Case Study: Liver Cirrhosis Free Sample

Mr. James Alvarez’s Priority Diagnosis

Based on the symptoms Mr. James Alvarez presents in the clinic, the priority diagnosis is liver cirrhosis which occurs in non-alcoholics. The condition is caused by fibrosis that involves diffusion, forming abnormal nodules, and interfering with the normal functioning of the liver. Though the condition is most common among alcoholics, the risk factor in this category includes hepatitis C history and obesity (Gines et al., 2021). However, in this case, it is impossible to tell if the patient had the same predisposing factors. However, according to research, liver cirrhosis primarily affects men aged forty to sixty years compared to women of the same age.

The Affected Organ and Its Pathophysiological Processes

The patient presented organomegaly in the right upper quadrant during the examination, indicating his liver was enlarged. Some of the causes of liver enlargement involve hepatotoxic substances, including inhalants, injectable drugs, anesthetic agents, medications, exposure to chemicals containing phosphorus, and infectious schistosomiasis. Hepatotoxic substances, including alcohol, can trigger diffuse fibrosis. The excess disposition of glycoproteins and collagens in the hepatocytes and sinusoids occurs in response to liver injury (Yoshiji et al., 2021). During the physical examination, abdominal palpation can elicit liver inflammation and a sharp nodular edge. Abdominal pain is probably because of rapid liver enlargement. Fat deposits accumulate in liver cells, causing organ enlargement and triggering tension in the fibrous cover. The damaged liver cells are gradually replaced by scar tissue. Inflamed liver causes blood flow resistance during circulation, leading to portal hypertension. In addition, coagulopathy, GI bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, and impaired detoxification of the liver are other complications. Liver failure is caused by obstructed portal circulation. The flowing back of the blood also impairs liver function in the spleen and GI tract. Consumption of excess protein foods piles up in the peritoneal cavity resulting in ascites, and fluid produced can be detected through fluid wave precision and dullness. Moreover, excess loss of proteins through ascites results in malnutrition and weight loss.

Care Plan and Patient’s Population-Based Component Based on Care Plan

In order to manage this patient, the doctor will depend on the symptoms presented by the condition (Tarao et al., 2019). The care plan for Mr. James is the provision of vitamins and nutritional supplements to improve nutritional status and to promote healing of damaged liver tissues, blood pressure control by using beta blockers, administration of antacids to reduce gastric distress and GI bleeding, administration of oral antibiotics such as metronidazole and vancomycin to aid in reducing bacteria in the large intestines. Other care plan strategies include using potassium-sparing agents and surgical intervention through paracentesis to reduce ascites and electrolyte correlation for restoring fluid balance and nervous system functioning.

Despite the prescribed treatment modalities and lifestyle modification, the patient needs tertiary and health promotion services of prevention. To promote the general population’s health, some additional public health efforts and prevention of cirrhosis and its associated burden are essential. Some health promotion interventions for the general population include creating awareness of the importance of limiting alcohol intake, screening for early detection of diseases, and immunizations.

Recommendations for Care Continuity and Follow-Up

Some of the crucial recommendations involve counseling on diet modification. The nurse should conduct follow-up and assessment of the patient at home, vaccinations against pneumonia and influenza, involve a hematologist in the care process of the patient, monitor signs for any complication, and assess the prescribed medications to ensure they do not predispose the patient to more liver damage.


Ginès, P., Krag, A., Abraldes, J. G., Solà, E., Fabrellas, N., & Kamath, P. S. (2021). Liver cirrhosis. The Lancet398(10308), 1359-1376.

Tarao, K., Nozaki, A., Ikeda, T., Sato, A., Komatsu, H., Komatsu, T., … & Tanaka, K. (2019). The real impact of liver cirrhosis on developing hepatocellular carcinoma in various liver diseases—meta‐analytic assessment. Cancer medicine8(3), 1054-1065.

Yoshiji, H., Nagoshi, S., Akahane, T., Asaoka, Y., Ueno, Y., Ogawa, K., … & Koike, K. (2021). Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis 2020. Journal of Gastroenterology56(7), 593-619.

Categorization And Stereotyping In The News We See In The Media Sample College Essay

In today’s world, it is hard to avoid the news. Not just from mainstream media sources but also from social media and other outlets. Categorization and stereotyping are social psychological concepts that explain how we perceive and interact with the world. This essay will discuss how categorization and stereotyping influence our understanding and interpretation of news stories and how these processes can perpetuate certain stereotypes.

Categorization is grouping people or things into categories based on shared traits or characteristics. This can lead to the development of stereotypes, which are oversimplified and often inaccurate beliefs about a particular group of people. Stereotyping significantly impacts how we interpret and respond to news stories, often portraying certain ethnic or racial groups negatively and reinforcing the stereotype that certain people are “bad” or “dangerous.” Nelson found that there are a variety of ways in which people are categorized and stereotyped. These categorizations and stereotypes can be based on age, gender, race, and ethnicity, among other factors. They can also be based on more abstract concepts such as religion, politics, or social class. While these categories are often used to simplify the world around us, they can also lead to unfair and unbalanced power dynamics and discrimination. (Nelson, 2005, p. 209).

Categorization is a way of organizing information in order to make sense of it. This can be done in order to understand the data in more depth or to make the data easier to manage and access. According to Edwards, categorization helps “to identify similarities and differences among a set of items” and “to recognize the underlying structure of a set of items” (Edwards, 1991, p. 517). This helps us identify patterns and relationships in the data we would otherwise miss. Billig proposed that categorization is useful because it allows for a more efficient way of organizing large amounts of information (Billig, 1996, p. 91). Categorization also allows for easier comparison of similar objects and can be used to identify patterns or trends. Additionally, categorization can aid decision-making and analysis, as it provides an organized way to analyze large amounts of data.

Research has shown that the media often reinforces stereotypes and perpetuates them through its coverage of different social groups. A study by Entman and Rojecki found that African Americans were often portrayed in the media as criminals, while whites were portrayed as victims (Entman & Rojecki, 2000). This portrayal reinforced the stereotype that African Americans were more likely to commit crimes and reinforced negative attitudes toward them. Similarly, a study by Signorielli found that women were often portrayed in the media in traditional gender roles, such as homemakers, reinforcing the stereotype that women are incapable of holding powerful positions (Signorielli, 1989).

Moreover, how news is presented in the media can also influence how people perceive individuals they have never met. Research has shown that how people are portrayed in the news can influence the public’s perception of them. For example, a study by Iyengar and Kinder found that people’s perceptions of political candidates were influenced by the amount of coverage they received in the media, with candidates who received more coverage being perceived as more competent and more likely to win (Iyengar & Kinder, 1987).

Categorization has been found to influence attitudes, beliefs, and behavior significantly. Potter and Wetherell demonstrated that when people are presented with information organized into categories, they tend to form more rigid and polarized attitudes than when the same information is presented without categories (Potter & Wetherell, 1987). This effect is particularly pronounced when the categories are socially relevant, such as based on gender or race. This finding has been replicated in numerous studies and extended to the media and news. People are more likely to view the news and media through the lens of existing categories and stereotypes, resulting in more extreme attitudes and beliefs than if the same information was presented as an individual case.

In conclusion, categorization and stereotyping are two important social psychological concepts used to explain how we perceive and interact with the world. Categorization helps us organize and make sense of large amounts of data, while stereotyping can lead to the development of inaccurate and harmful beliefs about certain groups. These processes can be seen in everyday life and can have far-reaching effects, particularly when it comes to news stories. It is important to be aware of the potential influences of categorization and stereotyping on our understanding of news stories and to be mindful of the potential stereotypes they can perpetuate. By recognizing these concepts, we can better understand and interpret news stories and strive toward a more equitable and accurate representation of different groups of people.

Works Cited

Billig, M. (1996). Arguing and thinking: A rhetorical approach to social psychology. Cambridge University Press.

Edwards, D. (1991). Categories are for talking: On the cognitive and discursive bases of categorization. Theory & Psychology, pp. 1, 517

Entman, R. M., & Rojecki, A. (2021). The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. University of Chicago Press.

Nelson, T. D. (2005). Ageism: Prejudice against our feared future self. Journal of Social Issues, pp. 61, 209.

Signorielli, N. (1989). The stigma of mental illness on television. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media33(3), 325–331.

Shanto Iyengar, & Kinder, D. R. (1988). News that matters television and American opinion. Chicago [U.A.] Univ. Of Chicago Press.

Challenges In Organizational Leadership Sample Assignment

Organizational leadership entails many things. These include inspiring others and being a good example to the people following the leader. There are many challenges to being a leader, both professional and personal. This paper discusses the personal and professional challenges faced by leaders in the workplace.

Staying humble is one challenge of being a leader. For a person to ascend to a leadership position, they have to work hard. Leadership comes with many privileges, such as good pay and leading others. This can lead to pride. When one is in a leadership position, it is easy to begin believing what is written about them in the press. Everything is going swimmingly. It is not hard to fall into the trap of believing that you are the only one accountable for all of this achievement. Credit for the company’s most significant accomplishments ought to go to the head of the organization. However, individuals governed by a haughty leader do not admire or follow him because of his arrogance (Figueroa et al.,2019). This style of leader alienates their group, stokes the flames of conflict, and paves the way for dramatic situations. All of these things are detrimental to the health of a business. The most successful leaders are those who are also the most humble. They are conscious that power is not the primary factor in leadership but rather impact and influence. They are conscious of the significance of the network of people who support them. In addition, they get the benefits of being a part of a group that recognizes the worth of their integrity and works willingly with them to achieve a common goal. As a leader, modesty may be challenging to maintain, but it is an essential quality that is well worth working on developing.

Having self-confidence can also be challenging in organizational leadership. If we are to be forthright, the problem is that most leaders suffer from crippling levels of self-doubt. The more successful they are, the more likely they battle with ideas that are not who other people think they are. Many people in leadership positions struggle with imposter syndrome, which is characterized by excessive feelings of self-doubt. This contributes to the difficulty of their jobs. It will prevent you from being able to lead, motivate, and assist your team. Therefore, having a sound sense of one’s capabilities is essential to leadership.

Contrary to humility, which is centred on the realization that you are not the centre of the world, being confident means coming to terms with the fact that you have value in the overall scheme of things. It entails silencing the voice of the critical voice that lives within one’s head and telling them they are a fraud, a failure, or both. Self-assurance is your response when self-doubt tells you you are not good enough. “I am adequate,” it says.

Overcoming fear as a leader can also be challenging. Sometimes leaders are given difficult responsibilities such as making decisions, leading to fear of failure. This is because the organization might depend on the leader’s decisions. Fear may be the most significant factor that impedes a person’s capacity to manage an organization successfully, promote its goals, and make good decisions. Apprehension over the inevitable transitions, how the leaders will handle them, and how the team will react to them (Cortellazzo et al., 2019). the fear of making an erroneous decision. All of the possible dangers and “what ifs” that may stop your plans in their tracks, such as swings in the market or the economy, the possibility of layoffs or other types of reorganization, or even catastrophic events on a global scale. Fear is a natural human inclination that may affect anybody, even those in leadership positions.

You may, however, accept responsibility for it, recognize it, and effectively handle it if you do those three things. At a later time, I will elaborate. Following through can also be challenging due to the leaders’ busy schedules. The leaders are quite busy. There always needs to be more time to do all that has to be done. Interruptions, crises, and new opportunities all exert a draw on you in their unique ways. This pull may take many forms. As a result, it should not come as a surprise if one of the challenges you face as a leader is that you could find it difficult to put the plans, ideas, and strategies you develop into action. Several studies have shown that 90 per cent of business strategies need to live up to expectations. Indeed, there is a great deal of labour that has to be completed. Changes and surprises are prevalent. On the other hand, taking on too much has hindered the success of many leaders who came before you and has stopped them from completing what they started.

Leaders face stress and anxiety due to the responsibilities they have. Therefore dealing with stress and anxiety can be a challenge to a leader. With all these leadership difficulties staring the leaders in the face, it is fair to feel stressed out. It is all-natural. However, the stress that these difficulties produce for those in leadership positions might be a significant hurdle in and of itself. The fear, the self-doubt, and the onslaught of problems and requirements that leaders often face might all combine to produce a level of stress that puts your ability to lead in jeopardy because different people react in various ways under varying amounts of pressure. Being patient is the more challenging of the two. It might be challenging to concentrate.

The ancient fight-or-flight response may make one angry and return to being defensive; it can, in effect, shut off our thinking brain. This can cause us to feel defensive and angry. It may be advantageous for leaders to learn more about how they react to stress. This may help them better understand their behaviours and steer clear of the leadership pitfalls that manifest when worry is allowed to fester unchecked. Keeping themselves motivated can also be a challenge. The leader is required to keep the other people motivated; hence, self-motivation can be challenging. There are bad days for every one of us. Those times when one finds themselves unable to go on due to a lack of progress or the failure of an activity. When you focus your attention on something that is not working properly, you make it easy for it to drain your energy. It may be challenging for a leader to navigate this situation since everyone expects them to be the cheerleaders. a person who believes in moving ahead, having passion, and having a philosophy of “getting things done.” The notion that you would be the primary source of motivation might be one of the most demoralizing things you have to contend with at times (Chen et al., 2020). On the other hand, the people in your group turn to you for leadership, guidance, and motivation. Even if you are not at your most lively or best.

Leaders also face some professional challenges, such as mentoring employees. People desire to climb the professional ladder, and the leader must make this as achievable as feasible. Encourage, coach, and provide them with the needed opportunities. Recognizing one’s capabilities and areas of growth is a necessary step. You should challenge them by setting high goals for them to reach, but you should also reassure them that they can meet those standards and provide them with the direction and support they need to think they can. There is no way around the need for commitment and time. In employee development and mentoring, recognizing employees’ contributions is an essential ingredient in the equation. Everyone should have the experience of being significant. Everyone wants to be acknowledged, respected, and heard. As the team leader, you must communicate to the other group members how highly you regard them. And not only in expressing gratitude for what you have done.

To be more specific, in the sense of “I observed what you did at this time and truly appreciate the excellent work,” “I appreciate the wonderful effort.” This requires you to pay attention, listen carefully, and put in a true effort to assist your team in understanding their strengths, finding sources of happiness, and growing toward their potential. Managing resources can also be a challenge for the leader. Managing. Avoid micromanagement. Even just that one variation may have been a challenge for the leader. However, in the context of this sentence, we are talking about the continual process of problem-solving—the chessboard configuration.

It is negotiating the complexities of human relationships while also managing the dynamics of a team (Bratton, 2020). As a good steward of the resources available to your company, you are under continual pressure to make choices that are in its best interest. All of it condensed into a collection of challenges that, if allowed to, may tangle the leader up and make things tough for them. Make sure to consider delegating as well. It is easy to delegate tasks. Not all delegating methods are effective. It is not enough to “pass things off” or “clear your plate” when attempting to delegate effectively. It is about allowing them the independence to carry out the responsibilities that you have delegated to them. Considering all that is necessary for effective resource management, taking the leadership role could be challenging.


Bratton, J. (Ed.). (2020). Organizational leadership. Sage.

Chen, M., & Decary, M. (2020, January). Artificial intelligence in healthcare: An essential guide for health leaders. Healthcare management forum (Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 10–18). Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.

Cortellazzo, L., Bruni, E., & Zampieri, R. (2019). The role of leadership in a digitalized world: A review. Frontiers in Psychology10, 1938.

Figueroa, C. A., Harrison, R., Chauhan, A., & Meyer, L. (2019). A rapid review of priorities and challenges for health leadership and workforce management globally. BMC health services research19(1), 1-11.