# Calvo Model Solution And The New Keynesian Theory.

The Calvo Model of price rigidity refers to the positive probability that a firm’s nominal price may be used for more than a single period. According to this model, economies are made up of growing firms that set their prices (Iania et al., 2023). These prices by the firms are represented using different parameters of a probability density function. Companies around the world use the Calvo model for different functions. For instance, it is widely used to determine the New Keynesian Philips Curves (Luo & Villar, 2021). It allows for simplicity during analysis as it can be reconciled with different stylized facts. Most importantly, it provides highly accurate approximations at fairly low information costs. Due to its several strengths, the Calvo Model has been widely embraced as the ideal approach to modelling nominal rigidity.

The model is fully heterogeneous, which allows firms to set staggered prices. This heterogeneity allows for companies to set their prices across different dimensions an infinite number of times (Alvarez & Burriel, 2010). The individual set prices by the companies are often based on the Calvo mechanism to ensure that each hazard and individual function is represented by two key equations (Iania et al., 2023). In addition, the model uses a wide range of price setters with different adjustment parameters. Each Calvo parameter is bound between 0 and 1 to allow for flexibility in the shapes accommodated.

One of the major assumptions of using the Calvo Model is that the nominal prices of commodities and prices are sticky. This key assumption aligns with the New Keynesian version of aggregate supply, which advocates for models with sticky prices and wages (Alvarez & Burriel, 2010). Sticky prices, according to the Calvo Model, imply that during times of different shocks impacting company environments, they remain resilient and do not change their prices (Luo & Villar, 2021). The main reason for using this model in providing a macroeconomic rationale for the New Keynesian theory is that it leads to policies that raise the money supply and lower short-term interest rates, leading to expansion in aggregate economic activities (Elminejad, 2023). Thus, the model is used in economies to set monetary policy that supports the New Keynesian theory.

Another major strength associated with the Calvo Model in providing a macroeconomic rationale for the New Keynesian theory is that it allows for analysis in the long run. One of the main limitations of the old Keynesian theory is that it ignores the long-run effects (Luo & Villar, 2021). This model suggests that firms that are unable to reoptimize their prizes can update their prices based on the following rule: Pjt = ¯πPjt−1 (Auclert et al., 2024). Through the rule, companies are able to estimate long-run effects as the symbol “¯π” represents the long-run average gross rate of inflation.

However, despite the model’s strengths in the provision of macroeconomic rationale for the New Keynesian theory, it has been linked to various limitations by critics. One of the limitations highlighted by critics is that it assumes there is no measurement error in inflation. Measurement errors during inflation calculation can exist due to various reasons. For instance, the overestimation of the average gross rate of inflation can be a contributing factor to measurement error while using the Calvo Model (Elminejad, 2023). Other factors, such as overstatement of price increases, can lead to the understatement of productivity growth and real output, thus negatively influencing inflation calculation. The assumption that their no measurement error in the calculation of inflation contributes to the limitations of the New Keynesian theory, which is also known for failing to accurately account for a period of secular stagnation.

In addition, another major limitation of the Calvo Model in providing a rationale for the New Keynesian theory is that it assumes that demand is constantly elastic. There is no evidence to suggest that the elasticity of demand is similar across all intermediate goods firms’ demand curves (Elminejad, 2023). The elasticity of demand is affected by various factors which are not accounted for by the model (Alvarez & Burriel, 2010). For instance, the availability of substitutes affects demand elasticity as more substitutes lead to an increased elasticity of the demand for commodities. By failing to explain these variable factors that affect demand elasticity, the Calvo Model solution cannot be considered a reliable alternative for providing a microeconomic rationale for the New Keynesian rationale.

### References.

Alvarez, L. J., & Burriel, P. (2010). Is a Calvo price setting model consistent with individual price data?. The BE journal of Macroeconomics10(1).

Auclert, A., Rigato, R., Rognlie, M., & Straub, L. (2024). New Pricing Models, Same Old Phillips Curves?. The Quarterly Journal of Economics139(1), 121-186.

Elminejad, A. (2023). The Calvo parameter revisited: an unbiased insight. Applied Economics Letters, 1-8.

Iania, L., Tretiakov, P., & Wouters, R. (2023). The risk premium in New Keynesian DSGE models: The cost of inflation channel. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control155, 104732.

Luo, S., & Villar, D. (2021). The skewness of the price change distribution: A new touchstone for sticky price models. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking53(1), 41-72.

## Driving Advancement – Auto Simulated Intelligence Development And Patent Regulation Elements In The Chinese Economy.

The reconciliation of Computerized reasoning (computer-based intelligence) innovations in the car business has introduced another period of advancement and change. As the world’s biggest car market, China remains at the front of this transformation, with critical progressions in-car artificial intelligence driving development and seriousness (Zhang et al., 2022). Notably, the elements of patent regulation in China are pivotal in molding the turn of events and security of artificial intelligence-driven developments in the car area. By looking at the legitimate structure, difficulties, and open doors encompassing patentability and the monetary ramifications of patent regulation elements, we will acquire bits of knowledge into what patent assurance means for the turn of events and commercialization of auto artificial intelligence advancements in China (Zhang et al., 2022). Understanding the patent regulation elements in China is fundamental for partners in the auto business to explore the intricacies of licensed innovation security, cultivate development, and keep an upper hand.

### Auto computer-based intelligence Development in China

The auto business in China is going through a groundbreaking stage, driven by the fast development and combination of artificial reasoning (artificial intelligence) innovation. Artificial intelligence has arisen as a key empowering influence, changing different parts of the auto area, including security, productivity, and client experience. China is a worldwide forerunner in auto-computer-based intelligence advancement, with huge speculations and government support filling the turn of events and reception of simulated intelligence-driven arrangements (Zhou & Xu, 2022). The Chinese government has perceived the capability of artificial intelligence innovation and its part in driving financial development and improving seriousness, as shown in Figure 1 in the appendices section. In 2017, the State Chamber of China released the “New Age Computerized Reasoning Improvement Plan,” illustrating a vital guide to supporting and advancing artificial intelligence development in different areas, including cars.

Independent driving is one of the key regions where simulated intelligence has taken huge steps in the auto business. Chinese automakers and tech giants have been actively developing autonomous driving systems to improve road safety and automation. According to Zou & Xiong (2023), organizations such as example, Baidu, Alibaba-upheld AutoX, and Pony.ai, have gained significant headway in independent vehicle testing and arrangement in China. Past independent driving and artificial intelligence are likewise being utilized to improve vehicle well-being. High-level driver help frameworks (ADAS) fueled by computer-based intelligence calculations are becoming progressively normal in new vehicles. These frameworks empower elements, for example, path-keeping help, versatile voyage control, and crash evasion, further developing security on the streets.

Regarding security, simulated intelligence is driving proficiency in different parts of the auto business. Chinese automakers use computer-based intelligence innovation to advance assembling processes, upgrade store networks on the board, and work on generally functional productivity. Using simulated intelligence-controlled prescient upkeep, Yeung (2022) claimed automakers can proactively distinguish and resolve expected issues, diminishing free time and further developing efficiency. Another area in which AI significantly impacts is the customer experience. Vehicles incorporate AI-powered virtual assistants, natural language processing, and voice recognition for a more intuitive and personalized driving experience. These elements empower drivers to control different capabilities, access data, and even collaborate with outer administrations without taking their hands off the wheel.

Several factors have contributed to the rise of automotive AI in China. The accessibility of huge measures of information, right off the bat, assumes an urgent part. Thanks to China’s large population and widespread use of digital services, much data can be used to train AI algorithms. According to Sonntag et al. (2023), this information-driven approach permits Chinese organizations to foster creative artificial intelligence arrangements customized to the particular requirements of the homegrown market. Moreover, China’s strong administrative climate and government strategies have been instrumental in encouraging the development of auto-artificial intelligence. The public authority’s obligation to simulated intelligence advancement, as illustrated in the “New Age Man-made Brainpower Improvement Plan,” has supported speculations and joint efforts between industry players, research organizations, and government offices (Sonntag et al., 2023). In addition, the Chinese government has made policies that make testing and using autonomous vehicles easier, making the environment more favorable to innovation.

China’s obligation to cultivate auto-simulated intelligence development is obvious in the critical speculations made by both homegrown and global organizations. For example, Baidu, frequently called the ‘Google of China,’ has vigorously invested in independent driving innovation and laid out its Apollo stage, which gives an open biological system to independent vehicle advancement. Moreover, Cornet et al. (2023) observed that Tesla, a conspicuous player in the electric vehicle market, has made critical advances in China, with its computer-based intelligence-controlled Autopilot framework gaining fame among Chinese customers. According to data from the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, China’s total sales of new energy vehicles, including electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, reached 3.24 million units in 2020. This indicates that the market for automotive AI technologies is expanding.

Nonetheless, challenges still must be solved in China’s auto-computer-based intelligence development. Information protection and security concerns, moral contemplations, and the requirement for powerful administrative systems are regions that require careful consideration. Guaranteeing the capable and moral utilization of simulated intelligence innovation is critical to building public trust and certainty. Notably, the car business in China is encountering critical development and change through the introduction of computer-based intelligence innovation. Progressions in independent driving, security, effectiveness, and client experience drive development in the area. Factors, for example, government backing, speculations, and the accessibility of tremendous measures of information, have added to China’s administration of auto artificial intelligence (Xu et al., 2021). Moreover, addressing difficulties connected with information protection, morals, and guidelines will be urgent for supporting and expanding the advantages of auto-artificial intelligence in China.

### Patent Regulation Elements in China

The patent regulation elements in China are vital in forming the scene of computer-based intelligence-driven developments in the car business. According to Barazza (2023), the legal framework for patent protection in China is the Patent Law of the People’s Republic of China, which was first published in 1984 and has been amended multiple times since then. China’s promotion of peaceful accords, for example, the Paris Show for the Insurance of Modern Property and the Patent Collaboration Arrangement, further exhibit its obligation to licensed innovation freedoms. One of the critical difficulties in patent regulation elements connected with car computer-based intelligence in China is deciding the qualification of simulated intelligence-driven developments for patent assurance, as shown in Figure 2 in the appendices section. The meaning of “innovation” under the Patent Regulation incorporates the making of specialized thoughts using the laws of nature, yet it does not unequivocally address the patentability of developments produced by artificial intelligence (Barazza, 2023). Questions about AI-driven invention ownership and inventorship, as well as the criteria for evaluating their novelty, inventiveness, and industrial applicability, are sparked by this ambiguity.

To address these difficulties, the Chinese government has done whatever it takes to explain the patentability of artificial intelligence developments. In 2019, Liu et al. (2021) observed that the China Public Protected Innovation Organization (CNIPA) established rules for assessing artificial intelligence-related patent applications. These rules give explicit models for surveying the patentability of computer-based intelligence innovations, including prerequisites for specialized arrangements, imaginative steps, and modern appropriateness. Besides, China has laid out particularly licensed innovation courts to deal with patent debates, including those connected with car-simulated intelligence. These courts plan to give proficient and specific settlements, guaranteeing the security of patent freedoms and advancing a great climate for development.

Lately, there has been a critical expansion in patent filings connected with auto-simulated intelligence in China. According to the World Licensed Innovation Association (WIPO), China represented the largest number of artificial intelligence-related patent applications universally in 2019, with a significant number of these applications zeroing in on the auto area (Su et al., 2023). This flood in patent filings mirrors the developing revenue and interest in artificial intelligence-driven developments in the Chinese car industry. Notwithstanding, challenges stay in upholding patent privileges and fighting protected innovation encroachment in China. Even with enhancements in the lawful system, concerns endure regarding the adequacy of authorization components and the security of licensed innovation privileges. Addressing these difficulties is vital to cultivating a strong and dependable patent framework that empowers development and safeguards the freedoms of designers and organizations.

China’s obligation to encourage advancement in artificial auto intelligence is reflected in the many patent applications documented by homegrown and worldwide organizations. For example, a worldwide innovation pioneer, Huawei, has effectively recorded licenses connected with artificial auto intelligence innovations. Their patent portfolio remembers headways for regions, for example, artificial intelligence-based independent driving frameworks, vehicle-to-vehicle correspondence, and savvy transportation executives (Yang & Yu, 2020). Furthermore, Chinese automakers, for example, Geely and BYD, have likewise been effectively recording licenses to safeguard their computer-based intelligence-driven creations, flagging their devotion to remaining at the front of car development. China’s strong focus on securing intellectual property rights in this rapidly evolving field is demonstrated by the country’s receipt of over 58,000 patent applications in the field of AI in 2020, as reported by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

Furthermore, China has been working to improve and streamline its patent system to accommodate the complexity of AI-driven inventions. According to Godinho & Simões (2023), guidelines that address the unique challenges posed by AI technologies have been developed in active collaboration with experts from the industry, academia, and patent professionals by the CNIPA. These rules clarify issues, for example, the evaluation of creative steps for artificial intelligence developments and the revelation of necessities for simulated intelligence-related patent applications. China has also been looking into using blockchain technology to make patent data more transparent and secure, which will help the patent system be more reliable and efficient.

Notably, the patent regulation elements in China assume a basic part in molding the scene of artificial intelligence-driven developments in the auto business. The Chinese government has done whatever it may take to explain the patentability of computer-based intelligence creations and lay out specific protected innovation courts (Lee, 2020). The flood of patent filings connected with artificial auto intelligence mirrors the developing revenue and interest in this field. Be that as it may, challenges in implementing and securing protected innovation privileges remain. Proceeding with endeavors to fortify the patent framework and address these difficulties is vital for cultivating and driving the development of auto-simulated intelligence in China.

### Financial Investigation of Car Artificial Intelligence Development and Patent Regulation Dynamics

The development of artificial car intelligence in China, combined with the elements of patent regulation, has huge financial ramifications. The joining of artificial intelligence innovation in the car business can drive financial development and upgrade seriousness. As per a report by Bloomberg Regulation, the worldwide computer-based intelligence market was esteemed at almost \$59.7 billion in 2021 and is projected to reach \$422.4 billion by 2028 (Huang et al., 2023). AI technology is being used in various applications, including autonomous driving, predictive maintenance, and smart infotainment systems, and the automotive industry is a key driver of this growth.

China’s emphasis on auto artificial intelligence development is clear in the critical number of patent applications documented in this field. The World Protected Innovation Association (WIPO) detailed that China represented the biggest number of computer-based intelligence-related patent applications universally in 2019 (Plantec et al., 2023). This surge in patent filings reflects the increasing investment and interest in AI-driven innovations in the Chinese automotive industry. Companies like Huawei, Geely, and BYD have actively filed patents for AI-driven inventions to demonstrate their commitment to remain at the forefront of automotive innovation. In China, Grimm and Walz (2024) argued that the dynamics of patent law are crucial for encouraging innovation and safeguarding intellectual property rights. The Chinese government’s endeavors to explain the patentability of man-made intelligence creations and layout specifically protected innovation courts exhibit its obligation to encourage a positive development climate. A hearty and dependable patent framework is fundamental for organizations to safeguard their licensed innovation and keep an upper hand in the commercial center, as shown in Table 1 in the appendices section.

Notwithstanding, challenges stay in upholding patent privileges and fighting protected innovation encroachment in China. Even with enhancements in the lawful system, concerns endure regarding the adequacy of authorization components and the security of licensed innovation privileges. Addressing these difficulties is pivotal to cultivating a dependable patent framework that empowers development and draws in homegrown and global speculations. The financial advantages of auto-simulated intelligence development and solid patent security reach out to individual organizations (Lior, 2022). The turn of events and reception of artificial intelligence-driven advances in the auto area can prompt expanded efficiency, further developed security, and upgraded client encounters. These headways can drive work creation, animate financial action, and add to the general development of the Chinese economy.

The monetary ramifications of car artificial intelligence development and patent regulation elements in China stretch past homegrown limits. China’s huge interest in artificial intelligence and solid car patent security has positioned the country as a worldwide forerunner. Chinese organizations progressively document licenses locally and universally, expecting to safeguard their simulated intelligence-driven developments in worldwide business sectors. For instance, Huawei has effectively recorded licenses for car computer-based intelligence advances in China and other nations, including the US and Europe (Bahoo et al., 2023). This worldwide patent action features China’s desire to use its mechanical progressions and secure an upper hand in the worldwide auto computer-based intelligence market.

Notably, the monetary examination of China’s auto artificial intelligence development and patent regulation elements must cover critical open doors and difficulties. The reconciliation of artificial intelligence innovation in the auto business could drive monetary development and upgrade seriousness. The flood in patent filings mirrors the rising revenue and interest in artificial intelligence-driven advancements (Grimm & Walz, 2024). Nevertheless, challenges in implementing patent privileges and safeguarding licensed innovation freedoms remain. Addressing these difficulties is essential to cultivating a dependable patent framework that empowers development and boosts the monetary advantages of car-simulated intelligence in China.

### Conclusion

The dynamism of patent law and the expansion of automotive AI in China present significant opportunities and challenges. China’s obligation to cultivate development in the auto artificial intelligence area is obvious in the flood of patent filings and the foundation of specific licensed innovation courts. These advancements could drive financial development, upgrade seriousness, and work on different parts of the car business. Challenges stay in implementing patent freedoms and battling protected innovation encroachment. Addressing these difficulties is essential to cultivate a solid patent framework that supports development and expands the financial advantages of car artificial intelligence in China, both locally and universally.

### References

Bahoo, S., Cucculelli, M., & Qamar, D. (2023). Artificial intelligence and corporate innovation: A review and research agenda. Technological Forecasting and Social Change188, 122264. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162522007855

Barazza, S. (2023). The automotive sector: a crystal ball for the future of IP? Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice18(1), 1–2. https://academic.oup.com/jiplp/article-abstract/18/1/1/6985786

Cornet, A., Heuss, R., Schaufuss, P., & Tschiesner, A. (2023). A road map for Europe’s automotive industry. URL: https://www. McKinsey. com/industries/automotive-and-assembly/our-insights/a-road-map-for-Europes-automotive-industry

Godinho, M. M., & Simões, V. C. (2023). The Tech Cold War: What can we learn from the most dynamic patent classes? International Business Review, 102140. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969593123000409

Grimm, A., & Walz, R. (2024). Current and future roles of the automotive and ICT sectoral systems in autonomous driving the innovation system approach to assess value chain transformation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change198, 122990. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162523006753

Huang, L., Ladikas, M., Schippl, J., He, G., & Hahn, J. (2023). Knowledge mapping of an artificial intelligence application scenario: A bibliometric analysis of the basic research of data-driven autonomous vehicles. Technology in Society75, 102360. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160791X23001653

Lee, M. (2020). An analysis of the effects of artificial intelligence on electric vehicle technology innovation using patent data. World Patent Information, p. 63, 102002. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0172219020300946

Lior, A. (2022). Insuring AI: The role of insurance in artificial intelligence regulation. Harvard Journal of Law and Technology1. https://jolt.law.harvard.edu/assets/articlePDFs/v35/2.-Lior-Insuring-AI.pdf

Liu, N., Shapira, P., Yue, X., & Guan, J. (2021). Mapping technological innovation dynamics in artificial intelligence domains: Evidence from a global patent analysis. Plos one16(12), e0262050. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0262050

Plantec, Q., Deval, M. A., Hooge, S., & Weil, B. (2023). Big data as an exploration trigger or problem-solving patch: Design and integration of AI-embedded systems in the automotive industry. Technovation124, 102763. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166497223000743

Sonntag, M., Mehmann, J., & Teuteberg, F. (2023). Deriving trust-supporting design knowledge for AI-based chatbots in customer service: A use case from the automotive industry. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce33(3-4), 178-210. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781119905141.ch1

Su, Y. S., Huang, H., Daim, T., Chien, P. W., Peng, R. L., & Akgul, A. K. (2023). Using patent analysis to assess the technological trajectory of 5G-V2X autonomous driving inventions. Technological Forecasting and Social Change196, 122817. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162523005024

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### Appendices

Figure 1: Image showing the AI framework in the automotive section

(Source: Xu et al., 2021)

Figure 2: The image showing patent risks in China

(source: Yang & Yu, 2020)

Table 1: Table showing how China leads in Automotive AI usage

(Source: Liu et al., 2021)

## Era Of Fashion: Social And Economic Factors Influencing Fashion During 1950–1959

A closer look at the historical development of fashion industry between the period of 1950-1959 reveals economic and social factors that had a profound influence on industry. This period was marked by the world’s recovery from World War II. As the nations tried to rebuild itself, the social and economic landscape undergone significant transformation that had a tremendous impact on the fashion at that time. This, thus, essay argues that the fashion of mid-20th century was influenced post-Depression recovery, played a pivotal role, while societal shifts, including the impact of sports, feminism, and popular culture.

The main economic factor that had an influence of the fashion during on mid-20th centuary was the workaholic spirit. Work had a significant impact on 1950s fashion and attire. Teens purchased new clothes and everything else they wanted because they had just recovered from the Great Depression that ended in 1939, and so were not required to contribute a portion of their wages to support the family (Partington, 2017). By the beginning of the 1950s, the early resistance to the New Look’s excess had diminished, and the silhouette had entrenched itself in women’s daywear as well as evening wear. Even after other elements were added, like as the structural collar, Dior himself kept producing designs that followed the feminine line. Even in the early days of “A New Look,” the 1940s’ square shoulders and masculine elements endured, although this design was popular until at least 1954. Partington (2017) describes the evolution of this body type, from the easygoing fashions and ultra-feminine of the mid 20 century to the long, swirling skirts that coiled around the wearer’s waist at just eleven inches.

Apart from economic factor, sport became the social factor that influenced the styled of dress during the 1950s. Global trends in fashion were driven by athletes’ standing as style symbols and their corporate partnerships. Cross-cultural fashion influences are influenced by major sporting events and specialized hobbies, and both the practical and aesthetic features of both domains are being reshaped by technological breakthroughs (Bielefeldt-Bruun and Langkjær, 2016). Sportswear remained popular even as designers like Charles James, Balenciaga, and Dior produced stunning couture designs (Tomlinson, et al., 2013). The 1940s saw the rise in popularity of American designer Claire McCardell, who not only created pedal-pushers with matching tops but also continued to manufacture her signature wrap-over gowns. Although elegance was the hallmark of 1950s fashion generally, young ladies gravitated for McCardell and other sportswear as well as less formal styles, such as the sundress and bikini in figure 10. The “poodle skirt” is arguably one of the most iconic depictions of 1950s casual wear. These straightforward felt skirts, created by Californian Juli Lynne Charlot, were fashioned in a circle and could be embroidered with any design, not only poodles (Tomlinson, et al., 2013). These skirts followed the New Look’s pattern with a defined waistline and expansive skirt, although being considerably more casual than the high couture that was coming out of Paris. They were paired with close-fitting twinsets.

The other social factor that influenced fashion during that decade was first wave of feminism. A milieu of liberal, socialist politics and urban industrialism gave rise to the first wave of feminism in the late 1950s. This wave aimed to provide women more possibilities, primarily through suffrage (Malinowska, 2020). Although women were starting to wear trousers more often on special occasions, the general fashion trend in the 1950s was toward formality and femininity. This was especially true for evening wear during the rise in popularity of the martini dress. These dresses, which were worn to the new cocktail party, were between day and evening gowns in length but ornamented like evening clothing (Tomlinson et al., 2013). The full-skirted dress remained in style for formal evening wear throughout the decade, even form-fitting gowns and as sheaths gained popularity. Because the simplified bodice counterbalanced the expansive skirts, the relatively new strapless bodice was particularly well-liked. Throughout the decade, it was crucial that a lady always looked flawless, regardless of the time of day. This meant hair that was flawless, makeup that was immaculate, and sets of accessories that matched. In Icons of Fashion, fashion historian Gerda Buxbaum demonstrates that during World War II, ladies experienced a strong desire for opulence and stylish items due to the prolonged period of hardship. They endeavored to dress suitably for every event, with impeccable matching accessories being of utmost importance (Howell, 2013). Whether donning a sheath dress, poodle skirt, twinset and trousers, a lady endeavored to seem put together by means of her accessorizing and general styling. After all, the notorious black-toed Chanel shoes debuted at the close of this decade.

The socialite figure also had a significant impact on fashion during this decade. Despite having a somewhat brief lifespan, James Dean had a significant impact on menswear throughout the 1950s. Dean, who starred in just three films in a single year, died in 1955, at the age of 24, in an automobile accident (Jobling, 2014). However, his depiction of Stark. J. in Rebel Without a Cause permanently altered menswear. Dean’s outfit, which consisted of a white t-shirt, a red jacket, and pants, was widely imitated following his death. Despite having a brief cinematic career, the new generation of young men connected with his Rebel Without a Cause persona due to its popularity. His character, although wanting to ‘belong’ and searching for meaning in life, brazenly rejects the ideals of his elders (Jobling, 2014). Dean provided disgruntled and alienated youngsters a hero they could admire and respect with his expressive performance. Young men’s dress was impacted by their hero status and their resemblance to the roles played by fellow actor Brando Marlon in The Wild One and A Streetcar Named Desire (Howell, 2013). Brando and Dean worked together to guarantee that the 1950s’ ubiquitous jeans, white t-shirt, and greased-back hair came into being. In the 1950s, menswear adopted a level of informality that was unprecedented, while womenswear continued to emphasize formality. Even while young ladies wore tight sweaters and sought out apparel that suited their age, young men were actually the ones who developed the so-called “youth culture” of the 1950s (Tomlinson et al., 2013). Men’s fashion had not changed much since the 18th century, when the suit first became popular. This changed in the 1950s with the emergence of the Teddy Boys in Europe and the uprising of young people who looked up to James Dean and Marlon Brando in Hollywood. Notably, working-class men were the ones who either adopted or were influenced by these two styles; they did not originate from the elite.

The New Edwardian, so named because of its velvet collar and slender shape, was first introduced by London tailors on Savile Row in the years following World War II (Milford-Cottam 53). These suits with tight pants were first adorned by sophisticated, upper-class men, but in the early 1950s, young men from the working class began to adopt the style and tailor it to suit their own requirements (Tomlinson et al., 2013). These young guys, referred to as “Teddy Boys” (as Teddy was Edward’s nickname). They wear remarkably small trousers, velvet jackets, and style their hair slicked back in quiffs. The prevalent fashion reflected the defiance of a young working-class individual while also indicating a shift in the spending ability of young working-class people. Tomlinson et al. (2013) noted that not that the working class adopted an upper-class look; rather, this development was significant because it gave young men from low-income families the ability to purchase reasonably costly clothing and accessories and the self-assurance to incorporate them into their own unique looks. The Teddy Boys were only a small portion of a growing youth culture observed by people of both genders and on both sides of the Atlantic.

The last social factor that influenced fashion during the1950s was emergence of Hollywood actors. Young people in Europe and America were drawn to rebellious Hollywood singers and actors, much as young men in Britain were drawn to Savile-Row tailoring. Young men in the US started wearing jeans, a white t-shirt, and a leather jacket as part of the working-class look (Fuhg, 2021). To complement their laid-back appearance, American males adopted the greased-back quiff hairdo, just like their British counterparts. The Teddy Boys were only a small portion of a growing youth culture observed by people of both genders and on both sides of the Atlantic. Their trouble-making reputation and rebellious, analogous to that of the Teddy Boys in the Europe, was a result of this style, which was perceived as a young rejection of generation of their parents (Fuhg, 2021). Unlike their British counterparts, who wore exquisite suits, they wore clothing linked with the working class: jeans were once the domain of outdoor workers and farmers, never used for daily wear.

In conclusion, the fashion of the 1950s was significantly influenced by several social and economic factors. Economic factors, such as the post-Depression recovery, played a pivotal role, while societal shifts, including the impact of sports, feminism, and Hollywood figures, shaped the diverse styles of the era. This decade not only witnessed the evolution of fashion but also reflected the changing social fabric and aspirations of a dynamic and transformative period.

### References

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