Case Study 5: DHL Bangladesh 1. This case reveals the advantages and disadvantages associated with a matrix structure. DHL benefits from its matrix structure by being able to effectively handle various pockets of business through specific output groups based on geographic settings. This allows DHL to capitalize on the diversity of business opportunities available to them.

By implementing a matrix structure, DHL is able to keep the various divisions of its business focused on providing optimal service to each geographic region. This structure enables a leadership support system to oversee each division and ensure a unified management system, guidance, and leadership are in place for all sections of the business. Additionally, the matrix structure allows for a check and balance process to ensure that DHL establishes the most effective overall company structure.

The drawbacks of the matrix structure include each business section having its own agenda, processes, nuances, and strategies, which restricts their ability to adapt and collaborate. For example, DHLB would need to modify its HRIS from the DHL Pakistani system to use it. Additionally, this structure can create improper alliances with positions of power, leading to limited communication and fear of backlash when providing feedback or opinions.

The flow of ideas and best practices is hindered by the matrix structure, as it confines each party within their own circle.

For Nural, the advantages and disadvantages of three options are identified: (1) proceeding with DHL Pakistan’s HRIS, (2) proceeding with a local Bangladesh vendor, and (3) negotiating with regional HQ.

A. Proceeding with DHL Pakistan’s HRIS – The advantage of this option is that it would allow for all of DHL to operate under one system, thereby streamlining the support team. This is in contrast to having teams spread out across the organization to handle various HRIS systems.

The drawback is that the company would be dependent on the support and engineering services of DHL Pakistan. The other groups would lack the ability to hold DHL Pakistan responsible for any changes or deadlines as they would be able to progress at their preferred speed. Although using a local vendor would be significantly cheaper, the level of support provided would be much stronger. B. Choosing to work with a local vendor in Bangladesh – Opting for a local vendor in Bangladesh would cost five times less and offer greater support potential compared to engaging with DHL Pakistan.

The process of assembling the modification modules would be faster compared to using DHL Pakistan. However, this option does not offer a global solution. On the other hand, negotiating with regional HQ would result in a lower price for the HRIS system and enable Nural to safeguard his reputation and career advancement opportunities. The downside is that he would not have the chance to fully voice his concerns about having to make compromises with regional HQ.

The advantages and disadvantages listed in the question above can be ranked in terms of their potential for solving DHLB’s problems and political importance from the viewpoint of DHLB and regional HQ. In order to provide a more detailed analysis, it is important to consider the perspectives of stakeholders such as Nurul Rahman, DHLB’s HR department, Mr. Saha, and DHL Pakistan. When it comes to potentially solving DHLB’s problems, opting for a local Bangladesh vendor would be the most practical solution. This approach would not only benefit DHLB’s HR department but also give Nurul a sense of ownership.

However, Mr. Saha believes that DHL does not offer a standardized system for the entire enterprise. According to him, implementing DHL Pakistan’s HRIS solution would be suitable, but it would necessitate increased resources from the IT department to support and make changes to other areas’ HRIS systems. Negotiating with regional HQ is not a priority for solving DHLB’s problems. While it may be important to Nurul, he should consider the company’s benefits.

As Nurul Rahman, my recommendation would be to remain steadfast in my beliefs and propose opting for a local vendor in Bangladesh, along with a plan to implement this solution globally. Seizing this opportunity would enable Nurul to demonstrate his astute analysis and business acumen in comprehending the functioning of his company alongside others. Although embarking on this career advancement entails considerable risks, deciding otherwise would constantly trouble him and ultimately lead to dissatisfaction in his career.

This decision would reinforce the protection of DHLB by avoiding the adoption of a solution that would not serve their best interests. The foremost priority is to secure a cost-effective HRIS solution with a suitable support structure, as well as the ability to customize it for their group. It is also important to consider aligning DHL groups, especially with vendors that have established relationships and offer low costs. In this case, the vendor can create the solution for other sites, while the Pakistan resources can provide assistance in implementing and developing global solutions.

## Case Study – The Demise Of Foreign Competitors In The Chinese Beer Industry

Background In the case, background in 1990’s China Government open beer market to foreign investor. China is a huge, future potential market, a lot of foreign brewers enter to the Chinese market and making multi million dollar investment on production facilities as well as labor market. However a few years later most of the foreign brewers were still running at loss. On other hands the local brewers with untrained management, problematic human resource and poor quality product and weak marketing capabilities was winning in this beer wars.

We would use PEST framework to evaluate the China beer market whether is affricative for foreign investments, what the strength of local brewers are and why foreign brewers are lost. Political In 1990’s China government open for foreign investment, which including the local beer industry. Also the China government has offer lowest level of taxation rate 19% for beer retails compared with Korea – 53. 5%, Australia – 52. 8% and UK – 44. 6%. In 17-Sep-2001 China was accessed to in the World Trade Organization. Many of restrictions that foreign companies have at present in China will be eliminated, also implemented the TRIPS (Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights). The government is allowed improved competition from the breakup of state monopolies. WTO membership opens access to those restricted markets, it makes consolidation of leading state-owned industries going to restructuring. Greater role for the private sector. Increased access for foreign companies and products and strongly reduced the protectionism in some key sectors.

In foreign trade and exchange control, China government also relaxation on the trade policies, capital flow, as well as easing of the tariff and non-tariff barriers. In financing segment, China government has put efforts to put state-owned banking system on more commercial and open financial sector to foreign participation. In 2003 – 2005 government continuing efforts to rid state banks of bad loans foreign financial institutions granted access to the same customers as state banks. Economical China is the third largest economy in the world and has continuously growing conomy. In 2000 China was the 7th leading exporter and 8th largest importer of merchandise trade – exports: 249. 2 us billion dollars (3. 9% share), imports: 225. 1 us billion dollars (3. 4% share). For commercial services China was the 12th largest exporter and the 10th in importer – exports: 29. 7 us billion dollars (2. 1% share), imports: 34. 8 us billion dollars (2. 5% share).

In China future economic conditions appeared rosy. GDP growth was projected to continue at an average of 8% from 2001 – 2005. Means the projection of beer consumption rate is 10. 8% per capita during same period. Social and Cultural China has a favorable demographic profile – the higher population of younger people which under 30 year old have over 50%, which compare with 38% in UK, 35% in Japan and 33% in Germany. Which indicated high beer consumption growth potential. Also the personality of Chinese people is collectivism and patriotism.

In this reason, “Guanxi” relationships and connection is one of important elements which foreign investor must be knew it. That is one of successful reason of South African Breweries and China Resources alliance. According to SAB’s managing director for Asia: “Our partners are the China experts. They have experience of doing business there. As a result they have amazing contacts that can cut the red tape surrounding many issues: they can bring their other commercial operations to bear in a number of areas, they have access to people, they know the market and understand the rate of change required.

We have been able to harness our knowledge of the beer industry with their knowledge of China and come up with an awesome team”2 As well as Li Giurong, the chairmen of Tsingtao, highlighted: “Chinese have a very strong sense of home place…If I live in a place, I want to drink my local brand…. I don’t go into a place and say ‘My Tsingtao beer is better than your beer. My quality is better than yours. So why don’t you drink me? ’”3 The labor market also is a consideration for the foreign investor, in 1990’s the labor force in China is large, but poorly skill, as well as unhygienic, unsafe operation practices and sloppy.

Technological In 1990’s weak infrastructure and vast distance is major problem in China. “Bass faced distribution problems caused by local protectionism. Refused licence to sell bottled beer in certain cities, the brewery has to focus on draft beer, despite the lack of on tap facilities. Even nature was against them – beside regular floods blocking road and rail, winter at -35C froze the beer in the draught piping. ”4 From the above settle, we can determine the technology and flood control is poor.

However, after China opens the beer industry, the foreign brewers has brought their advanced technology to China. Also China government has continued improving in all areas, and a number of major projects completed or nearing completion. Infrastructure remains inadequate for the size of country. Conclusion From the above evaluation, China is a potential and sustainable growth beer market with political stability, high GDP growth, young population led increase consumption, as well as low market share.

It can be determined China as attractive country for foreign direst investment. However, we found most failed brewers, which have not understand the local situation and Chinese culture when they are make an investment in China, such as the personality of Chinese consumer, expenditure availability “no factor contributes more heavily to local brewer dominance…. than pricing”5 Also Chinese people have strong patriotic feelings attached, which potentially meant that global beer brands could remain nothing more than passing curiosity. Guanxi” in important elements for those two successful cases – Tsangtao Beer and South African Breweries, have alliance with a local brewers.

## Catesion Co-Ordinate System

History: The Cartesian coordinate system is named after Rene Descartes(1596-1650), the noted French mathematician and philosopher, who was among the first to describe its properties. However, historical evidence shows that Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665), also a French mathematician and scholar, did more to develop the Cartesian system than did Descartes. The development of the Cartesian coordinate system enabled the development of perspective and projective geometry. It would later play an intrinsic role in the development of calculus by Isaac Newton andGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. 3] Nicole Oresme, a French philosopher of the 14th Century, used constructions similar to Cartesian coordinates well before the time of Descartes. Many other coordinate systems have been developed since Descartes, such as the polar coordinates for the plane, and the spherical and cylindrical coordinates for three-dimensional space. Cartesian coordinate system: A Cartesian coordinate system specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances from the point to two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin. The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the perpendicular projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin. One can use the same principle to specify the position of any point in three-dimensional space by three Cartesian coordinates, its signed distances to three mutually perpendicular planes (or, equivalently, by its perpendicular projection onto three mutually perpendicular lines).

In general, one can specify a point in a space of any dimension n by use of n Cartesian coordinates, the signed distances from n mutually perpendicular hyperplanes. Terms to remember: Coordinate Axes Three mutually perpendicular coordinate lines X-axis, Y-axis, Z-axis (intersecting at origin). • Coordinate Planes Three planes determined by coordinate axes XY-plane, XZ-plane, YZ-plane • Coordinates •Any point is determined through an ordered triple (a, b, c) •P has coordinates (a, b, c)means To locate P , we start from the origin, move a -units along X-axis, hen b-units parallel to Y-axis and then c -units parallel to Z-axis. Number line A line with a chosen Cartesian system is called a number line. Every real number, whether integer, rational, or irrational, has a unique location on the line. Conversely, every point on the line can be interpreted as a number in an ordered continuum which includes the real numbers. Quadrants and octants The four quadrants of a Cartesian coordinate system. The axes of a two-dimensional Cartesian system divide the plane into four infinite regions, called quadrants, each bounded by two half-axes.

These are often numbered from 1st to 4th and denoted by Roman numerals: I (where the signs of the two coordinates are I (+,+), II (? ,+), III (? ,? ), and IV (+,? ). When the axes are drawn according to the mathematical custom, the numbering goes counter-clockwise starting from the upper right (“northeast”) quadrant. Similarly, a three-dimensional Cartesian system defines a division of space into eight regions or octants, according to the signs of the coordinates of the points. The octant where all three coordinates are positive is sometimes called the first octant; however, there is no established nomenclature for the other octants.

The n-dimensional generalization of the quadrant and octant is the orthant. [edit]Cartesian space A Euclidean plane with a chosen Cartesian system is called a Cartesian plane. Since Cartesian coordinates are unique and non-ambiguous, the points of a Cartesian plane can be identified with all possible pairs of real numbers; that is with the Cartesian product , where is the set of all reals. In the same way one defines a Cartesian space of any dimension n, whose points can be identified with the tuples (lists) of n real numbers, that is, with . 3–Dimensional Rectangular Coordinate System

In the 2–dimensional rectangular coordinate system we have two coordinate axes that meetat right angles at the origin (Fig. 1), and it takes two numbers, an ordered pair (x, y), tospecify the rectangular coordinate location of a point in the plane (2 dimensions). Each ordered pair (x, y) specifies the location of exactly one point, and thelocation of each point is given by exactly one ordered pair (x, y). The x and y values are the coordinates of the point (x, y) . The situation in three dimensions is very similar. In the3–dimensional rectangular coordinate system we have three coordinateaxes that meet at right angles (Fig. ), and three numbers, an orderedtriple (x, y, z), are needed to specify the location of a point. Eachordered triple (x, y, z) specifies the location of exactly one point,and the location of each point is given by exactly one ordered triple(x, y, z). The x, y and z values are the coordinates of thepoint (x, y, z). Fig. 3 shows the location of thepoint (4, 2, 3) . Right–hand orientation of the coordinate axes (Fig. 4):Imagine your right arm along the positive x–axis withyour hand at the origin and your index finger curlingtoward the positive y–axis.

Then, in a right–handcoordinate system, your extended thumb points alongthe positive z–axis. Other orientations of the axes arepossible and valid (with appropriate labeling), but theright–hand system is the most common orientation and is the one we will generally use. Relations between Cartesian, Cylindrical, and Spherical Coordinates Consider a cartesian, a cylindrical, and a spherical coordinate system, related as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Standard relations between cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems. The origin is the same for all three.

The positive z-axes of the cartesian and cylindrical systems coincide with the positive polar axis of the spherical system. The initial rays of the cylindrical and spherical systems coincide with the positive x-axis of the cartesian system, and the rays =90° coincide with the positive y-axis. Then the cartesian coordinates (x,y,z), the cylindrical coordinates (r, ,z), and the spherical coordinates ( , , ) of a point are related as follows: Applications Each axis may have different units of measurement associated with it (such as kilograms, seconds, pounds, etc. ).

Although four- and higher-dimensional spaces are difficult to visualize, the algebra of Cartesian coordinates can be extended relatively easily to four or more variables, so that certain calculations involving many variables can be done. (This sort of algebraic extension is what is used to define the geometry of higher-dimensional spaces. ) Conversely, it is often helpful to use the geometry of Cartesian coordinates in two or three dimensions to visualize algebraic relationships between two or three of many non-spatial variables. The graph of a function or relation is the set of all points satisfying that function or relation.

For a function of one variable, f, the set of all points (x,y) where y = f(x) is the graph of the function f. For a function of two variables, g, the set of all points (x,y,z) where z = g(x,y) is the graph of the function g. A sketch of the graph of such a function or relation would consist of all the salient parts of the function or relation which would include its relative extrema, its concavity and points of inflection, any points of discontinuity and its end behavior. All of these terms are more fully defined in calculus. Such graphs are useful in calculus to understand the nature and behavior of a function or relation.