Strategy, Innovation in Apple Company. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego Finanse Rynki Finansowe Ubezpieczenia83, 33-40. https://doi.org/10.18276/frfu.2016.5.83/2-03

Macfee, J. (2020). A Study on Sales Promotion strategy of Mobile phones: Seller’s Perspective. Strad Research, 7(7). https://doi.org/10.37896/sr7.7/059