Business Ethics And Business Dilemmas University Essay Example

Business ethics relate to the generally accepted morals that govern an organization. The conduct determines what is wrong or correct and goes beyond government control (De Bakker et al., 2019). Ethical issues arise when an individual or business conduct contradicts society’s moral and social standards. An ethical dilemma arises where a course of action would conflict with one or more moral standards. Ethics affect both the business and other stakeholders. This paper evaluated how business ethics affect the business and other stakeholders. Moreover, two examples of business dilemmas will be evaluated.

A business that is ethically managed has various benefits. The bottom line of the organization will improve. Ethical issues lead to the motivation of workers, which results in increased productivity. Unethical behaviors that lead to loss include theft of organization assets and misappropriation (De Bakker et al., 2019). Often, workers may carry home the organization’s assets or misuse organization assets. The organization may also incur financial losses through creative accounting that prevent the management from undertaking corrective measures. Ethical observation ensures that the community supports the business and provides a conducive business environment. The company can source resources and staff from the community at a low cost. Society forms the market for the business; moreover, the organization ensures the retention of skilled workers. Where the organization observes ethical issues, workers remain loyal, and the cost of recruitment is low. The business’s reputation is enhanced by maintaining moral standards.


The business belongs to these people who are the shareholders of the business. The owners benefit from sharing the profit and are affected by the losses. Business ethics help grow the wealth of the owners. Ethical issues such as illegal tax manipulation and child labor may result in the total closure of the organization. Moreover, the owners may become bankrupt, where their sole source of income is the business.


The motive of workers is to grow and develop in their careers. Ethical issues may define the trajectory of the workers. Where ethical issues are observed, the workers are promoted accordingly while their salary increases, leading to motivation and personal growth. On the other hand, ethical issues result in discrimination, where the potential and growth of workers are inhibited. Such workers are demoralized due to a lack of fairness while stagnating in one position over a long period.


These are people who volunteer their services to organizations without pay. Observing business ethics attracts more volunteers. The volunteers are motivated to work and feel their services are properly utilized. There is an increased bond and trust with the organization. In an ethical environment, the volunteers may end up being hired. In conditions of unethical behavior, the volunteer feels their services are misused. The volunteers suffer from excessive allocation of duties while those under pay take a leave.


Ethics benefit the consumer by ensuring the consumer obtains the right quality product at the right price. The essence is that the consumer gets value for their money. An organization with ethical issues results in poor product service and quality. Consumers may obtain defective products. The consumers may incur losses where the product was meant to be durable, and the client is forced to repurchase the product.

The suppliers

The suppliers are those that provide raw materials to the organization. Ethical issues ensure that the suppliers receive their payments on time. They get their tender to supply on merit, and defective raw materials are recognized relatively. Where their ethical issues, the suppliers incur losses through returns. There is delayed payment to some suppliers and cancellation of tenders without notice.


Investors buy shares and commit their resources to an organization. Ethics ensure an organization has an accurate financial report that reflects the true and fair picture. The investor expected return is met through the growth of a business. Where there are unethical issues, the investors suffer from losses. The information relied upon is falsified, which impairs the investor’s decision-making. The investors make losses as the predicted growth is never achieved the value of the organization drops.

The Government

The government depends on business through payment of licenses and taxes. A business that is governed by business ethics results in increased income. There is little follow-up with the organization as the taxes are limited on time. An organization with ethical issues results in court suits and closure of enterprises. The government is continuously auditing the organization while trying to get information from informers, which is a costly affair. There is animosity between the business owners and the government.


Companies face competition from other organizations that offer similar products, except for monopolies. Every organization has a moral obligation to conduct business fairly. If an organization practices business ethics, the competitors benefit from fair pricing and marketing. A competitor may be phased out in an unethical environment. Large organizations may use economies of scale to lower prices, a strategy competitor cannot follow.

The Community

Community benefits where the organization is ethical in its operation. The community members are hired in various capacities. The organization source the material from the locals. The environment is protected through controlled disposal of waste products, such as the carbon dioxide released into the environment. The organization maintains the rules and laws of the environment. An organization with ethical issues sources raw materials from other areas and ignores labor from the local communities.

Ethical Dilemma

An ethical dilemma results in a situation where an individual faces a conflict of moral standards through a course of action. T the first case involved a departmental head who had to issue a report to the CEO regarding a worker’s performance for promotion. The worker was to be promoted to branch manager. The head of the department did not want to lose the worker and therefore issued a false report denying the worker the opportunity to get promoted. The negative factious issues raised by the head of the department made the CEO fire the worker in the subsequent month.

The second case involved a financial director who was compelled by the CEO to adjust the quarterly financial reports to induce the bank to issue an overdraft to solve the company from a financial crisis. The CEO and the financial director felt the financial crisis was temporary and that the company would be able to repay the loan.

Comparing the two cases, an ethical dilemma and a conflict of interest are apparent. In the first case, the head of a department wants to retain the worker in his department, but this can only occur if he issues a falsified personal performance report; in doing so, the worker will lose the promotion opportunity. In the second case, the financial director has to issue a falsified financial report to obtain an overdraft, putting the financial institution at risk.; failure to do that, the organization will not be able to meet its financial obligation.

Contrasting the two cases, the first one was easy to handle as the department would have overcome the loss over time. The second case was tricky as this would have resulted in the organization’s operation is stopped. To remain ethical, the concerned parties should have issued the correct reports and found solutions for the outcome.


Ethical issues affect businesses and stakeholders. Ethical dilemmas lead to conflict in decision-making. Some of the stakeholders affected include the workers and government. Maintaining standard ethical benefit the stakeholders and the business in general.


De Bakker, F. G., Rasche, A., & Ponte, S. (2019). Multi-stakeholder initiatives on sustainability: A cross-disciplinary review and research agenda for business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly29(3), 343-383

Business Implications And Proposals For Further Research Sample College Essay


Incurring business losses are a common business problem with various implications. While most businesses aim to increase performance and productivity, revenue generation plays a pivotal role in enhancing this. Shortage of funds for marketing and meeting expansion costs greatly hinders business development. If unresolved, the problem extends to the management and compromises the quality of the products and services.

Implications And Recommendations Of Business Losses

  • Reduced business operations

Companies getting losses from a reduced market share and low consumption spend improving their services while getting fewer outputs. It decreases operational work, which includes laying off employees and selling assets. The increased financial burden also leads to the closure of underperforming business outlets. The functional output will be low due to a lack of investments to create business opportunities. Consequently, the ability to get involved in foreign markets and explore new business opportunities are hampered (Butaney, 2017).

Instead, businesses should measure their performance by setting realistic goals to increase operations. It includes setting actionable plans and creating milestones to track the progress over a short period compared to an entire financial year. Keeping the latest trends is also vital in increasing business operations. Knowing the latest trends creates inventions of new systems that improve performance and use the latest technologies for maximum productivity. Streamlining processes such as using inventory management software helps boost productivity and increase profits, thereby improving operations (Gelderman et al., 2017).

  • Bankruptcy

Continuous business losses lead to bankruptcy. Although some businesses may avoid bankruptcy by selling their opportunities to competitors, this is always the final way out for most companies. It is common for underperforming businesses, and it may take time for a company to be declared bankrupt, depending on its size and management operations. Previous bankruptcy affects the possibility of opening a new business in future, and the shareholders are equally affected due to the lack of dividends and the ever-decreasing share prices (CAO & He, 2020).

Businesses ought to prioritize debt repayments such as unpaid tax bills. It is alternatively minimizing expenses such as using public rather than private transport and reducing unnecessary allowances. Renegotiation of payment plans with lenders such as financial institutions further prevents bankruptcy and reduces losses. It sold non-essential assets and maximized income streams (Gilliland et al., 2015). Creating a new business plan to provide strategic planning and rebranding may be essential to avoid bankruptcy and minimize losses.

  • Negative gross profit margins

A consistent reduction in profits leads to losses. It is due to declined sales and poor pricing to avoid bankruptcy and loss of assets. Hence, customers buy relatively lower prices than expected products (Butaney, 2017). Poor marketing also leads to negative profit margins, ultimately loss. Lack of using the latest and most effective marketing strategies, such as online promotions, may lead to low purchasing power. Eventually, businesses constantly lag behind the curve against their competitors, leading to losses.

The best recommendation for businesses will be to reduce the gross profit margins. Reducing utilities and labour costs is an effective way to help a business save up to 10% annually. It includes eliminating overtime payment and scheduling proper time for employees to work within a specific timeframe (Laudon, 2019). Using contract-based workers also reduces operational costs. For instance, jobs like software development and data entry are more cost-effective when using a contracted employee. Lowering prices using effective strategies like reducing occasional sales also reduces costs which may lead to debt by lowering the profit margins.

  • Loss of financial liquidity

Loss of financial liquidity denies the company or a business the ability to cover short-term liabilities on time. It may also lead to bankruptcy if uncontrollable at an early stage. Failure to detect financial liquidity leads to less profitability and failure to meet the financial goals of a business in a reasonable time. Hence, a business strategist must analyze every department and the losses to counterbalance liquidity and boost financial stability. In addition, liquidity risk should be low when enhancing cash flow forecasting, proper management of existing credit facilities and conscious financial analysis (CAO & He, 2020).

Further research required

  • Quantitative research

Using quantitative research with predictive questions helps to understand marketing trends to avoid business losses. Conducting surveys within and outside the organization creates an avenue for analyzing operational costs in a business setup. Besides being inexpensive, data surveys are among the most effective strategies, especially if a company or business has its tool (Zimmerman & Blythe, 2018). Surveys and responses about product consumption and the quality of services help reduce operational risks. For instance, reputation risk, which results in increased operational costs with low product consumption, indicates that a business may fall into bankruptcy.

This technique further provides new ways of creating comfortability and fulfilling consumer needs. It is also effective during the inception periods of new products in the marketplace. Therefore, it facilitates competitor analysis and restrategizing to meet the customer’s needs. For instance, collecting data from a sample size of about 100 clients may help to rate the quality of products and services on a scale of 0 to 100 (Laudon, 2019). It, in turn, provides a way of identifying service and product improvement areas.

The technique also extends to interviews with focus groups to gather qualitative and quantitative data. Eventually, an opportunity to get views from a general perspective point out the weakness and strengths of each service and product. Observing customers’ real-time interaction with the actual product provides insight into which features the business ought to pursue (Gilliland et al., 2015). It provides essential data to implement new ways and policies and make products to increase user efficiency. Survey data represent a large population, giving a generalized opinion that helps draw meaningful conclusions in the product marketability stages (Butaney, 2017). Consequently, anticipated business losses through increased operational costs are limited.

  • Descriptive research

Another research approach uses a descriptive research design by looking at the business’ performance from a theoretical point of view. This research further enhances marketing research to create new products or modify existing product features in the market. For instance, a business or company may consider asking themselves why customers prefer using a particular product to another. Similarly, knowing client preferences about getting services from a specific business than another one is significant in collecting data to help alleviate losses (Olexova & Chlebikova, 2021). Implementing observation techniques to collect data about small and large businesses helps track sales growth

For instance, highly favoured products and services will display a higher sales growth than their counterparts. Observation helps in testing consumer readiness for products in a new place. This method will facilitate the creation of better distribution channels while establishing a consumer base. Observing customers’ interaction with products tells more about brand awareness. Therefore, businesses will use alternative marketing techniques to avoid a negative profit margin, which eventually leads to losses and bankruptcy. Incorporating observation in descriptive research is relatively easy due to the small sample size. Businesses that observe consumer behaviour for a week are more likely to get more information about their products to improve or create new marketing strategies. Besides the ease of use, descriptive research provides qualitative and quantitative data for formulating a hypothesis. Therefore, it provides a holistic understanding of the research problem, deducing desired results (Gelderman et al., 2017).

Statistical data analysis such as the mean, mode, median and frequency helps monitor business activities and decision making. Such data helps determine financial liquidity and monitor trends over a specified period. Proper analysis of average expenses and consumption will predict the business trends, making it easy for startups to minimize costs and increase profits. Descriptive analytics incorporates historical data that gives a business an accurate picture, essential in providing insight into past performance. Such data is also necessary for predicting future trends, thus helping minimize liabilities leading to losses. Data mining and aggregation are good ways to predict patterns for most businesses (CAO & He, 2020). Understanding business descriptive research has various impacts helpful in making sound business decisions.

  • Experimental design

This method is cost-effective and more precise in helping a business avoid or minimize losses due to bankruptcy, reduced business operations, low-profit margins and financial liquidity. Unlike data mining, a business controls the introduction of certain stimuli to elicit responses in the marketplace. Responses elicit the question of research to help unfold the mystery of the problem. It helps in determining essential factors such as the type of product packaging, colour and not limited product availability (Laudon, 2019). The method is more effective for large companies with more customers but faces constant product offer changes.

The sample size entirely depends on the test characteristics and the target market. Although experimental design requires a large market sample for established companies, it is more reliable as the marketers feel the impact of the product on various consumers. It further prevents poor decision-making when selling products to customers. The management has adequate time to make adjustments to ensure proper sales and marketing using the available data. Eventually, the probability of losses is low while presenting a valuable insight to make profits. Depending on the data, the business helps reduce operational costs, such as transportation of the required products, after evaluating the average consumption rate (Butaney, 2017). Furthermore, business expansion through establishing various outlets depends on the available product data in various geographical regions.

Since experimental design aims to test various products and compare outcomes, businesses will likely make more profits by concentrating on the best-performing products in the marketplace. Getting customer responses to certain products increases conversions. Competing customer experience is high when brands recognize their customer’s needs and preferences. Therefore, Experimental design promotes better marketing strategies and a proper selection of products to display in the market.

  • Correlation research

Correlation and regression analysis provide meaningful insight into various metrics in business development. It helps to monitor key performance indicators and maximize the return on investment without compromising the quality of customer experience. A company uses correlation research to formulate new hypotheses, improve marketing performance and uncover potential losses (Zimmerman & Blythe, 2018). This method is compatible with naturalistic observations and surveys to investigate the product’s effectiveness to consumers. Although it uses quantitative research, it promotes the external validity of services.

For instance, surveys with a sample size of 300 customers are essential to get views about specific products to promote external validity in the marketplace. It provides an opportunity to make changes in the quality of services, improving customer satisfaction and enhancing the quality of experience for each product. A business using correlation research has high proactivity with its campaigns. As a result, monitoring and testing customer reactions give rise to new marketing tactics to better understand customer requirements (CAO & He, 2020).

Correlation research is effective as it covers previously unknown relationships. No data undergoes a manipulative process, and therefore it is reliable. The fact that it utilizes archival and naturalistic data helps 5o provide predictions of each product and analyze its outcome with continuous selling. The method effectively avoids losses through guided operational costs in a controllable manner (Olexova & Chlebikova, 2021). Any organization controls the expenditure to market the product using past and financial management trends, avoiding unnecessary expenses that lead to losses.

  • Exploratory research

Exploring an inexperienced is a valuable marketing strategy to improve business by minimizing losses. Instead of using statistically accurate data, a company’s decision to explore unknown causes of problems is significant for development. The advantage is using a small sample size while focusing on the likelihood of unexpected occurrences (Gelderman et al., 2017). This approach creates a readiness to face such outcomes by having extra funds to counteract the scenarios. For instance, an effect on the health of the consumer population affects business performance through reduced consumer purchasing power.

However, conducting exploratory research helps to promote growth during high productivity and low consumption. Unstructured interviews and observation methods are standard in exploring such problems (Gilliland et al., 2015). The findings from customers provide a source of poor selling and marketing strategies that a company or business can avoid to enhance its sticks to the practical and latest trends. Studying questions that have never previously gained popularity in the same industrial niche is essential in preparation for the eventuality that quickly leads to losses.


Implications and recommendations for business losses arise from high operational costs, bankruptcy, negative profit margins and loss of financial liquidity. However, research helps minimize or avoid losses after identifying the problem. Research is suitable for determining the customer’s needs an f embrace satisfaction through service delivery, hence promoting growth. However, the sample size of each research depends on the appropriate data collection method to facilitate the acquisition of better results for business growth.


Butaney, G. T. (2017). Commentary on “Business-to-Business Marketing Textbooks: A Comparative Review.” Journal of Business-To-Business Marketing14(4), 67–77.

CAO, Y., & He, J. (2020). Analysis of problems and policy suggestions in the construction of the business environment in China. EDP Sciences.

edited by W¿єodzimierz Sroka, ¿¡tefan Hittm©Łr., Sroka, W¿єodzimierz, & HittmárS. (2015). Management of Network Organizations : Theoretical Problems and the Dilemmas in Practice. Springer.

Gelderman, C. J., Der, V., Open Universiteit (Heerlen, & 2010. (2017). Business marketing. Open Universiteit ; Groningen.

Gilliland, M., Sglavo, U., & Tashman, L. (2015). Business forecasting: practical problems and solutions. Wiley.

Laudon, K. C. (2019). E-commerce: business, technology, society. Boston; Columbus; Indianapolis; Munich Pearson.

Olexova, V., & Chlebikova, D. (2021). Tools of product policy as part of business marketing in the conditions of globalization. EDP Sciences.

Zimmerman, A. S., & Blythe, J. (2018). Business to business marketing management: a global perspective. Routledge

Business In The 21st Century Writing Sample


The British corporation Lever Brother and the Dutch company Margarine Unie merged in 1930 to become the modern Unilever PLC and Unilever N.V, with headquarters in London and Rotterdam, respectively (Sivakumar, 2021). Before their merger in 1872, the Dutchmen Jurgens and Van den Bergh created a facility in the Netherlands to generate margarine from milk and fat. In 1927, they established Margarine Unie with the European enterprises of Schicht and Center. Lever & Co., on the other hand, was founded in 1884 by the British brothers William Hesketh Lever and James Lever to create soap (specifically, Sunlight soap) for the ladies of England. William Lever penned the company’s mission statement: “to normalize cleaning; to reduce women’s work; to promote health and enhance personal beauty (Austen-Smith et al., 2017).” Lever & Co. became Lever Brothers, a limited liability company, in 1890. In addition to Unilever PLC, the Unilever group includes Unilever and Unilever N.V.

The same board of directors administers both entities. The total revenue for 2021 was $62.047 billion, a 7.08 percent increase over the previous year. The number of employees at Unilever decreased by 0.61 percent from the previous year to 148,044. Food and drink, cleaning, and hygiene are the categories into which Unilever’s products may be categorized. There are just a few brands, including Knorr, Breyer’s & Magnum, Lipton, and Omo (detergent) (Bhagvandas, 2019). Although it is challenging to discover primary sources on Unilever’s management style and approach, most of the study’s data come from business websites and online-accessible encyclopedia articles. This research examines the external environment of Unilever and the firm’s responses to the various challenges.

External environmental analysis

Unilever’s capacity to adapt to changes in its immediate or macro-environment is crucial to its success in the global consumer products market. Performing a PESTEL/PESTLE analysis may reveal these external influences. Using the PESTEL/PESTLE Analysis paradigm, managers may understand how the external environment affects their enterprises (Kuznetsova, 2020). Due to its worldwide position, Unilever is susceptible to various external pressures. However, increasing productivity must be the organization’s top priority.

Political factors: Due to political reasons, Unilever must adhere to the criteria imposed by the European Commission and the Food and Drug Administration in the United States (Sivakumar, 2021). If the company did not comply, it would face legal and criminal litigation, imprisonment, and fines. If conditions become dire enough, the leaders may be imprisoned. In addition to European Union law, the firm must comply with all local regulations wherever its goods are distributed. This category comprises several countries, including South Africa, India, Russia, and China. Import/export restrictions and other trade law restrictions may threaten the future profitability of Unilever.

Economic factors: The current economic climate discourages consumers from purchasing luxury items. There is a significant demand for inexpensive, high-quality goods. Competitors of Unilever are expanding across the European Union, especially in France (Cheng, 2021). The customers have a direct impact on the products offered by Unilever. If its goods are not selling, Unilever will not generate enough revenue to pay its costs. Because Unilever operates in so many diverse markets, if one fails, another may succeed. This, unfortunately, renders them sensitive to changes in consumer preferences and pricing fluctuations.

Social factors: Unilever has prioritized establishing a solid reputation for each brand in the social sphere. The focus is on societally and environmentally significant concerns. Unilever has made it clear that its mission is to assist consumers in achieving a higher quality of life and a greater sense of well-being. A substantial portion of the company’s services is geared toward self-improvement. The primary objective of their marketing, especially for Dove, is to encourage women to feel physically and psychologically appealing.

Technological factors: To ensure Unilever’s continued success and competitiveness, keeping up with technological developments is essential (Tien, 2019). Continuous enhancement of the company’s operating processes is required to maximize production and decrease expenses. For the company to continue expanding its market share, Unilever’s research and development section must be adequately funded. By constructing an automated plant, Unilever will be able to save both time and money. Unilever frequently launches new products that may be purchased online under any of its brand names. The corporation prioritizes the development of its digital advertising and sales techniques. Compared to its rivals, Unilever’s level of automation is far greater, which expedites the delivery of items to retail locations.

Legal factors: Due to its more than 400 unique brands, Unilever is subject to many regulatory restrictions. However, Unilever must safeguard its patents. Typically, fraudulent businesses use the patents of law organizations as a selling point and to deceive customers. A company’s legal department must be competent and vigilant to avert such a tragedy. Additionally, clients must be aware of the appropriate laws and standards. This instills confidence in the minds of customers, resulting in consumer loyalty.

Environmental factors: Unilever has successfully promoted its image as an ecologically conscious firm and implemented its green plans. Unilever supports the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals to enhance its brand and financial performance (Nisa et al., 2021). The company is committed to replacing all plastic packaging with alternatives that can be recycled. In addition, Unilever must develop technologies and strategies to lessen its reliance on plastic packaging. This may drastically lower the company’s and its consumers’ carbon footprints.

How Unilever Has Adapted To The Challenges

Using the results of the PESTEL/PESTLE study, Unilever may develop strategies to address the most significant obstacles and capture the most advantageous possibilities. Unilever’s PESTEL and PESTLE study reveals potential global consumer goods business prospects. Despite the challenges posed by the company’s more extensive or more distant surroundings, growth is still possible by using strategies such as product innovation.

By increasing its environmental efforts in response to the growing interest in corporate environmentalism, Unilever may capitalize on the expanding market for eco-conscious consumers. As a result, the firm may outperform competitors in the consumer goods market by boosting its competitiveness with enhanced sustainability initiatives. A significant component of Unilever’s CSR strategy is ensuring that these initiatives are executed throughout the organization. In order to reduce a company’s adverse environmental effects, the relevant strategy must consider aspects such as new product development and internal business processes. These approaches should also assist Unilever in adhering to ever-stricter environmental requirements. As a consequence of this external pressure, the company has an opportunity to enhance its competitive advantage via improved corporate responsibility. Given the current state of the remote or macro-environment, Unilever’s PESTEL/PESTLE study offers opportunities to increase company performance while being more environmentally conscious (Kuznetsova, 2020).

Unilever created a management system to conform to regional legislation and fulfill its business duties. Unilever values safe and healthy products. Under this approach, all Unilever companies must adopt a formal environmental management system (Venkatesh et al., 2020). Various regions/business groups are establishing training programs to guarantee that the organization’s Standard for Occupational Health and Safety Environmental Care is followed (SHE). The ISO 14001 management standard serves as the basis for this framework.

Unilever has also collaborated with the governments in the countries where it has conducted business to decrease waste. By providing over 21 tons of rubbish to small and medium-sized recycling businesses in Accra, Ghana, Unilever has helped reduce the amount of plastic waste thrown in landfills.

Considering its sustainability goal, Unilever has maintained a firm position in the business’s social and cultural elements. The company strives to improve sanitation and nutrition so that disadvantaged and obese individuals in Asia, Africa, and Latin America may live healthier lives. At least 30% of the people in Africa have a daily income of $1 or less. However, the low levels of literacy among consumers hinder the efficiency of marketing tactics such as print media advertising. Therefore, it is necessary to use additional resources, such as those geared to improve interpersonal connections.

Additionally, Unilever employs individuals from almost a hundred additional countries (Kerr et al., 2020). It guarantees that both customers and employees benefit from variety. Unilever implemented the diversity toolkit strategy to manage and profit from the organization’s diversity. Due to Unilever’s emphasis on building an exclusive culture and accepting diversity, its goods are in great demand in growth and new locations.


The outcomes of the PESTEL/PESTLE analysis reveal that Unilever must examine both opportunities and threats when formulating its growth and worldwide development strategy for the consumer goods industry. Plans for the firm should theoretically account for the rising consumer interest in health and wellness. With this, Unilever can enhance its food range. However, if the firm provides its sustainability efforts with the utmost importance and resources, it will be able to capitalize on its sustainable potential. By automating their production processes, local businesses might potentially surpass their competition. The PESTEL/PESTLE analysis conducted by Unilever reveals several threats to the company’s capacity for growth, innovation, and global competitiveness.


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CHENG, Y. Analysis on the Opportunities and Challenges of Unilever’s Differentiated Competition by Using SWOT and PEST. 6th International Conference on Economics, Management, Law and Education (EMLE 2020), 2021. Atlantis Press, 280-284.

KERR, W. R., BILLAUD, E. & HJORTSHOEJ, M. F. 2020. Unilever’s Response to the Future of Work.


NISA, D. K., PAKSI, A. K., HUTAMI, A. N. & FADILLA, Q. Y. Unilever’s contribution to achieving sustainable development goals 3 in Indonesia. E3S Web of Conferences, 2021. EDP Sciences, 01023.

SIVAKUMAR, S. 2021. Study of Internationalization Process of Unilever. Available at SSRN 3939738.

TIEN, N. H. 2019. Comparative analysis of multidomestic strategy of P&G and Unilever Corporation. International journal of foreign trade and international business, 1, 5-8.

VENKATESH, V., KANG, K., WANG, B., ZHONG, R. Y. & ZHANG, A. 2020. System architecture for blockchain based transparency of supply chain social sustainability. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 63, 101896.