Canada’s Immigration Policies And Economic Utility Sample Essay

For this analysis, topic 6 of Harald Bauder’s book, “Economic Utility”, was chosen as the foundation. In this chapter, Bauder (2011) explores the relationship between Canadian immigration policies and economic development. The author contends that economic factors are the primary material interest and driving force behind Canada’s immigration laws and that public and media discussions reflect this relationship. The author looks at the economic side of the media argument over Canadian immigration reform, paying close attention to the political and financial backdrop of the discussion. He also details how the media portrays immigration as having economic benefits and how journalistic practice in this area is dialectical.

Various news stories have addressed this topic over the years. Firstly, a 2019 story by Reuters titled “Canada’s immigration policies boost economic growth, report finds” is one of the news stories basing its focus on the selected chapter of Bauder’s book. ( Reuters is a news and media organization that delivers the information, financial market data, research, and analytics through newspapers, television networks, and online media outlets. It has a huge staff of journalists and correspondents worldwide and is renowned for its objective and impartial reporting. It is well regarded in the media sector for its excellent reporting and editing standards and has received numerous journalism honours.

Canada’s policies on immigration are designed to stimulate economic development and growth by attracting highly skilled and educated immigrants who contribute to the economy through innovation and job creation (Bauder, 2011). According to the Reuters article, immigration policies have contributed to Canada’s economic growth by helping to address labor market shortages and increase the number of workers in the country. It further suggests that Canada should continue to attract and retain highly skilled immigrants to support economic growth (Reuters, 2019). The news report emphasizes, in general, a major point addressed in the chapter on how immigration laws might benefit economic growth.

Secondly, The Guardian examines the role of Canada’s immigration policies in weathering the global economic downturn in their 2015 news story titled “Canada’s immigration policies praised for boosting economic growth”. ( The Guardian is a British daily newspaper known for its progressive and liberal stance and activism in social and political sectors. It is also known for its investigative journalism and has won several prestigious awards for its reporting. The newspaper provides both a print edition in the UK and a digital edition that is available everywhere.

During the recession, Canada continued to attract highly skilled and educated immigrants who could contribute to the economy through innovation, entrepreneurship, and job creation. They also helped to fill labor shortages in critical sectors of the economy, increasing productivity and competitiveness (Bauder, 2011). The Guardian (2015) notes that Canada’s immigration policies have helped the country avoid some of the economic challenges faced by other countries during the global economic downturn, as immigration has helped to maintain economic growth and address labor market shortages. The article also provides statistics from Statistics Canada that show how immigrants’ economic contributions to the nation have grown over time, highlighting how crucial immigration is to Canada’s economic development and progress.

Finally, a story by CBC News in 2018 titled “Canada’s immigration policies under scrutiny as economic concerns rise” gives a differing opinion on the effect of immigration policies on the economy. ( CBC News is the news division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. It provides news and coverage on various topics, including politics, business, health, science, technology, arts, and sports, both within Canada and internationally. on platforms such as television, radio, and online.

While Canada’s immigration policies are designed to boost economic growth, they have also raised some economic concerns. Some critics argue that immigrants not selected under economic considerations underperform the economy and burden the country’s welfare system (Bauder, 2011). The story by CBC News highlights the debate around the economic benefits and costs of immigration. It argues that the influx of low-skilled immigrants is putting pressure on Canada’s welfare system and depressing wages for Canadian workers (CBC News, 2018). The article also mentions that some contend that because family members might need to gain the requisite skills to contribute to the economy, an emphasis on family reunification may only sometimes result in economic advantages. These worries support the idea that if immigration laws are not carefully handled, they could have a detrimental effect on the economy.

In conclusion, there are numerous components to the relationship between Canadian immigration laws and economic growth. Economic factors significantly influence Canada’s immigration laws, as portrayed in chapter 6 of Harald Bauder’s book “Immigration Dialectic: Imagining Community, Economy, and Nation.” This relationship is further demonstrated by the news articles highlighted in this discussion, where the media analyzes the economic implications of Canadian immigration laws and how they affect the nation’s economic growth and development. Ultimately, Canada’s immigration policies have significantly contributed to the nation’s economic growth and easing of labor market shortages, highlighting the significance of a carefully designed and effectively implemented immigration policy in fostering economic progress.

Works Cited

Bauder, H. (2011). Immigration Dialectic: Imagining Community, Economy, and Nation. University of Toronto Press, doi:10.3138/9781442687196.

Canada’s immigration policies boost economic growth, report finds”. (2019). Reuters. Retrieved April 11, 2023, from

Canada’s immigration policies praised for boosting economic growth. (2012). The Guardian. Retrieved April 11, 2023, from

Canada’s immigration policies under scrutiny as economic concerns rise. (2018). CBC News. Retrieved from

Quality Improvement Initiative To Reduce Waiting Time And Crowding At The Emergency Department Free Sample

The emergency department plays a central role in saving lives, promoting health, and enhancing access through timely interventions, proper diagnosis, care, and treatment. However, the emergency department at the hospital based in Maryland is experiencing significantly long waiting times and crowding. Long waiting times and crowding adversely affect healthcare quality, safety, access, effectiveness, efficiency, and patient experiences (Imhoff et al., 2022). Crowding and long waiting time are also associated with increased risks of adverse events, ineffectiveness, and inefficiency. They also adversely affect healthcare workers’ well-being, including increased safety risks, high stress levels, and low morale, resulting in poor care quality and outcomes (Oullet et al., 2022). Thus, there is a need for a quality improvement initiative to reduce crowding and waiting time at the emergency department and improve care quality, safety, and effectiveness. Therefore, the purpose of this presentation is to request the hospital board for funding approval to support the successful implementation of the quality improvement program.

The Purpose of the Quality Improvement Program

The hospital serves a large and broadly diverse community within Maryland, including referrals from other healthcare providers. However, the emergency department currently operates above capacity leading to long waiting time, crowding, avoidable referrals, and difficulties in accessing appropriate care (Austin et al., 2020). These challenges adversely affect quality, patient safety, staff well-being, and overall outcomes (Imhoff et al., 2022). Accordingly, the quality improvement initiative aims to reduce waiting time and crowding at the emergency department by ensuring timely attention to all patients. Thus, the primary aim is to address the long waiting time and crowding and the associated adverse effects on healthcare quality, safety, access, effectiveness, efficiency, and overall outcomes.

The Target Population or Audience

The quality improvement initiative targets to benefit the local population served by the hospital within Maryland, especially patients seeking emergency health care. The target population is broadly diverse and includes people from different racial, ethnic, cultural, and social-economic backgrounds. The program also aims to improve healthcare workers’ well-being, including increasing their safety, effectiveness, morale, and job satisfaction (Imhoff et al., 2022). Accordingly, the audience includes all healthcare workers, leaders, and managers.

In addition to the patients, other audience includes nurses, clinicians, physicians, nursing managers, leaders, audit teams, and hospital administrators. The quality improvement program will also require the approval of the hospital board of management for funding and effective implementation. Some critical components of the quality improvement program will include adopting advanced and innovative healthcare management information and communication technologies, acquiring additional equipment, and staff training (Oullet et al., 2022). They will also include adopting evidence-based and more effective care and treatment approaches, methods, and techniques to enhance quality, safety, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness.

The Benefits of the Quality Improvement Initiative

The quality improvement initiative has significant potential benefits. The expected benefits include reduced waiting time and crowding, smooth flow of patients, and effective and efficient health care service delivery. Other benefits include improved healthcare quality and safety, reduced adverse events, and patient experiences (Jones, Vaux, & Olsson-Brown, 2019). They also include increased staff morale, job satisfaction, productivity, cost-effectiveness, and efficiency (Imhoff et al., 2022). The quality improvement program will also enhance the operational capacity of the emergency department, reducing boarding and the likelihood of some patients leaving before receiving appropriate care.

Additionally, implementing the quality improvement program will considerably improve the quality of health care and patient and staff safety. It will increase operational and cost-effectiveness and service delivery efficiency, enhancing access, affordability, patient and staff experiences, and overall outcomes (Imhoff et al., 2022). It will also improve patient documentation and processing, communication effectiveness, collaboration, and coordination, enhancing timely decision-making, care quality, and patient participation (Austin et al., 2020). Moreover, the quality improvement program will reduce the risks of adverse events, including documentation and medication errors, misdiagnosis, hospital-acquired infections, prolonged admission, re-admissions, deteriorating conditions, and mortality (Oullet et al., 2022). It will also enhance the hospital’s ability to attract and retain healthcare staff, serve more patients, and promote health and overall outcomes. Therefore, it is instrumental for the hospital board to approve funding for the program and offer appropriate leadership and managerial support.

The Inter-Professional Collaboration that would be Required to Implement the Quality Improvement Initiative

The successful implementation of the quality improvement initiative will require effective inter-professional collaboration. The inter-professional collaboration will involve effective communication, close coordination, relations, teamwork, and support among the different healthcare teams, professionals, and departments (Imhoff et al., 2022). Accordingly, the successful implementation of the quality improvement program will require inter-professional collaboration among nurses, clinical officers, physicians, managers, leaders, and administrators (Jones, Vaux, & Olsson-Brown, 2019). It will also require collaboration with other support staff and professionals working in crucial departments, including the ICT, finance, admissions, and records departments. Moreover, implementing the quality improvement initiative will require collaborating with the hospital’s board of management, top leadership, and management to ensure adequate funding, effective resource allocation, policy, and other support.

The Cost or Budget Justification

Adequate funding and effective resource allocation will be instrumental in ensuring the successful implementation of the quality improvement program. The estimated budget and allocations are tabulated below.

Item Estimated Cost in US $
1 Advanced and innovative healthcare management information and communication technology 14,500
2 Acquisition of additional equipment 16,800
3 Staff training, development, and retention 21,700
4 Operations and maintenance 2,000
Total estimated cost 52,000

The estimated cost of acquiring advanced and innovative healthcare management information and communication technology is US $ 14,500. Adopting the latest healthcare management information and communication technology will improve the hospital’s ability to collect, process, analyze, share, and access patient and other relevant data for timely and effective decision-making (Imhoff et al., 2022). It will also support artificial intelligence and analytics to predict patient flow and improve planning accurately. Technology will also improve communication and information management, sharing, and access to enhance inter-professional collaboration, patient engagement, and decision-making. The emergency department requires additional health care equipment like beds, wheelchairs, laboratory kits, and personal protective equipment at an estimated cost of US $16,800 to increase the operational capacity and safety.

The estimated budget for staff training and retention is US$ 21 700. Staff training, development, and retention are central to improving healthcare quality, safety, access, effectiveness, and efficiency (Oullet et al., 2022). Recruiting, training, and retaining a highly skilled and motivated workforce also increase staff satisfaction, productivity, effectiveness, quality, staff, patient engagement, health, and well-being (Imhoff et al., 2022). Additionally, the budget includes US$ 2,000 to support sustainable operations and maintenance. Significantly, approving the funding will help to address the identified problems and improve overall quality and outcomes.

The Basis for Evaluating the Quality Improvement Program

Effective monitoring and evaluation will be integral in promoting successful program implementation. The specific basis for evaluating the quality improvement program will include adherence to the budget, timeliness, and other identified targets. It will also include assessing the specific changes, outcomes, and benefits accruing from implementing the program (Jones, Vaux, & Olsson-Brown, 2019). Thus, the evaluation parameters will include changes in the average waiting time, the number of patients waiting for service, and referrals to other healthcare providers following the program implementation (Imhoff et al., 2022). They will also include the time taken to diagnose, treat, admit, and discharge a patient (Oullet et al., 2022). Other evaluation parameters will include the number of staff trained, improvements in staff and patient satisfaction levels, the rate of employee turnovers, and reported adverse incidences.


The quality improvement initiative seeks to reduce the waiting time and crowding at the emergency department. Addressing the long waiting time and crowding will significantly improve healthcare quality, effectiveness, safety, and access. It will also increase staff retention, satisfaction, and productivity, positively impacting patient engagement, experiences, and overall health promotion and outcomes. Therefore, the board’s approval for the quality improvement program funding and implementation support will considerably improve the health care quality, safety, cost-effectiveness, efficiency, and overall outcomes at the emergency department and the entire hospital.


Austin, E.E., Blakely, B., Tufanaru, C., … & Clay-Williams, R. (2020). Strategies to measure and improve emergency department performance: a scoping review. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, 28(55).

Imhoff, B., Marshall, K., Nazir, N., Pal, A & Parkhurst, M. (2022). Reducing time to admission in emergency department patients: a cross-sectional quality improvement project. BMJ Open Quality, 11(3):e001987. doi:10.1136/bmjoq-2022-001987

Jones, B., Vaux, E. & Olsson-Brown, A. (2019). How to get started in quality improvement. BMJ, 364:k5408. doi:

Oullet, S., Galllian, M.C.,Gelinas, C., … & Berube, M. (2022). Strategies to improve the quality of nurse triage in emergency departments: A realist review protocol. Nursing Open.

Colonialism Experienced By Indigenous Communities In Canada Sample Paper


By focusing on the continued colonialism of Indigenous people in Canada’s face, Darin Flynn’s “The S-Word: Just Stop Using It,” sends a powerful message. The epithet “savage,” used to describe Indigenous peoples, is at the heart of the story since it lends credence to the stereotype that they are less civilized than those of European descent. The story argues that using such a term is damaging and offensive because it perpetuates the stereotype that Indigenous people are backward and barbaric. This furthers the stereotype that Indigenous people do not deserve the same rights and respect as other groups.

It is difficult to attain one’s full potential when one’s basic needs are unfulfilled, resources are inadequate and do not promote sustained health, and there are continuing chronic pressures in one’s life. Research by Benoit et al. (2019) concludes that racism must be at the heart of the systemic and structural injustices faced by Indigenous Peoples around the globe, including in Canada and the United States. The results of this article define racism as the conviction among members of one race (or the propagation of this conviction among members of other races) that their race is inherently superior to all others. Like the authors, this presumption is biased in favor of the powerful and against the marginalized. Lack of exposure to Indigenous cultures and knowledge systems, public exposure to negative stereotypes, and general misunderstanding about Indigenous Peoples all promote racism and prejudice in Canada. The article further reinforces;

Research studies often fail to recognize the systemic levels of racism experienced by Indigenous Peoples in Canada and internationally, for example, Native Americans in the US, Maori in New Zealand, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia (Bennet et al., 2019, p. 2).

Nevertheless, most research focuses on healthcare systems. Disparities in access, use, and health status among Indigenous Peoples in Canada have been established via systematic reviews, showing how racism penetrates the country’s healthcare institutions. Women of First Nations descent have reported experiencing racism and invalidation when seeking care in traditional hospitals. Those who participated in the study said that nurses and physicians would occasionally dismiss or downplay their worries about their health. Some women have speculated that negative stereotypes play a role in this reaction. They also talked about how service providers ignored women’s economic hardships. This study is essential since it provides overwhelming evidence to show that the problem still exists in the community because it has its roots in the colonial era (Dean & Failler, 2021). Specifically, the research connects racism in colonial and contemporary Canada through evidence such as the conclusion that ‘eliminating racial ideologies may be a near impossibility as these ideas have existed long before 1876.

Consequently, the second article by Baskin (2020) discusses how the colonial states hurt Indigenous women and girls. To a much greater extent than other Indigenous people and non-Indigenous women, Baskin claims. Indigenous women and girls are the targets of violence in all its forms in this article. The author went on to argue that Indigenous women, who only make up around 4% of Canada’s population, are disproportionately affected by violence, with a victimization rate that is three times higher than that of other women. I agree with Baskin’s assessment that this violence level is shockingly severe compared to what the general population is exposed to. Indigenous and non-Indigenous men have perpetrated acts of violence against Indigenous women both within and outside of their homes and communities, particularly in urban settings (Chartrand, 2019). Self-reports of domestic violence are three times as high among indigenous women as among non-Indigenous women, at 10%. From the earliest contact with Europeans, Baskin, in his research, indicated that indigenous women were a direct focus of colonial law and policy. The Jesuit missionaries and the settlers saw firsthand how influential indigenous women were in indigenous households, marriages, politics, and decision-making. According to the author, the colonization era ensured that colonizers “steeped in patriarchy, complained about the lack of male control over women and set out to change that” (Baskin, 2020, p. 182). Women’s roles and status were harmed by foreign concepts that were introduced to replace and denigrate them. The breakdown of tribal groups based on clans, matriarchy, extended family, and collectivity led to the loss of many traditional forms of government and religious beliefs (Dean & Failler, 2021). Elections eroded community confidence, reduced participation, and diminished the effectiveness of previously agreed-upon choices. Women’s views on the world, other cultures, and their identities and places in society never affected colonial policy. That is still relevant in today’s Canadian society, especially due to biased media against indigenous women.

The media’s frequent harsh representations of indigenous women are yet another crucial manifestation of how these minorities experience violence in society amind colonization. If a woman is seen acting in a way not considered proper by a patriarchal society, she is at least somewhat responsible for any acts of violence performed against her. The media often portrays violence victims as poor Indigenous sex workers and heavy drug users who brought the violence upon themselves (Grimwood et al., 2019). This discourse undermines Indigenous women while obscuring the unjust social circumstances that shape their choices. Media coverage of violence towards Indigenous women rarely provides historical and social context, leaving readers with the notion that problems stem from inherent cultural inferiority or an inability to adapt to modern culture. This has the sole effect of promoting racism against indigenous women in society. Racism hinders people’s chances of achieving economic security, physical health, emotional well-being, and independence in expressing their own unique cultures. Baskin (2020) found that racism, both within and across ethnic groups, was a major stressor for African Americans, which might have serious consequences for their health. This was supported by previous research by Benoit et al. (2019), who posited that when racism is a source of stress, the body and mind may react differently, leading to different health outcomes. As a result, racism as a stressor and its manifestation when experiencing chronic and acute stressful life events must also be considered an immediate biological predictor of health for Indigenous Peoples. We can all do our part to improve the health of Indigenous Peoples and other marginalized groups by working to eliminate racism, a learned behavior propagated by harmful stereotypes.


In a nutshell, both scholarly sources and Flynn’s narrative share a common focus on the ongoing colonialism experienced by Indigenous people in Canada. The dehumanizing and stereotyping of Indigenous people through the term “savage” is only one example of how the stereotype that they are inferior to those of European descent persists. The fact that this word is still in use, together with the historical and contemporary oppression of Indigenous people in Canada, demonstrates the persistence of colonialism in that country. Both scholarly books dive deeper into the topic, highlighting Indigenous communities’ struggles to reclaim their land and rights.


Baskin, C. (2020). Contemporary Indigenous Women’s Roles: Traditional Teachings or internalized colonialism? Violence Against Women26(15-16), 2083-2101.

Benoit, A. C., Cotnam, J., O’Brien-Teengs, D., Greene, S., Beaver, K., Zoccole, A., & Loutfy, M. (2019). Racism experiences of urban indigenous women in Ontario, Canada: “We all have that story that will break your heart.” International Indigenous Policy Journal10(2).

Chartrand, V. (2019). Unsettled times: Indigenous incarceration and the links between colonialism and the penitentiary in Canada. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice61(3), 67-89.

Dean, A., & Failler, A. (2021). ‘An Amazing Gift’? Memory entrepreneurship, settler colonialism and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights. Memory Studies14(2), 451–465.

Flynn, D. (2017, September 4). The S-word: Just Stop using it. The Conversation.

Grimwood, B. S., Muldoon, M. L., & Stevens, Z. M. (2019). Settler colonialism, Indigenous cultures, and the promotional landscape of tourism in Ontario, Canada’s ‘near North.’ Journal of Heritage Tourism14(3), 233-248.