Case Study: Disney Company Essay Example


Disney Company, commonly known as Walt Disney, is an American media and entertainment network whose headquarters are located in Burbank, California. The company was founded in 1923 by Walt and Roy Disney brothers. Before changing its name to Walt Disney back in 1986, the company operated under different names, such as Walt Disney studio and Walt Disney productions (Bohas, 2017). Today, the company is a famous American animation industry, with popular characters like Mickey Mouse. After gaining popularity in the 50s, the corporation diversified into live-action films and television series. In 2018, the company revolutionized management, creating two business segments (Carillo et al., 2018). This move was considered strategically positioning the company at a better profit margin.

Theories and concepts of operation

Walt Disney Company’s operations are based on different theories and concepts. These concepts have helped the company focus on people and create happy conditions for its workers, enhancing their loyalty to the corporation (Rukstad, Collis& Levine, 2019). Employee engagement is one of the theories that has aided the company in improving its operations. Since the company is extensive and expanding its markets, it has more than 60,000 workers. Their primary focus has been on people and creating a healthy working environment.

Another concept that Walt Disney Company applies is the “Spirit of FRED” (friendly, resourceful, enthusiastic, and dependable) recognition program (Rukstad, Collis& Levine, 2019). This has helped employees achieve and gain morale and create a sense of belonging. By maintaining regulations, the company has equipped its employees with the right attitudes that help them improve performance by achieving their goals.

Walt Disney Company and incorporation into the American culture

The company’s organizational culture is significantly intertwined with the American culture. Disney’s corporate culture has ensured that employees reflect their ideas and goals that align with customer preferences and expectations in media and entertainment (Croteau & Hoynes, 2012). This has enabled the company to blend into the American culture, a culture that has enabled the company to gain popularity. An example is the employee’s advocacy for good stories has helped to manage and satisfy the customer expectation in movies and related TV programs. The growing link and intertwining of culture between Disney and America contribute to business success in the States.

Symbols and ideologies

It is impossible to imagine a world without Disney movies, their characters, and all those great things that the network has brought into people’s lives (Rukstad, Collis& Levine, 2019). The enterprise has used symbols such as innocence, warmth, and resilience to people all over the globe by manipulating fantasy. An example is the Mickey Mouse creations which have played an essential part in shaping the way people perceive fantasy from reality.

Organizational diagnosis

The network channel comprises strategic business units, studio, parka and reports, media, and consumer products. These units are further subdivided into different categories of brands (Wasko, 2017). Of the numerous sub-units, entertainment and information are the two outstanding commonalities that have been selected upon thorough evaluation. The company aims to entertain its fans and obtain information (feedback). However, the company ventures into different varieties of operation despite these two operational facets.

One of the most well-known businesses in the entertainment, media, and theme park sectors is The Walt Disney Company (Wasko, 2017). Disney’s situation serves as an outstanding example of good internal and external management, as well as how to remain popular with the public by making risky commercial decisions. Marketing is an essential component of a business that may make or break it. Marketing has migrated to the digital sphere along with users from around the world. The business invests a lot of money in training. This may be a severe weakness for a company like Disney. It should be mentioned as well that Disney’s direct-to-consumer streaming services have not fared well. Despite the fact that streaming subscription-based content is becoming more and more popular.


Walt Disney can enhance productivity and maintain its customer fan base by embracing a non-invasive technology that can help to track its customers. This technology can help the company mine data around customer preferences based on their characteristics. This can be later on used to improve customer experience and boost the company’s market. This technology will maintain customer privacy while boosting the company’s profits. The organization’s market has been expanding vertically and horizontally, so the company can use this growth strategy to its advantage by introducing new products to the market (Wasko, 2017). This broad fan base will help them acquire easy, fast, and reliable feedback from its customers.


Bohas, A. (2017). Transnational firms and the knowledge structure: The case of the Walt Disney Company. Global Society29(1), 23-41.

Carillo, C., Crumley, J., Thieringer, K., & Harrison, J. S. (2018). The Walt Disney Company: A Corporate Strategy Analysis.

Croteau, D., & Hoynes, W. (2012).  Experience sociology. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Rukstad, M. G., Collis, D. J., & Levine, T. (2019). The Walt Disney Company: The Entertainment King. Harvard Business School.

Wasko, J. (2017). The Walt Disney Company. In Global media giants (pp. 11-25). Routledge.

Wasko, J. (2021). Challenging Disney Myths. Journal of Communication Inquiry25(3), 237-257.

Diversion Programs Are Better Than Incarceration Essay Example For College

Diversion programs focus on suspending formal criminal procedures against defendants involved in minor crimes comprising traffic violations, shoplifting, minor theft, and juvenile offences. Furthermore, the charges against the defendants are expunged and dismissed before the individuals enter the traditional criminal justice system. The diversion strategies focus on attaining various goals to offer essential benefits to the criminal justice system and the community. For instance, diversion programs are essential in reducing the costs resulting from eliminating the process of probation and incarceration (State’s Attorney Office, 2022). On the same note, the programs have a significant role in reducing and eliminating the stigma and labelling of minor crime offenders, thus effectively and successfully incorporated into the community. Studies have indicated reduced recidivism due to diversion programs and rehabilitation procedures. Nevertheless, the approach has an integral part in reducing the caseload in the criminal justice system and is essential for dealing with the mass incarceration problems experienced at the state and federal levels. As per Farrell et al. (2018), the diversion program is vital in facilitating restorative justice leading to the victims benefiting from the process, such as financial restitution for the incurred losses. Besides, the victim receives the offender’s apology, which prevents and eradicates the hatred and enmity within the community.

Diversion Programs in Baltimore Maryland

Diversion programs in Baltimore, Maryland, have indicated significant success compared to the conventional criminal justice system that possesses various procedures including court heating, probation and imprisonment, to name a few. As a result, diversions programs should have extensive expansion throughout the states and country due to the essential benefits the system offers to the community, victims, offenders and the criminal justice system. For instance, AIM to B’More (AIM) program created in 2015 has shown crucial benefits to all parties involved in the criminal justice system, paving the way for extensive use of the system instead of the incarceration approaches (State’s Attorney Office, 2022). The program focused on dealing with people involved in minor criminal offences and drug-related felonies, offering alternatives to imprisonment, probation and court procedures which are expensive and adversely impact the reputation of the offenders in society resulting from stigma and labelling. Besides, the diverse program option provides essential services in the community that are lacking in the traditional criminal system. For instance, diversion programs involve services such as personal development, occupational training and mental health, which have an integral role in improving the lives of individuals involved in minor crimes (The Baltimore Story, 2021). Such services are essential for individual and community development in the current society due to high rates of mental health issues and poverty that contribute to people engaging in minor crimes and drug offences.

Individuals who have undergone the AIM program revealed receiving significant services for the critical population and positively impacting short and long-term health and well-being factors in the community and safety in the community surrounding. The Baltimore Story (2021) asserted that the diversion facilitates offering reals opportunities for offenders and enhances individual and situation growth and development, leading to long-term sustainability. Besides, individuals who complete the programs successfully possess the opportunity to move on without obstacles of the criminal records, which negatively affects the offenders in seeking or retaining employment opportunities and receiving social services compared to the incarceration system of justice (The Washington Post, 2022). In Baltimore, Maryland, 98 of the population comprised the African Americans, with 90% male, 87% maintained their employment-population after committing offences, and others acquired new employment opportunities (State’s Attorney Office, 2022). Such benefits are lacking in the incarceration system of the criminal justice system, which adversely affects the defendants of minor crimes and drug-related offences. For instance, the incarceration system presents limited employment opportunities for released individuals due to being labelled a felon and possessing a criminal record leading to most employers’ rejection (The Baltimore Story, 2021). Besides, imprisonment contributes to overstaying the incarceration facilities, diminishing the abilities and experience of the people, which reduces their chances of securing employment when released. Equally, incarcerated individuals experienced a high level of stigma and discrimination in the communities due to existing hatred and enmity between the ex-convicts and community and victims (Farrell et al., 2018). Hence, diversion programs are an excellent approach in handling minor cases compared to incarceration due to their essential benefits to the offenders, victims and society.

According to State’s Attorney Office (2022), the recidivism rate in Baltimore, Maryland, is 37% compared to the national rate, which is 68% and higher, while individual undergoes the traditional criminal justice system leading to imprisonment when offenders are guilty of minor offences. The diversion programs provide an opportunity for the individual to change through enhancing personal growth and offering opportunities in the labor market to access and secure employment opportunities which lack in the incarceration system. Equally, the strategies contribute to empowering the individual by offering diverse services such as mental health and occupational training. Furthermore, a study in Seattle using the Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) resulted in a 60% reduction in recidivism compared to the control group who experienced the conventional criminal system leading to incarceration (State’s Attorney Office, 2022). Prevention of recidivism possesses essential benefits compared to the imprisonment system. For example, reducing recidivism has an integral role in minimizing costs in the legal system and criminal justice due to the process involved at the community level (Baltimore Police Department, 2022). In the incarceration system, individuals would pay various fines and expenses for the court proceeding and probation, while the state and federal prisons encounter costs in managing the incarcerated people (Farrell et al., 2018). The diversion programs offer substance abuse services to those engaged in various drug offences, which contributes to reducing and eradicating recidivism. Addressing the root cause of the criminal behaviours leads to putting in necessary intervention to avert further criminal activities leading to improving the safety of the community and the well-being of individuals.

In Baltimore, LEAD participants were 58% fewer chances of being arrested for similar offences that resulted in enrollment in the diversion programs compared to those who engaged in similar minor criminal activities not enrolled on the program (Baltimore Police Department, 2022). Furthermore, diversion programs play a significant role in creating and sustaining a cost-effective criminal justice system in Baltimore, Maryland and the entire United States. The incarceration system increases the county, state and federal government to finance all the costs related to keeping the incarcerated individuals behind bars. For example, the LEAD participants reduced costs in the criminal justice system by $2,100 compared to the incarceration system, which increased by $5,961 (State’s Attorney Office, 2022). From the statistical evidence presented by the tested program in the county, the approaches possess essential benefits to society, including all the stakeholders involved in the criminal justice system.

Incarcerating and Reoffending

Incarcerating low-level criminals without interventions has a significant role in reoffending and engaging in the worst crimes in the community due to various factors. For instance, imprisonment leads to individuals losing their jobs and making it difficult to find other employment opportunities due to labelling and criminal records (Baltimore Police Department, 2022). Being labelled a felon negatively impacts the individuals, more so when looking for work in private and public entities. Such incarceration outcomes contribute to poverty due to unemployment, resulting in ex-convicts engaging in criminal activities for upkeep and substance abuse to relieve stress. Idleness resulting from unemployment further facilitates the ex-convicts engaging in more crimes than before and engaging in unhealthy behaviours such as substance abuse and offences (Baltimore Police Department, 2022). On the same note, engaging with hard-core criminals in the incarceration facilities leads to those who committed minor offences being mentored by those who engaged in advanced crimes. When such individuals are released from the prisons, they have high chances of practising what their mentors in prions taught, leading to reoffending and engaging in more developed crimes (Farrell et al., 2018). In Baltimore, unemployment, stigma and being labelled a felony are significant factors contributing to individuals reoffending and engaging in the worst crimes after release from prison.

To conclude, the diversion program should be the first consideration in the criminal justice system before opting for the incarceration approach, which leads to the legal system and incarceration. The evidence from the LEAD programs implemented in Baltimore has indicated success and effectiveness in handling various minor cases. Such diversion programs in the criminal justice system are essential in reducing recidivism rates and costs and empowering individuals through multiple services. Offering mental health services, personal development and occupational training through diversion programs are significant benefits for minor crimes and drug offences due to life opportunities and sustainability and development. Incarceration is fundamental in reoffering and engaging in worse crimes due to exposure to the hard-core criminal who engaged in serious crimes leading to mentoring. Besides, imprisonments lead to unemployment and difficulties in securing job opportunities when individuals are released from prison, leading to unemployment which contributes to crimes.


State’s Attorney Office. (2022, May 4). The Baltimore city state’s attorney’s office. The Baltimore City State’s Attorney’s Office.

Baltimore Police Department. (2022, June 10). LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTED DIVERSION (LEAD) PROGRAM.

The Baltimore Story. (2021, January 31). The “Revolving door” of mass incarceration: What keeps Baltimore city safe? — The Baltimore story.

The Washington Post. (2022, May 2). Baltimore’s leaders are getting tough on crime. The Washington Post.

Farrell, J., Betsinger, A., & Hammond, P. (2018). Best practices in youth diversion. The Institute for Innovation & Implementation. https://theinstitute. Maryland. Edu/media/ssw/institute/MD-center-documents/Youth-Diversion-Literature-Review.

Diversity And Leadership Essay Example For College

Leadership, at its core, consists of persuading others to do what you want them to do. Therefore, leadership skills are present in anybody who can inspire others to follow them. Leadership exists outside of formal “leadership roles” in organisations and societies. Leadership has diverse connotations depending on whom you ask, where you go, and what you do. It is always a varied job, however. Successful leaders make it possible for their followers to achieve their goals. It determines the course of action, formulates an overarching strategy, and adjusts to changing conditions. To “win” as a group or company, you need a plan, which is what leadership is all about. The term “diversity” is used to describe the many ways in which individuals vary from one another. When we talk about diversity, we talk about all the obvious and invisible characteristics that make up a person.

Case Study Of Diversity And Leadership In The Contemporary Environment

Taylor Swift’s “The Man” highlights the differences in how men and women are treated in the workplace. The song’s lyrics speak about the differences in how men and women are judged by society. In the lyrics, Taylor Swift is questioning if her being a woman is what hinders her from achieving her dreams. The video shows a man at the workplace, at home and in leisure activities. A man is allowed to occupy space even when it causes discomfort to others. For example, the scene on the train where the man sits with his legs spread out, expecting the women to adjust themselves for his comfort.

The first theme portrayed in this video is sexism in the workplace. Discrimination against someone because of their gender or sexual orientation is called sexism. Although sexism affects people of both genders, it disproportionately negatively impacts women and girls (Heise et al., 2019). It has been associated with rigid gender norms and the possibility of privileging one sex or gender over another. Harassment, rape, and other sexual violence may flourish in a sexist environment. Discrimination based on a person’s gender may include sexism.

The second theme portrayed in the song is the lack of diversity in top management and leadership positions. According to the song, it is easier for a man to break the “glass ceiling” in the corporate world than for women. More often than not, women are expected to work harder and behave in a specific way to qualify for a top management position. Every aspect of a woman’s life is considered before being placed in companies’ top management (UNHR, 2022). Issues such as marital status, children, sex life, temperament and other minor details become an issue when a woman is trying to climb the corporate ladder. As portrayed in the lyrics and the video, these issues are overlooked regarding men.

Another message that forms the message would be how women have to shrink themselves and be agreeable around male figures even when their personal space is violated and disregarded. An excellent example of this is in the video scene where the man sits between a group of women, occupies more space than he needs to and proceeds to hand over newspapers he is not reading to the women next to him like they are there to serve him. Although this may be an extreme portrayal of violation of personal space, there are many instances where women have had to be quiet about being disrespected to avoid causing a scene.

The fourth theme/message from the video touches on how men, compared to women, get applauded for doing their duty. This is portrayed in the video where the man sits at the park with his child, and the women, doing the same duty, gather around to clap for him. This is a common occurrence in society whereby in some cases, childcare is referred to as “babysitting “when the father does it, but it is considered a duty and responsibility when a woman does it.

How These Themes Impact Diversity

Sexism hinders diversity in the workplace. Sexism leads to the discrimination of women in the workplace. Because of sexism, women are considered weaker, less intelligent, and less capable of doing the work. As a result, they have to work extra hard to earn promotions while men do the bare minimum to get the same positions (Henderson, Simon and Henicheck, 2018). Workplace discrimination harms women’s incomes and opportunities in several ways, including the gender pay gap, the dearth of women in leadership roles, and the longer time required for women (vs males) to progress in their professions. In other words, discrimination against women at work decreases their socioeconomic status. HR regulations and decision-making are the main culprits behind such discrimination against women (Stamarski & Son Hing, 2015). Additionally, employees may hear sexist comments when interacting with corporate decision-makers through HR procedures or learning the outcomes of HR-related decisions. The objective disadvantages of lesser income, status, and employment possibilities, as well as the subjective experiences of stigmatisation, influence women’s psychological and physical stress, mental and physical health, work satisfaction, organisational commitment, and ultimately their performance.

Women often suffer when it comes to workplace diversity. Regardless of how well they perform or are skilled at their employment, institutional discrimination refers to human resource procedures that are essentially biased against a particular group of people. Institutional discrimination against women may occur in recruiting and selecting employees, job assignments, training, salaries, performance reviews, promotions, and terminations (Bader et al., 2018). When, for instance, specific educational criteria or previous job experience are essential to be considered for selection in an area where women are underrepresented, discrimination against women occurs consistently, albeit sometimes inadvertently (Leavitt et al., 2022). When a test is incorporated in the selection process that results in more significant gender discrepancies than job performance assessments, this constitutes another type of gender discrimination. As a consequence, institutional bias may exist in several areas of HR selection policy and may negatively affect the employment outcomes for women.

The issue of women shrinking themselves and being “less” to avoid confrontation is rooted in a lack of confidence. This, however, comes from years of being conditioned to feel like they are not good enough to compete with men. Men, like women, have self-doubts but tend to push through them more quickly. Males are more likely to apply for a job or promotion if they satisfy just 60% of the requirements, whereas females wait until they meet all requirements (Ahmed et al., 2021). Women are particularly concerned about being despised, ugly, or the centre of attention.

Lastly, applauding men for performing duties that are overlooked when women perform them leads to a loss of confidence among women. This affects diversity in the workplace and outside regarding how duties are assigned. Because of this issue, we see more women pushed towards domestic duties while their male counterparts grow their careers. This can be seen in offices where in some cases, women are asked to perform duties such as passing around snacks in meetings or taking notes even if it is not in their job description. This hinders women’s growth both at home and in the workplace.

How The Themes Impact Leadership

Sexism affects leadership structures in organisations. The unequal treatment of women and men in the workplace is a prime example of gender discrimination. Possible causes include cultural or societal standards and expectations (Fisk & Overton, 2019). The song speaks of how men get away with things that women are judged harshly. For instance, women are expected to be more agreeable and sexier to appeal to people, while men are only judged for their performance. This affects women’s ability to command respect because they are judged more on their appearance and agreeableness than their ability to lead.

The lack of gender parity in the workplace hinders leadership. Women often miss out on critical decisions because they are denied seats at the table (Fisk & Overton, 2019). For instance, the song’s video and lyrics portray a picture of a society where women are pushed to the back to let men shine. Women are reduced to playing things for the men as they cut deals and climbed the corporate ladder.

Women shrink themselves to avoid looking confrontational or argumentative, which affects leadership structures. Leaders are meant to be outspoken and assertive. When men do this, they are seen as an alpha coming from a woman; it is considered rude and loud (Hindman & Walker, 2020). An example shown in the video was the differences in reactions to Serena Williams getting angry and the court compared to roger Federer acting the same way. While Serena was castigated and punished for her behaviour, Rogers’s reaction was appropriate in that scenario.

Lastly, when men are applauded for performing their duties and women are not, it discourages women from performing these duties. This affects leadership because it affects women’s confidence to seek leadership positions. This reaction teaches women to stay in their place, which according to society is in the home, or how some people see it, “A woman’s place is in the kitchen.”

How Diversity Impacts Leadership And Vice Versa

Since changing an organisation’s culture as a whole is necessary, increasing diversity in the workplace is complex. In the business sector, men have historically held the majority of occupations. Culture on many different levels emerged and became ingrained in the workforce. Workers are forced to adjust to this culture; specifically, women may experience fear and defensiveness if they see the challenge as an attack on their identity (Castaño et al., 2019). A competent leader prepared to interact with people via their complex, personal beliefs must facilitate a cultural transformation.

Leaders in an organisation are crucial in shaping and supporting employees’ attitudes and behaviours in the workplace. Leaders provide guidelines for how their team members will do their duties. Therefore followers turn to them for guidance. To foster an environment that matches a company’s ideals, executives must do more than speak the company’s beliefs; they must also live them out in their actions. If their CEOs espouse particular beliefs but act in ways that contradict them, employees will go elsewhere for a company that epitomises the culture they want to participate in. Lack of honesty in the workplace may considerably hinder recruiting and keeping talented people when considering workplace diversity.

Implications on Policies

When leaders work to change the culture of their businesses, they must not just change the thinking of their subordinates and employees—they must also reflect on their behaviour and make personal progress. If leaders want to know what to expect when interacting with workers from different backgrounds, they should start by figuring out how they feel and what their prejudices are (Edelman & van Knippenberg, 2018). They will be able to assess their leadership style and skills via this introspection and determine what components will best support them and hinder them as they navigate this cultural change.

Awareness, comprehension, and participation are the building blocks of cultural competence, which is essential for genuine diversity to flourish. Being a diversity advocate is not as simple as deciding to do so. Leaders must face their biases and ignorance, educate themselves on the cultural norms and practises of the groups with whom they will engage, and only then will they be able to encourage diversity within their community (Resnick & Fuller, 2021). This is of utmost significance for those in authoritative positions. Before attempting to foster a diverse workforce, they should be aware of the obstacles they may face. Business leaders should reflect on their implicit biases and racial and ethnic assumptions.


One’s prejudices are shaped by upbringing and the people and experiences that influence them. The unconscious nature of bias makes it all the more important to look for tools that might help you identify the social groupings you tend to favour. Leaders must examine their biases, language, and actions while communicating with others from different cultural backgrounds. People might potentially learn to overcome their biases via self-education if they gain an understanding of their thoughts, feelings, and actions. Leaders must realise this is a continuous process and be open to and receptive to feedback at all times. Mistakes will be made while discussing diversity and inclusion, as they will be when discussing any sensitive issue. Leaders need compassion, humility, and a thirst for knowledge when faced with such challenges. However, they should also be prepared for disagreement and discomfort as they seek to comprehend the viewpoints of others.


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Bader, B., Stoermer, S., Bader, A., & Schuster, T. (2018). Institutional discrimination of women and workplace harassment of female expatriates. Journal Of Global Mobility6(1), 40-58.

Castaño, A., Fontanil, Y., & García-Izquierdo, A. (2019). “Why Can’t I Become a Manager?”—A Systematic Review of Gender Stereotypes and Organisational Discrimination. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health16(10), 1813.

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Fisk, S., & Overton, J. (2019). Who Wants to Lead? Anticipated Gender Discrimination Reduces Women’s Leadership Ambitions. Social Psychology Quarterly82(3), 319-332.

Heise, L., Greene, M., Opper, N., Stavropoulou, M., Harper, C., & Nascimento, M. et al. (2019). Gender inequality and restrictive gender norms: framing the health challenges. The Lancet393(10189), pp. 2440–2454.

Henderson, M., Simon, K., & Henicheck, J. (2018). The relationship between sexuality–professional identity integration and leadership in the workplace. Psychology Of Sexual Orientation And Gender Diversity5(3), 338-351.

Hindman, L., & Walker, N. (2020). Sexism in Professional Sports: How Women Managers Experience and Survive Sport Organizational Culture. Journal Of Sport Management34(1), 64–76.

Leavitt, K., Zhu, L., Klotz, A., & Kouchaki, M. (2022). Fragile or robust? Differential effects of gender threats in the workplace among men and women. Organisational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, p. 168, 104112.

Resnick, S., & Fuller, J. (2021). Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: Meeting New Demands—and Requirements—for Accountability. Board Leadership2021(174), 4-8.

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