Business Proposal Of Milkwood Ltd. Competency Matrix Free Essay

Management Summary

Milkwood Ltd is a vast company specializing in online gaming businesses, and it is estimated that the company is working on ten different videogames at any given time. The corporation is also notable for hosting four online games with offices in London, Sydney, and Los Angeles. The company also showcases four in-house developed games and three contracted titles. Dylan Thomas currently serves as CEO of Beneath Milkwood Pty Limited, which has a staffing capacity of 400 people. Products-wise, the company excels at writing games for the Xbox by Microsoft, personal computers, and the Nintendo GameCube. Nevertheless, a wide variety of games are available, including real-time strategy titles, first-person shooters, and action games, the latter of which are typically aimed at pre-teens. Two of the four games the corporation hosts fall under the category “BattleNet,” while the other two are classified as “persistent role-playing games.” Regarding sales, the company sells video games both online and through wholesalers. The company also offers a website where users can purchase and access updates. The company’s dedication to


The initiative is meant to fix a problem at Milkwood Pty Ltd’s Operations Management Department, a vast company specializing in computer gaming services. The project aims to increase productivity by improving the efficiency of the Operations Management Department’s employees. The proposal will outline a comprehensive case for and against the idea, weighing its benefits and drawbacks to guarantee it is feasible. The proposal would comprise a BTOPP (Benefit, Time, Opportunity, People, and Process) analysis and a risk assessment. Advice on how to mitigate the project’s risks may then be developed based on the identified benefits, dangers, and impediments. The project’s expected benefits include improved teamwork and communication, streamlined processes, fewer mistakes and delays, and happier clients. The proposal will have a detailed breakdown of the project’s expenses (both upfront and ongoing) and benefits (both immediate and long-term). Finally, the proposal will include suggestions for improvements that may be made in the future to keep the project viable and expandable. Opportunities for professional development, regular reviews of current practices, and cutting-edge technological advancements are just a few examples. The goal is to boost the effectiveness of the Operations Management Team so that the organization can compete in the cutthroat computer game industry.


Like many other companies, Milkwood Ltd faces several difficulties in IT Operations Management. It has become apparent that better utilization of the company’s human resources is required. Therefore, Operations Management has to create a competency-based matrix. The company has to set up a matrix so that its staff may collaborate more effectively. Notably, this matrix will need collaboration between the Operations Group and the Investment Review Board. It is essential to look at possibilities that would lessen the effort and cost involved in developing and implementing the project. Finding the right individuals and pieces of software is crucial for such an endeavor. It is equally important to choose the right software and personnel for data management before and after the project is completed.

Objectives and Scope

This project aims to create a competence matrix for Operations Management at Milkwood Ltd. Employees’ skills, knowledge, and experience will be assessed using this matrix, and training needs will be identified. The competency matrix may also be used to track employee progress, measure output, and facilitate resource allocation.

It is essential to inform the Investment Review Board of the benefits of a robust Operations Management team for the project. By highlighting employees’ strengths and skills, the competence matrix demonstrates how the department may save money by investing in their professional growth and development.

The company also hopes to fulfill its other goals associated with this initiative by educating the Investment Review Board on the issue of current competency matrices. As the computer game industry constantly evolves, so will the employees of the Operations Management Department who need to learn new things. The competency matrix will help the firm zero in on the precise skills they need to navigate the ever-changing business landscape successfully.

The project aims to encourage workforce development by stressing the significance of ongoing instruction and refinement. By using the competence matrix, businesses may identify where their staff members need more guidance and instruction.

Overarchingly, the project’s objective is to improve the Operations Management Department’s productivity by providing its staff with the knowledge they need to meet the ever-changing demands of the video game industry. Milkwood Pty Ltd intends to thrive in this cutthroat industry by supporting their employees’ development.


To keep things running smoothly, develop new capabilities, and keep the ones they already have up and running, Milkwood Pty Ltd has to staff its Operations Management Department with competent people. Simply put, new hardware is integral to extending a company’s capabilities, and timely system repairs assure reliable operations. Improvements to preexisting infrastructure are what is meant by “maintenance” here. Now that that is out of the way, it is clear that this division’s expertise is required for tasks like new system implementation and maintenance, talent amalgamation, and material consumption. Milkwood Pty Limited needs Skilled Operation Management Workers to support the Human Resources team. Therefore, the company should study the Operations management department’s human resource needs and the department’s fundamentals of personnel management.

Competency Matrix

The Operations Management Department of Milkowood Pty Ltd. needs a Competence Matrix to attract and keep talented employees. We typically use phrases like “degree of skill” and “match of competencies” when discussing the ideal parts of a Competence Matrix. Here, “expert” might mean either “intermediate” or “novice,” depending on the circumstances. On the other hand, if a prospective worker is both good at programming and managing projects, the person may be a good fit. It is essential for Milkwood Pty Ltd’s Operations Management department, service level agreements, and studies of in-demand IT skills to all factor into creating a cutting-edge Competence Matrix. Not everything that needs doing in a firm falls under the scope of Operations Management. Review staff at Milkwood Pty Ltd are responsible for, among other things, developing a current staff competency matrix, matching required competencies with existing staff competencies, and formulating plans to acquire or train new personnel to meet the proposed competency matrix. The expertise of Operations Department staff will also be regularly assessed against the Expertise Matrix to guarantee that it remains at an appropriate level.

BTOPP: ‘Business, Technology, Organization, Process, and People’ Matrix of the Company

The BTOOP framework is valuable for organizations to understand their infrastructure better and create efficient processes. Milkwood Pty Ltd can effectively use its staff in the Operations Management Department by developing a Competence Matrix using the BTOPP matrix.

The BTOPP “Business” component stresses the importance of new information technologies meeting customer needs. Therefore, they should align with the company’s actual need for information. The end customers of the product will reap the benefits of a more streamlined value chain. The BTOPP business factor stresses the need to tie any proposed IT solutions to the larger business goals. The suggested Competence Matrix will be evaluated against market potential and demand, and the research plan that best achieves this alignment will be chosen by Milkwood Ltd using the BTOPP methodology. The company will be able to use its resources better and seize the present market opportunity thanks to the matrix. Milkwood Ltd has identified a market of around 10,000 persons who spend time each month participating in online video gaming activities. The company is looking for measures to maximize employee contribution in order to expand its current business opportunity of 2.5 million yearly unit sales. Milkwood Ltd’s previous year’s achievement reflects the company’s future viability. Last year, the firm earned $15 million in profit, had $100 million in debt, and had a share price of $3.50 on revenue of $7.6 million. In order to convince the Investment Review Board to adopt the BTOPP framework, the Operations Management Department should conduct an in-depth analysis of Milkwood Pty Ltd’s existing documentation. The Investment Review Board will only bless the company’s Competence Matrix if it can demonstrate how its staff will be put to good use in expanding upon existing operations.

In the BTOPP framework, “Technology” represents the second pillar. Along with the constructed hardware, it requires fully functional software and the capacity to convey data promptly to the appropriate parties. The cutting-edge technology that will unavoidably be employed in the gaming business is predicted to be a good fit for the personnel of the Operations Management Department, as outlined by the Competence Matrix. Milkwood Pty Ltd has stepped into the crowded and rapidly evolving computer gaming industry. The demographic of educated millennials who shop in this market is highly dependent on technical innovation. If there are not enough personnel to manage the IT industry’s fast changes, it is a waste of money to invest in new technologies. Products are presently available for Windows, Xbox, Linux, GameCube, and Unix PCs. The company’s current PC count is 300, comprising 150 Performance workstations and 20 dedicated specialty workstations. The Operations Management Department’s desktop and server operating systems can benefit from the suggested Competence Matrix by matching staff expertise with the appropriate technology. The new Competence Matrix will improve the server infrastructure of Milkwood Pty Ltd. The company also has forty servers that provide constant access to the internet. The most up-to-date statistics show that the company uses 120 unique network devices and 10 Mbps of Internet bandwidth. The network links the two offices and facilitates communication with the company’s international server providers. Therefore, the company must expand upon its existing technology infrastructure to make the most of its current labor force. Some of these include moving to a newer operating system version and upgrading to faster computers and web servers. Moving away from stationary PCs in favor of mobile devices is also advocated.

The BTOPP structure has a third pillar called “Organization” as well. The BTOPP methodology recommends that businesses be structured to leverage their IT resources fully. The effects on client communication, workplace design, and collaboration are far-reaching. Therefore, the company must be set up so that the Operations Management Department can function as effectively as possible. To guarantee that individuals are appropriately matched with technology allowing decentralized organizations, Milkwood Pty Limited has suggested a Competence Matrix. For instance, in order to fully reap the benefits of decentralization, the company’s current two-building headquarters needs to be expanded. Decentralizing a company’s operations improves working conditions for employees, which increases productivity, according to the literature. Having employees from many different parts of the world might help a business better combine its resources. Milkwood Pty Ltd has a considerable challenge when hiring people from different backgrounds due to the absence of widespread decentralization. The Operations Management Section recommends expanding into new areas to encourage decentralization. This requires the company to spend money on new gear and software and upgrade to more sophisticated networks.

In the BTOPP structure, the “Process” is the fourth pillar. BTOPP recommends that businesses structure their operations such that services are delivered without interruption at any point. New information technology capabilities should be considered and incorporated into this plan. The corporation will need to re-engineer these operational procedures to accommodate the industry’s shifting nature. There are critical elements of Milkwood Pty Ltd’s business operations that need to improve to ensure the company’s future sustainability, including work procedures and management practices. Therefore, the Operations Management team has developed a new Competency Matrix to increase productivity. Due to the ever-changing nature of the IT sector, businesses need to be flexible in their approach to marketing, sales, and production (Daniel, 2018). Increased The suggested Competency Matrix can improve the company’s bottom line through web and indirect sales. In order to enhance the company’s indirect sales, it is proposed that the web servers be improved to accommodate a higher volume of online transactions and additional physical sites in other countries be opened. The Operations Management Team has proposed growing the number of data centers the firm uses, modernizing its websites, extending the number of gaming portals, and releasing new versions of existing applications. The aforementioned significant adjustments will improve the quality of employees’ contributions to the company’s service offering by allowing them to take advantage of new business prospects.

BTOPP’s fifth and final “Pillar” is its constituent population. Employees in the operation management division of Milkowood Pty Ltd are held in high esteem in terms of the company’s Competency Matrix. If a company wants to get the most out of its Operations Management Department workers, it should mandate that everyone in that department utilize the same software. Therefore, offering workers ongoing training opportunities is essential so that their skills remain current when new technologies emerge. The pace at which employees are trained should match the speed at which technology develops. To expedite service supply, reduce time and resource waste, and optimize individual contribution, the organization proposes a Competency Framework to ensure that all personnel in the Operations Management Department are experts in their fields.

Extension of the Competency Matrix to the Company’s Software and Hardware Staff

Several steps must be taken before Milkwood’s Competency Matrix may be deployed company-wide. The first thing that must happen is for the organization to hire great people. The workers’ mentality and competence might be two variables in making this happen. Only by having employees willing to learn new things, conform to new guidelines, and work together as a team can the former be developed. However, the ability to learn and apply new information may be included when assessing a worker’s potential. This strategy will help the organization locate employees who can easily adjust to the shifts necessitated by the new Competency Matrix. The potential for increased employee turnover is a drawback. Therefore, all software and hardware personnel at Milkwood Pty Ltd will have access to the competence matrix through training and the distribution of user manuals. Employee retention and skill development are both boosted by this strategy. However, it should be remembered that this may raise the company’s overhead expenses and reduce its long-term viability.

Risk Evaluation

Milkwood Ltd’s Operations Management group must consider many risks while creating the company’s current Competency Matrix. These possible drawbacks are presented as arguments against the idea. However, they might be addressed with the help of mitigating techniques. The Operations Management Department may experience significant turnover if it implements a Competency Matrix in an attempt to attract and retain the most qualified candidates. However, this issue may be remedied by introducing training programs that refresh staff members’ expertise when new technologies are developed (Fallucchi et al., 2020). The firm might waste money if it rushes into developing a Competency Matrix. Because of this, the project could be carried out in a short-term viable way. Management must determine whether the report’s recommendations can be implemented under budgetary constraints.

Benefits of the Competency Matrix

Customers and Milkwood Pty Ltd stand to benefit significantly from implementing the proposed competency grid, which will have far-reaching effects on the value chain. In order to keep up with the ever-changing demands of the computer gaming industry and capitalize on new IT applications, the corporation should spend on educating its staff. Furthermore, using the competency matrix would increase the company’s present market opportunity. Since the firm is now better equipped to develop innovative, high-quality items, sales, and earnings are bound to increase. Keeping up with the competition in the industry is crucial, and the competency matrix will aid the organization in adapting its operations to the rapid development of new technology. When the competence matrix is fully deployed, it will help keep employees’ skill sets at a consistently high standard. Employee satisfaction rises, which decreases the likelihood that workers may search for work elsewhere (Van Laar et al., 2020). Therefore, the company will save money on the expense of recruiting and training new employees.

In addition to the advantages mentioned above, the competency matrix will provide Milkwood Pty Ltd with several other advantages. Consequently, the competency matrix will aid in identifying skill sets lacking and areas in need of development inside the company. After compiling this information, the company can offer customized training programs for each employee. If workers have better access to the tools they need to execute their tasks, they will be more efficient and effective. The company may use the capacity matrix to map out several career routes for employees. If the required competencies for each position are laid out, employees will know what they need to learn to develop in the organization. Workers who believe their work matters will be more motivated and content. Notably, due to the capabilities matrix, communication, and collaboration will improve across teams and divisions. If workers can communicate and understand one another, they will be better able to work together on projects and exchange knowledge and expertise. Workers’ willingness to collaborate and share their thoughts increases, thus boosting the company’s rate of innovation and creativity.


Milkwood Ltd’s Investment Review Board must properly evaluate the proposed project’s feasibility and related risks. This will allow management to assess whether or not the project is worthwhile and whether or not the benefits will outweigh the risks. As part of the appraisal process, we will look closely at the project’s objectives, budget, benefits, risks, and potential impacts on company operations and financial performance. The accounting department’s assistance will be crucial in ensuring that the project is completed with minimal financial damage to the business. These workers possess the knowledge necessary to improve efficiency and increase corporate revenues. They may advise the company on how to accomplish the project economically.

Also, the Competency Matrix should be evaluated regularly once implemented to guarantee that employees’ knowledge and abilities are always up-to-date with the rapidly developing IT industry. By doing these assessments, businesses can identify areas where their employees could benefit from additional education or training (Mishra, 2017). Such action will help the company remain competitive by equipping its workers with the knowledge and abilities to fulfill current and future demands. In addition, further feasibility studies need to be conducted so that the company can figure out how to put its staff to the most effective use. This kind of study will demonstrate to upper management exactly what their new hires need to thrive in their roles and develop to their fullest potential. Better results mean more money in the bank and a more secure place in the market for your business.


Daniel, C. O. (2018). Effects of marketing strategies on organizational performance. International journal of business marketing and management3(9), 1-9.

Fallucchi, F., Coladangelo, M., Giuliano, R., & William De Luca, E. (2020). Predicting employee attrition using machine learning techniques. Computers9(4), 86.

Mishra, P. (2017). Green human resource management: A framework for sustainable organizational development in an emerging economy. International Journal of Organizational Analysis.

Van Laar, E., Van Deursen, A. J., Van Dijk, J. A., & de Haan, J. (2020). Determinants of 21st-century skills and 21st-century digital skills for workers: A systematic literature review. Sage Open10(1), 2158244019900176.

Comparison Of Ninety Days With The Narrative Beautiful Boy (2018) Free Essay


“Ninety Days” and “Beautiful Boy” are practical pieces of artwork that delve deeply into the difficulty of addiction and the road to restoration. Beautiful Boy is a movie that depicts a father’s effort to rescue his son from heroin addiction, and Bill Clegg’s book, Ninety Days, is an engrossing and heartbreaking memoir that follows his spiral into addiction and his route to recovery. Both narratives underscore the necessity of help networks in the recovery from addiction and give private and intimate viewpoints on the difficulties related to dependency. The tale of Clegg is informed in an unfiltered and straightforward manner inside the film Ninety Days, which does not turn away from the maximum brutal and horrible moments, even as the movie Beautiful Boy affords a check out the problems that a circle of relatives has when coping with addiction. Their formats are exceptional, and their scopes are one-of-a-kind, yet they have got lots not unusual in terms of the topics they cowl. The book Ninety Days are targeted at the author’s route to healing, addressing the emotional and mental additives of dependency alongside the manner. On the other hand, Beautiful Boy is a movie that depicts the results of addiction in an own family and investigates the lines and tensions that include trying to assist a cherished one in overcoming their dependency. In this essay, we will analyze how the narratives of these two works are similar, as well as how they vary from one another.

Ninety Days

Bill Clegg’s Ninety Days narrative is an uncompromising account of the author’s spiral into addiction and the next avenue closer to recovery. Clegg became a famous literary agent in New York City, so he had access to the greatest of everything; nonetheless, his dependence to crack cocaine brought on him to lose his process and left him homeless and all by way of himself. The early days of Clegg’s experimenting with tablets and the consistent march toward his addiction, which in the end culminated in his hitting rock bottom, are protected in the first chapter of the e-book. Clegg no longer shrinks from chronicling the most difficult and painful moments of his dependency at some point in the biography (Clegg, 2012). This demonstrates Clegg’s honesty and sensitivity, which might be displayed the entire time entirely. He gives a realistic description of the cravings and desperation he experienced. At the same time, he changed into the grips of addiction and the humiliation and guilt that accompanied him on every occasion he relapsed. Clegg did no longer surrender in the face of the insurmountable limitations he was faced with; instead, he sought help and began a road towards healing. Clegg’s willingness to address the emotional and psychological aspects of addiction is one of the parts of Ninety Days that stands out as one of the most wonderful elements of the book. He investigates the demanding reviews and anxieties that shaped him into the character he has become and how they contributed to his dependency development (Clegg, 2012). Clegg’s introspective approach enables readers to interact with his tale on a more non-public level. This is because he brazenly discloses his demanding situations and victories in a manner that seems equal components standard and one of a kind. In addition, Clegg’s autobiography serves as a sobering reminder of the sneaky nature of addiction and the toll it takes on people, in addition to their families. The narrative Ninety Days open a glimpse into addiction, illustrating how the disorder can rob people of their dignity, depart them from feeling themselves, and cut them off from society. The story of Clegg serves as a powerful instance of the good-sized toll that addiction exacts now, not only on the person who is addicted but also on individuals who are close to them in their lives. Despite this, Ninety Days is nonetheless an impressive demonstration of the strength of the human spirit and the potential for salvation. Clegg’s avenue to rehabilitation has been distinguished using a lot of complex work, determination, and a willingness to face the demons of his past. His autobiography conveys a message of wish to folks fighting dependency by illustrating that healing is potential even within the maximum difficult situations. According to Clegg (2012), Ninety Days is an engrossing and intestine-wrenching memoir that sheds a mild at the darkish corners of dependency while praising the human spirit’s electricity and perseverance. This book is an ought-to-study for everybody who has ever struggled with addiction. The frank and open way in wherein Clegg tells his tale makes for an impactful and emotionally gripping e-book. It presents a window into the world of addiction whilst additionally encouraging optimism and resilience.

Beautiful Boy

Beautiful Boy, directed by Felix Van Groeningen, is a cinematic masterpiece that depicts addiction and its distance-reaching effect on families in a heartbreaking and realistic manner. In the movie, the Sheff family recalls their trials and tribulations as they attempt to help Nic kick his methamphetamine dependency. Beautiful Boy serves as a potent reminder that dependency is a chronic situation that calls for a holistic technique to remedy that includes clinical remedies, psychological counseling, and the support of one’s circle of relatives (Taylor, 2019). The intricacy of the circumstance is reflected in this movie’s rich and multifaceted depiction of addiction. The film Beautiful Boy suggests how addiction can take manipulation of someone’s lifestyle, forcing them to be fed entirely by it and inflicting sizeable amounts of suffering and damage. The effects of addiction on loved ones are also investigated inside the movie, with a selected recognition of the methods wherein addiction may additionally motivate rifts in relationships and households as family individuals battle to discern the way to offer the most effective assistance for their loved ones, the weight that the illness locations on them may additionally cause feelings of frustration, anger, and melancholy. The movie captures the emotional toll that dependency and rehabilitation could have on a person, which is one of the film’s highlights. Timothée Chalamet and Steve Carell, who play the key roles, both provide excellent performances that completely seize dependency’s uncooked ardor and complex nature (Taylor, 2019). Their paintings demonstrate a fantastic deal of delicacy and depth. The film looks at Nic’s dependency reviews and sheds mild on the desperation, loneliness, and distress that can accompany addiction in its many forms. The struggle that David is going through to save his kid is just as heartbreaking. While doing so, he has to deal with the harsh realities of dependency while still attempting to keep a relationship with his son. Beautiful Boy serves as an amazing reminder that addiction is a chronic situation that calls for continuous care and guidance from those around the affected person. The documentary emphasizes the need to receive a thorough treatment, which may include clinical and mental remedies to address the underlying reasons for dependency. In addition, the story of Beautiful Boy highlights how important it’s far to have help from family members during the restoration technique (Taylor, 2019). The film is a moving depiction of households’ stress and pressure while trying to help a person battling addiction. Addiction is a disease that affects no longer simply the sufferer, but additionally their loved ones, and the movie depicts those struggles in a compelling manner. Beautiful Boy is a cinematic gem that, taken as an entire, provides an emotionally resonant and intimate image of the devastation that addiction wreaks on the lives of families. The movie demonstrates the electricity of the human spirit and the capacity of affection to triumph over adversity, even in its most profound and maximum pervasive bureaucracy. Beautiful Boy is a vital addition to the persevering dialogue approximately dependency and rehabilitation, helping bring to our attention the significance of compassion, understanding, and assistance while handling this illness.


Both Ninety Days and Beautiful Boy are comparable in diverse ways. Both narratives provide a tight and private angle on the rigors and tribulations associated with addiction, drawing attention to the horrible toll that substance abuse may have on people in addition to their families. The two narratives also emphasize the intricacies of addiction, displaying that it is not the most straightforward query of willpower but, as an alternative, an illness that desires to be handled medically and psychologically. This is something that can be visible in each memory. Both Ninety Days and Beautiful Boy strongly emphasize the essential characteristic that helps networks provide in the healing process. Bill Clegg finds comfort in his aid organization, where he can express his issues and get encouragement from people who apprehend what he is going through (Clegg, 2012). Comparably, the protagonist of David Sheff’s novel Beautiful Boy visits support organizations for households whose participants are bothered by dependency. There, he meets different mothers and fathers who are having to cope with the dependency of their kids. Amid addiction, the accounts emphasize the importance of connection and networking, demonstrating how guide networks may provide hope, power, and a sense of belonging to those suffering from substance abuse. Another not-unusual thread that runs via both Ninety Days and Beautiful Boy is dependency’s toll on a family’s lifestyle. Both tales show addiction’s toll on cherished ones, underlining the pressure, fear, and heartache that comes with seeing a person you care approximately suffer from dependency. Addiction is proven as a sickness that destroys lives. Both highlight addiction’s influence on relationships, precisely the difficult dynamic that may develop between a parent and a kid while addiction is present. However, they also display that reworking impacts recovery and healing by demonstrating the strength of love and tenacity in overcoming these troubles. Both Ninety Days and Beautiful Boy deal with addiction and rehabilitation, but they do so in quite one-of-a-kind ways. Despite their similarities, those two films take particular tactics. Beautiful Boy is a film that depicts the experience of an own family, even as Ninety Days is a biography that concentrates on the particular journey of one individual. Beautiful Boy was directed by using Tom Hanks.

Consequently, the two memories are distinct from one another in terms of the extent of their coverage and the perspectives they provide, despite the fact that each offer valuable insights into the intricacies of addiction and recovery (Vola, 2012). Bill Clegg’s narrative, Ninety Days, is characterized by an utterly introspective tone for the duration, with the author focusing on the emotional and mental factors of dependency. He intensively discusses his prior traumas and fears, handing over a sincere and emotional portrayal of his battles with dependency. He is going into his heritage. On the other hand, Beautiful Boy adopts an extra objective point of view and suggests how addiction now influences the person and their own family and the larger society. The film explains the recent opioid disaster and the critical need for more public consciousness and assets to fight dependence. In addition, both Ninety Days and Beautiful Boy offer compelling and emotionally touching memories of recuperating from dependence. They emphasize the doubtlessly existence-changing consequences of recuperation and healing while also demonstrating the devastation that can result from dependency on materials to each human being and their families. In spite of the fact that they take extraordinary processes and feature exclusive points of view, the two storylines both have a comparable message of optimism and strain the significance of connection, networking, and help at some stage in achieving sobriety.


The narrative shape of each Ninety Days and Beautiful Boy is one of the maximum exquisite differences between the two films. The narrative Ninety Days are written in the first person, which permits the reader to go into the head of the author and experience his emotions and mind as if they have been going on to them at once. On the other hand, Beautiful Boy is a film that is instructed from a third-person attitude, which allows the target market to look at the characters and what they do from an extra-goal viewpoint (Christenson, 2019). The result is that Beautiful Boy has an extra cinematic and dramatic tone. However, Ninety Days are imbued with a more contemplative and intimate aspect. The two stories’ spheres of effect additionally diverge appreciably from each other. Beautiful Boy depicts the effect that dependency has on a circle of relatives. He investigates the complicated bond that exists between a father and son, even as Ninety Days is wholly targeted at the author’s course closer to recovery from a dependence to crack cocaine.

Both of those memories address the problem of addiction and rehabilitation, but they do so in quite exceptional methods. Beautiful Boy gives a more communal and family perspective, while Ninety Days take a more personal and introspective method to the concern depend. Bill Clegg presents an actual and private description of his troubles with dependency in his e-book Ninety Days. Through this, the reader is given a perception of his journey’s emotional and psychological components. He looks lower back at the traumatic stories and anxieties from his background, illuminating the essential reasons for his dependency and the limitations he encountered on the route to healing. Beautiful Boy, however, depicts the impact that addiction has on a family using concentrating on the emotional toll that it exacts not simply on the person who is addicted but also on the folks who care about them (Christenson, 2019). The film reflects on the current opioid crisis in addition to the essential need for multiplied public attention and accessibility to treatment services. The testimonies also have an excellent tone that unites them other than one another, in contrast to the dramatic and emotional nature of Beautiful Boy, the contemplative and pensive nature of Ninety Days. Both of those testimonies look at the difficulties related to dependency and rehabilitation, but they accomplish that in unique ways. Beautiful Boy takes a more excellent visceral technique, even as Ninety Days takes a more reflective one. While the memoir employs language and introspection to present insight into the writer’s route, the movie uses compelling images and good results to immerse the spectator in the enjoyment of dependency and healing. In evaluation, the movie uses lovely visuals and sound effects to immerse the viewer inside the revel in of addiction and recovery. Both the movie Ninety Days and Beautiful Boy have a comparable undercurrent of optimism and resiliency, notwithstanding their contrasts. Both memories strain the reworking energy of healing and recovery, as well as the fee of connection, community, and help in reaching sobriety. Both memories additionally spotlight the need for connection, community, and help. They reveal that dependency is a complex and various trouble that requires complete treatment and that restoration is a lifetime process that requires chronic dedication and devotion on the part of the character. Both Ninety Days and Beautiful Boy, despite their wonderful variations in narrative shape, breadth, tone, and technique, provide compelling and emotionally gripping depictions of dependency and the technique of restoration. They provide more profound information on the problems associated with dependency, the toll it takes on people and families, as well as the remodeling ability of healing and recuperation (Vola, 2012). Whether they are presented in the shape of a non-public memoir or a cinematic representation of a family’s warfare, those memories give desire and thought to folks who are fighting with dependency themselves or who are helping a cherished one on their avenue toward recuperation.


In conclusion, the narratives of art Ninety Days and Beautiful Boy are both splendid in their own right and offer a fascinating and concept-upsetting study of the system of healing from substance abuse. Both works shed light on the emotional intricacies of addiction, in addition to the toll that dependence can take, each bodily and mental, on people and the people closest to them in their lives. They both spotlight the importance of being able to bounce back from adversity and the benefit of having a strong community of aid, each of that is vital for a successful recovery. Both Ninety Days and Beautiful Boy address the challenge of substance abuse and rehabilitation, yet the two movies approach the difficulty in quite distinctive ways and cowl a very distinctive floor. Ninety Days is an intensely intimate memoir that facilities on the writer’s own battle with addiction and his course towards restoration. The book takes area over the route of 90 days. The author’s existence enjoy is informed in the narrative from a actual and honest angle. It describes the demanding situations and setbacks related to addiction, as well as the stairs that ought to be taken to achieve restoration. Beautiful Boy, then again, is a movie that depicts the narrative of a father’s frantic tries to store his son from the clutches of dependency. Beautiful Boy Changed, directed by way of Richard Linklater. The film gives an impactful and shifting depiction of the effect that addiction has on households, delving into the affliction, despair, and hope that come together with trying to help a cherished one in convalescing from their dependence. Both works are dedicated to reading the human experience of dependency and recuperation, in spite of the fact that the codecs and scopes of the investigations are awesome from each other. They offer a complex and insightful evaluation of the problems and achievements of recovery, bringing to our attention the significance of empathy, understanding, and support within the war against dependency. Both Ninety Days and Beautiful Boy deliver an important and required viewpoint on the continuing discourse about addiction and healing, whether it’s via the lens of personal narrative or the lens of family problems. Both of these views are essential and wanted.


Clegg, B. (2012). Ninety Days: A Memoir of Recovery. Little, Brown.

Christenson, A. (2019). BEAUTIFUL BOY. US Catholic, 84(1), 40-41.

Taylor, J. (2019). Beautiful Boy. American Journal of Psychiatry Residents’ Journal.

Vola, C. (2012). Bill Clegg’s ‘Ninety Days’ can be burned through at an amphetamine pace, PopMatters. PopMatters.

Concept Map Of Understanding The Causes And Determinants Of Truancy Among Primary And Secondary School Students In New Zealand Sample College Essay


Truancy, usually the frequent act of missing school unauthorized, is a significant problem that negatively impacts the overall effectiveness of educational institutions. Truancy might be defined differently by different municipalities, states, or countries; nevertheless, the most typical and suitable description is a pattern of unjustified absences from the classroom. According to (Kearse-McCastler, 2020), 10 of the most significant issues confronting American schools are related to the tens of thousands of pupils that skip classrooms daily without valid justifications (Aqeel & Rehna, 2020). As a result, absenteeism affects the entire country and substantially negatively impacts the educational system. Approximately 2.4 percent of students worldwide need permission to attend the classroom. One in five learners in New Zealand is classified as truant daily (Cheah, Kee, Lim & Omar, 2021), developing the issue internationally.

According to Keppens & Spruyt (2020), adherence is the most significant variable in determining how well kids perform; hence, early corrective action must be taken against persistent absences. Potential causes of illegal activity must be found to eradicate or at least reduce them. Determine the urgency and significance of the issue to the student’s and society’s health by considering the potential immediate and long-term repercussions of unjustified school absence. Truancy among primary and secondary school students in New Zealand is a growing issue, with more and more students purposefully skipping classes in the face of administrative and classroom management challenges (Fareo, 2019). This issue affects a substantial proportion of pupils in New Zealand and can have long-lasting devastating impacts making it an urgent matter to address (Adubea, 2020).


To provide answers to the research questions, research was conducted at a local primary and secondary school, and data was gathered. Also, a broad literature review was conducted from a pool of literature evaluating various research findings of related work from various scholars. The design of “ex-post facto research” was utilized in the present research to examine the link between variables whose manifestations the researcher could not control since they had already taken place (Franknel & Warren, 2000). Understanding the Causes and Determinants of Truancy among Primary and Secondary School Students in New Zealand was made possible by design, which allowed for the collection of qualitative literature review data from reputable academics worldwide.

The study consisted of students, parents, and guardians, with 50 percent of the participants being students from primary school while the remaining from the secondary school sample online participation. The participation gave room to any parent from possible nationalities and age groups ranging from 8 to 15 years, Virtanen et al. (2022). The participants were recruited via emails sent to them and via word of mouth. Participants took part in this study voluntarily with no reward. Demographic data (age, gender) were assessed (Ramberg et al.,2018). All procedures were approved by the university ethics committee that reviewed the research approval documents and the clearance form issued as a go-ahead token for the research. The data study from the concept map focused on various overarching issues related to unauthorized absenteeism in primary and secondary schools, Roth & Erbacher (2021). The incidence of unauthorized absenteeism and the usage of legal justifications reported by students were first analyzed and contrasted with a recorded literature review. Following that, the reasons given by students for engaging in unconstitutional absenteeism were analyzed and categorized into four groups: family-related factors, economic factors, student factors, or school-related variables. Last but not least, responses from educators were analyzed and classified into five groups according to teacher convictions: student success/achievement, repercussions for illegal student absences, reasons for Truancy of students, effects of Truancy of students, and remedies for decreasing or preventing Truancy.

Both the dependent and independent variables were incorporated into the research’s parameters. The family factors, school environment, electronic media, socioeconomic status, peer pressure, cultural determinants, teacher-related, community factors, and economic determinants of student Truancy were among the independent variables, Sorokin (2022). They also included school-associated school determinants, residence-related determinants, and individual-related determinants. The factor that was dependent under inquiry included the impact of Truancy on students’ academic progress in primary and secondary schools.


According to the literature review, 29 percent of primary school students believed in missing educational institutions no more than once per month, twelve percent believed in missing educational institutions once per month, thirty-one percent believed in missing educational institutions at least twice per month, four percent are believed to miss educational institutions once every week, six percent are believed to miss school at least twice per week, and zero percent are believed to miss educational institutions at least four times each week. On the other hand, of secondary schools, Baskerville (2020), 18 percent are believed to have always attended school. In addition, 31 percent of students are believed to have never missed a class, 29 percent are believed to miss a class a maximum of once each month, six percent said they missed a class every month, sixteen percent believed to miss a class at least twice a month, six percent are believed to miss a class at least once a week, eight percent are believed to miss a class at least twice a week, and four percent are believed to miss a class at least four times every week. Furthermore, 44 percent of students are believed to have never handed in a justification for absence from class or educational institutions. Fourteen percent are unsure, and 41 percent are regular absenters, LeClair (2022). The findings mentioned above are supported by the literature review records from various studies, which show that during the 25-week mark of the academic year, there are more than 2000 unauthorized absences from classrooms in the primary and more than 2,500 in the secondary schools.

Furthermore, there have been many permitted absences from the primary and secondary schools. Sadly, for primary and secondary schools, the rate of Truancy is approximately 3.3 times higher compared to the approved absenteeism rate. This supports the argument that unethical absenteeism significantly impairs student progress in the classroom.


The study outlined various causes of Truancy in school, outlined in the concept map in Figure 1facilitating a broader understanding. The concept map covered the family aspect of after-school supervision for students. According to the literature review, a formal excuse was even less probable to be submitted by 41 percent of students who confessed to failing to attend class at least twice a month, as fifty-eight percent acknowledged not submitting a legal justification (Baskerville, 2019). According to the literature, students who acknowledged missing school two or three times a month or more and acknowledged not providing a valid justification are the leading aspect of low-income family supervision. None of these pupils received supervision right after schooling. About 41 percent of students in primary and secondary always submit an excuse after a truant behavior. According to the findings and connections to the pupil’s health, poor parenting and ignorance can cause mental health problems and a shortage of inspiration to go to school. Also, violence and domestic abuse can cause problems with both mental and physical health, and disputes between families can cause stress and a deficiency of interest in learning.

Factors contributing to Truancy among students

Figure 1: Factors contributing to Truancy among students

One focuses on how economic factors affect students’ illegitimate absences from class, which is outlined as number one in the table. The literature review brought out the breakdown of the living circumstances. Students comprise fourteen percent of the population that resides with parents, twelve percent live without any parent, 67 percent live with just their mother, and six percent with just their father, Keppens & Spruyt. (2020).. In this case, it is not about parenting but the superiority of financial backers for the child that dictates the school attendance for the child. Supporting oneself or one’s family can cause stress and economic pressure; poverty can result in health problems and an absence of resources; overall lack of accessibility to amenities can increase absenteeism and health problems.

When focusing on the community factors, one may assume that the effect of its influence on Truancy is highly expected. However, these community factors only trigger the student-related variables of truancy behavior. The concept map also highlighted how student variables affect unreported absences from school. Substance/drug consumption, self-perception, and extenuating circumstances are three more categories into which these student characteristics might be subdivided. Twenty percent of all primary and secondary school students acknowledged consuming alcohol, with about fourteen percent saying they did so frequently—at least per month, Miller (2019). Fifty percent of the children who confessed to drinking alcohol skip class at least twice a month, compared to fifty percent who miss school less frequently. Drug use and neighborhood violence can exacerbate concerns about safety and mental health. Risk-taking behavior can also bring attention to problems, and peer pressure can lead to substance usage and a lack of interest in school.

The school environment, outlined in the table, may be the reason for Truancy. The dominant aspects surrounding the dilemma are the lack of resources, harmful policies, poor school attendance policies, and improper student placement. Many modest amounts of Truancy are linked to unfavorable outcomes like poorer academic performance, a higher likelihood of dropping out of school, and reduced potential for employment, Weathers et al.(2021). However, more significant amounts of Truancy have been shown to have much worse effects. From the data collected, more than half of the school population has been reported to be comfortable with the school environment where they find the company and establish their fundamental goal. However, one-third of the population of students are either forced or reinforced to attend school even though they are not comfortable with the school environment.

The results showed that the most critical factors influencing Truancy are those related to electronic media. Moreover, it was discovered that factors related to learners and their Truancy included those related to their families, themselves, their peers, and their educational surroundings. For instance, misuse of devices harms moral character (Chen, 2022). According to a study, this dramatically increases the likelihood that a teen will be absent from class, arrive late for educational institutions, and need help to obey the school’s regulations. Compared to typical electronic media use, the impact is more consistent with aberrant electronic media use. Even after accounting for absenteeism, using electronic media reduces the likelihood that a young person would continue their education after turning eighteen.

The findings showed that key contributing variables of Truancy include the teacher’s personality, pupil perceptions toward educational institutions, the environment in the classroom, the school administration, the instructors’ instruction, and the environment outside the classroom, peers, and families. For instance, harsh behavior, bad teaching strategies, a lack of cooperation, and poor communication encourage pupils to skip school. There proved to be strong positive relationships between all of the truancy-causing factors. The most significant association was found between instructors’ personalities and how they taught, while the most diminutive relationship was found between families and school management.

Educational disparity, school absenteeism, school attendance, and socioeconomic status Background and ramifications Justification for this study backed with literature regarding socioeconomic standing and school absence was synthesized narrative analysis. The discoveries are significant Socioeconomic gaps may be partially accounted for by differences in school absence.

The majority of studies discovered “positive” outcomes, such as that lower socioeconomic status was related to increased absenteeism rates; however, 29 percent of the studies had minimal impact sizes, of which twelve percent were tiny, 31 percent were moderate, 19 percent were medium-sized, and four percent were substantial. As a result, most research discovered ‘positive’ impacts considered at least marginal. Financial hardships can cause stress and mental health problems, insufficient access to healthcare can cause health problems that interfere with attendance, and unstable familial and domestic circumstances can cause family disputes and domestic violence.

Interrelated Factors

Interrelated Factors

Figure 2: Interrelated Factors

Minors must be transported to and from school each morning and on schedule by their parents or caregivers. Poor parenting abilities, a lack of ability to watch over kids, insecurity in the area, neglect and assault, encouragement to remain at the place of employment to support the household, and low regard for education are some ways a caregiver or parent can promote Truancy. The use of alcohol is strongly linked to student absenteeism. This discovery was consistent with the previously made in Swaziland (Gottfried, 2017). Gottfried (2017) also found a link between heavy alcohol use and frequent absences among 14- to teenagers in the UK. Health difficulties, whether personal or family-based, are also acknowledged as a significant factor in absenteeism among pupils because they prevent kids from going to classDespitete the fact that they should be noted, students frequently skip class when they are only mildly ill, even if doing would not prevent them from understanding the educational setting (Arbour et al., 2023).


Truancy has a negative impact on children’s academic, emotional, social, financial, and physical health. Truant children usually exhibit low academic performance and have less opportunity to continue their education, limiting their future opportunities (Arbour et al., 2023). There are social repercussions such as criminality and drug use because truant students are more likely to engage in risky behaviors and poor coping mechanisms. Truancy-related feelings of emotional loneliness and powerlessness can have psychological consequences like low self-worth, nervousness, and despair. The economic repercussions include fewer work opportunities, lower lifetime earnings, a higher chance of depending on welfare, and greater social costs due to greater rates of crime and decreased productivity. Truancy has a negative impact on health, increasing the likelihood of mental health issues, physical illness, and risky behavior.

The effects of Truancy on people, families, and society as a whole are far-reaching. Academic failure, pulling out, increased risk of illegal activity, and a lack of opportunity for upward social and economic advancement are all possible outcomes (Ali & Al-junior, 2023). Research shows that students who are frequently absent from school are likelier to fall behind in their studies, need help understanding concepts and material, and have lower grades (Eremie & Gideon, 2020). Substance misuse can increase attendance problems and challenges with mental health. Low self-worth can cause psychological problems and a shortage of motivation to attend school. Poor academic performance may result in apathy regarding schoolwork and mental health concerns.

Additionally, absenteeism may have serious societal and fiscal consequences, including but not limited to increased unemployment, destitution, high healthcare expenses, and an uptick in criminal activity and drug misuse (Aqeel & Rehna, 2020). The best way to combat absenteeism is to identify its reasons and work to eliminate them. Because of this, policymakers must adopt a comprehensive approach to Truancy, which involves both inside and outside-of-school activities and community-based initiatives that resolve the social and financial aspects that contribute to the absence (Kearse-McCastler, 2020). By including families and communities in the development and implementation of absence prevention projects, their effectiveness can be boosted.


Arbour, M., Soto, C., Alée, Y., Atwood, S., Muñoz, P., & Marzolo, M. (2023, January). Absenteeism prevention in preschools in Chile: Impact from a quasi-experimental evaluation of 2011–2017 Ministry of Education data. In Frontiers in Education (Vol. 7, p. 975092). Frontiers Media SA.

Baskerville, D. (2019). Under the skin of Truancy in Aotearoa (New Zealand): A grounded theory study of young people’s perspectives.

Baskerville, D. (2020). Truancy begins in class: Student perspectives of tenuous peer relationships. Pastoral Care in Education39(2), 108–124.

Baskerville, D., & Loveridge, J. (2020). Nature of Truancy from the Perspectives of secondary students in New Zealand. Educational Studies49(1), 1–16.

Chen, J. (2022). The effect of social network site usage on absenteeism and labor outcomes: longitudinal evidence. International Journal of Manpower.

Gottfried, M. A. (2017). Does Truancy beget Truancy? Evidence from Elementary School. The Elementary School Journal118(1), 128–148.

Keppens, G., & Spruyt, B. (2020). The impact of interventions to prevent Truancy: A research literature review. Studies in Educational Evaluation65, 100840.

LeClair, C. (2022). We are crew: School climate and culture at an expeditionary learning education school. AERA 2022.

Miller, F. (2019). School-based truancy courts. Encyclopedia of Social Work.

Ofori, K. N., & Yankyerah, A. K. (2022). Breaking the school-to-prison pipeline: A critical review of factors responsible for student’s Truancy. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 141–156.

Ramberg, J., Brolin Låftman, S., Fransson, E., & Modin, B. (2018). School effectiveness and Truancy: A multilevel study of Upper Secondary Schools in Stockholm. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth24(2), 185–198.

Roth, J. C., & Erbacher, T. A. (2021). Culturally Responsive School Mental Health Services and Education. Developing Comprehensive School Safety and Mental Health Programs, pp. 76–93.

Sorokin, O. (2022). Rethinking attitudes towards education in the cultural space of young people. Science. Culture. Society28(3), 111–121.

Šuhajdová, I., & Gubricová, J. (2023). Analysis of conditions and factors influencing the incidence of Truancy in the school environment. INTED2023 Proceedings.

Virtanen, T., Pelkonen, J., & Kiuru, N. (2022). Reciprocal relationships between perceived supportive school climate and self-reported Truancy: A Longitudinal Study from grade 6 to grade 9. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 1–15.

Weathers, E. S., Hollett, K. B., Mandel, Z. R., & Rickert, C. (2021). Absence unexcused: A systematic review on Truancy. Peabody Journal of Education96(5), 540–564.

Zhu, C. H., & Yu, L. Q. (2022). Analysis of causes and countermeasures of Secondary Vocational Students’ invisible Truancy. Computational Social Science, pp. 156–162.