Case Study: Stellantis Company Essay Example

When was Stellantis formed?

Stellantis company name is drawn from ‘Stello,’ which means making better or brightening with stars. ‘Stellantis is a global automotive engineering company founded in 2021 at the center of an equal international union among the Italian-American multinational Fiat Chrysler automobiles and the French PSA group. It is the prominent manufacturer and benefactor of innovative mobility solutions. The primary duty of the Stellantis is to scheme, advance, and make and sell automobiles that are over and above fifteen brands. The corporate headquarters are based in Amsterdam in the Netherlands.

What market segments does it specialize in?

Being a global company, Stellantis has various branches all over the world. One of the market segmentation the company employs is geographical market segmentation. The company specializes in selling its products in multiple regions where it is located or where it has got its branches. Therefore the company majorly specializes in geographical segmentation. The company also employs other forms of market segmentation, such as demographic segmentation, since some of the population will desire different products to serve the needs. Some people will want to employ SUVS automotive or another brand compared to another group. Differentiation is another essential marketing segmentation since different people have other preferences and needs for their personal and public cars (Mayrhofer, 2021). Therefore, the company can stand out in the market over its competitors and identify the qualities that set one product from other similar products. Behavioral market segmentation draws the population’s age, gender, occupation, and cultural and family background to market its products. The psychographic marketing segment is also employed since the company applies psychological selling to its four brands of products.

What are the unique characteristics of these competitive markets segments?

Geographic segmentation, for instance, allows Stellantis Company to be price and cost-effective in doing its business since the company can effectively utilize its geographical positioning to reach various customers, unlike a company that does not employ geographic segmentation. The company is also likely to put more effort into its marketing efforts primarily in the area they are located and, as a result, collect the best statistics for their marketing strategies and the policies they are likely to apply in the future in so doing the company also avoids wastage spending in its business. The other benefit that the company is expected to reap from behavioral segmentation is that it permits companies to locate clients with similar buying manners in the area and enables the corporation, such as Atlantis, to identify the clients’ requirements and unmet needs. The customers are likely to build up customer loyalty to the customer’s products. It also fastens the corporation’s growth and expansion rate since the company is expected to follow the trend which is best suiting the company (Morgan et al., 2019). Stellantis is also likely to reap a lot of benefits from employing demographic segmentation as one of its marketing strategies across the globe since it is likely to acquire information in a fast and quick manner.

The corporation shall enjoy a high return on investments in its automobile manufacture since many clients buy from the world branches across the world. It is also likely to enjoy a centralized marketing policy since the marketing strategies vary across all the components in various countries. All apply to the same company and the same products worldwide to have an added advantage over numerous marketing policies across the globe. The Atlantis company is likely to enjoy improved goods and services since customer complaints are solved worldwide, and therefore, they are solved through enhanced products. Stellantis Company is also expected to reap many benefits from the psychographic selling strategy in various ways. It is likely to improve the utilization of the available resources and employ efficient use. The company is expected to comprehend the clients’ requirements and beat the competitors or stand out over the competitors in the market. The market is also likely to understand the reason behind consumer behavior. Like the other forms of market segmentation, psychographic selling improves customer loyalty in the first place in the market. And the psychographic selling techniques offer are more commanding communication and are also the most accurate and efficient segmentation in general.

Stellantis’ new plan and why is it becoming more of a software company? What is the essential competitive strategy employed?

The new plan of Stellantis Corporation is to endow and invest its resources into software and electrification, which will encompass hiring 4,500 software engineers. The company is transforming to software technology following its merger with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles and PSA group because the future must be shaped well. New transformation and advancement show that stellantis is planning its future, growth, and expansion through the merger partnership. The company employs a strategy parallel to its vision, aiming to ensure that more of its vehicles will be low emission vehicles.

Outsourcing is the choice of a company to select a different company to perform its duties based on the technology or expertise nature of the chosen company and mainly to cut the cost of creating such goods and services for the traditional company. A company may outsource for various reasons, such as cutting and saving on training and production costs, hiring new staff, or even sourcing new equipment needed in production. The company may also outsource to delegate responsibilities and duties that are difficult to manage and control (Shulga et al., 2019). The primary task of Foxconn is to upsurge the affordability of electronic products for every person to have access to them. And therefore, the company has ensured the lowest cost of production possible to ensure the products reach the customer at the lowest possible price. Stellantis is likely to outsource the software technology. The company does not require outsourcing much of its software technology due to various challenges expected to face, such as lack of control or regulation, poor communication, and low quality of the products.

Do you think a traditional company like Stellantis can master software development? Why or why not?

Stellantis is a traditional company, but despite the case, Stellantis can master software development since it only requires to merge and acquire separate software technology companies across the globe for the manufacture of its products and then slowly adapt to the new modifications and transform into technology and mobility just like these small companies. The company has to share its futuristic goals with like-minded companies and provide its clients with secure, sustainable, and affordable mobility solutions.

In summary, Stellantis is one of the most futuristic global companies globally and thus employs various marketing segmentation to befit its population, such as behavioral, demographic, and psychographic segmentation. The company has also used differentiation to meet the client’s specific requirements. Also, through its future vision and mission, it has partnered and merged with technologically wise companies to transform its manufacture. The transformation is majorly done by outsourcing, connecting, and partnering to the latest electronic change and technology of fewer emission vehicles.


Mayrhofer, U. (2021). Stellantis: the PSA-Fiat Chrysler merger [Stellantis: la fusion PSA-Fiat Chrysler] (No. halshs-03145118).

Morgan, N. A., Whitler, K. A., Feng, H., & Chari, S. (2019). Research in marketing strategy. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science47(1), 4-29.

Shulga, E., Lanusse, P., Airimitoaie, T. B., Maurel, S., & Trutet, A. (2021). Model Predictive Control of engine intake manifold pressure with an uncertain model. IFAC-PapersOnLine54(6), 335-340.

Strengths And Weaknesses In Leadership Capacities Free Sample

Summary of Results

The first assessment explored cultural proficiency, leadership capacities, and systems thinking. According to the given scoring criterion, I scored 84 out of 100, which is in the upper third of the total score. The score was an indication that I have a culturally competent mindset with a good understanding of system thinking. The assessment helped in understanding my range of cultural competence as well as identifying my strengths and weaknesses in cultural proficiency, leadership capacities, and systems thinking. Among the strengths that I identified is that I am an enlightened leader who believes that there is always the right way to do something. Although we may not always do things the way they are expected, there is always the right way to do whatever we do wrong. To completely learn cultural competence, we should conduct self-assessment or start cultural interaction with patients to learn beliefs, values, and needs we need to know about other cultures.

The second self-assessment was about leadership and cultural proficiency questionnaire. The assessment was more of a tool than a test. The assessment helped recognize how to be an effective leader in diverse surroundings. I recognized that I was an effective leader since I was diverse. I know various cultures, and I have a robust understanding and knowledge about their customs and beliefs, and I respect them despite being different from my cultural beliefs and values. Cultural diversity is a good leadership quality as I can manage culturally diverse groups without discriminating or disrespecting any of them. I also have impeccable systems thinking skills as I tend to focus on the big picture instead of small pieces in the puzzle when solving a problem. Like a system, I seek opportunities to collaborate before making significant decisions, resulting in biases or severe consequences. I recognized that I was an effective leader since I believed that systems are constantly evolving and minor changes can result in large results.

Assessment of Leadership Strengths and Weaknesses

After assessing my leadership capacities, I identified my strengths and weaknesses, some of which I experience in real-life situations. Some of the strengths include:

  • Strong communicator. I can communicate in writing, verbally and non-verbally, to ensure my subjects have to understand what needs to be understood. The primary reason for being a good communicator is to ensure those I am serving stay productive and motivated to my service (Popescu & Predescu, 2016).
  • Diverse. I am a diverse leader who understands other cultures despite being different from mine. I also value other people opinions, even if they are different from mine.
  • Knowledgeable and with a high Emotional Quotient (EQ). I value diversity and a multicultural mindset. I can easily understand other people’s emotions and maintain strong relationships.
  • Decisive. I rethink and weigh my thoughts before giving the final decision. I value other people’s decisions, opinions, and views even when they are different from mine. I examine potential prejudices and biases that my decision making can impact.


  • Manipulative. I can be easily manipulated by other people’s opinions and disregard my options which were the right opinions. I am easily obsessed with obscure issues, mainly from underserved people.
  • Slow decision-making. I make decisions slowly due to fear of the consequences and the need to accommodate other people’s views and opinions.
  • Low credibility. I do not tolerate discomfort such as stress.

Table 1

Strengths and Weaknesses

Personal Leadership Self-Reflection





Weaknesses Examples
Overall Leadership Capacity

  • Strong communicator
  • Decisive

  • Slow decision-making


  • I can communicate verbally and non-verbally to ensure my subjects understand what needs to be understood.
  • I have to wait for other opinions to make a decision.


Systems Thinking

  • Knowledgeable

  • Low credibility



  • I easily adapt to other ways of doing things
  • Not comfortable when using an interpreter


Cultural Proficiency

  • Diverse


  • Manipulative


  • I understand various cultural diversities

  • I can be easily manipulated by other beliefs and values

Cultural Proficiency Assessment

Cultural proficiency is the skills, knowledge, and beliefs that help someone respond effectively, work well, and support people in different cultures (Lindsey et al., 2018). I am culturally competent since I can learn about other cultures, freely interact with other diverse groups, and know much about myself and my culture, values, beliefs, and historical roots. One can increase their cultural proficiency by conducting a cultural competence self-assessment or cultural interactions with patients (Lindsey et al., 2018). These strategies are important as they help identify your strengths and weaknesses when working with people from diverse cultures and interacting with patients to identify their beliefs, needs, and values. One is considered an effective leader if they can manage culturally diverse groups while respecting all their beliefs, needs, and values (Lindsey et al., 2018). Therefore, improving cultural proficiency is significant in leadership philosophy as it increases the leadership quality of cultural diversity.

Assessment of Change in Leadership Capacities

The assessment has helped me in understanding my leadership strengths and weakness. I have worked in my weakness to ensure quality leadership capacities. Low credibility was one of my leadership weaknesses. I have greatly improved after the assessment since I can now be comfortable with chaos and uncertainties. I can also make decisions faster than before as I have learned that although people’s opinions and views are important, they do not influence my decision. I can now make independent decisions without necessarily waiting for other people’s opinions. Assessment one also taught me that people are not the same. We all have different make, beliefs, needs, and values. In the same way, we all have different cultural diversities, we are individually different, and we should be treated as unique.

New Insights

Among the insights gained from the assessment was the need to make independent decisions. Although it is good to listen to and respect other people’s opinions, making your personal decisions is independent of other people’s opinions and views. It is also good to learn about different cultures and respect their beliefs and values. Being multicultural diverse helps us learn about other people, socialize with them freely and respect what they believe in even though it is different from what we believe. Also, like culture, people are different and unique. We all have different beliefs, values, and needs, which make us different. Therefore, we should be treated as creatures with different flexibility and adaptations in behavior to work in various environments effectively.

Future Leadership Role

The insights have impacted both my present and future leadership role in that I can now make independent decisions faster than before. I don’t have to ask for validation before making my personal decisions. Therefore, the process is easy and faster. Cultural diversity has also helped me become a competent leader who can effectively manage workgroups from diverse cultures (Popescu & Predescu, 2016). I know how different culturally diverse groups need to be led. I can manage different groups from different cultures and have everyone feel respected and satisfied with my leadership.


Lindsey, R. B., Nuri-Robins, K., Terrell, R. D., & Lindsey, D. B. (2018). Cultural proficiency: A manual for school leaders. Corwin Press.

Popescu, G. H., & Predescu, V. (2016). The role of leadership in public health. American Journal of Medical Research3(1), 273.

Essay On Streptococcus Agalactiae Free Writing Sample


Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus) refers to a gram-positive bacteria that possess the tendency of forming chains. Mostly, it is beta-hemolytic and also exists as a facultative anaerobe. The most prevalent human pathogen is S. agalactiae, and it belongs to group B of the Rebecca Lancefield classification. Group B streptococcus possess bacterial capsules made up of polysaccharides. The species classifications are divided into ten serotypes. However, the division is dependent on the immunologic reactivity contained in the polysaccharide capsule. Generally, GBS is a harmless commensal bacteria and is a significant part of the human micro-biodata (Raabe & Shane, 2019). It mainly colonizes the genitourinary tract of about thirty percent of healthy humans. For newborns, it might result in various diseases like severe invasive infections. In older adults, it might cause malfunctioned immune systems. Besides, it acts as a veterinary pathogen since it may lead to mastitis, especially in dairy cows.

Description of the Microorganism:

S. agalactiae is a bacterium. Its cells are spherical with varied sizes of between 0.6-1.2 micrometers. An electron microscope may be used to reveal more refined details. Not all the species are spherical because others may develop rod-like cells. That depends mainly on the growth condition. The cells arrangement is a characteristic of all Streptococci since the cells are primarily arranged in chains (Bush, 2021). The chains frequently occur in pairs or, in some cases, very extensive chains. The sizes of those chains vary and might be longer if the studied bacteria originate from a fluid culture. During cell division, the cross-walls are oriented in the desired angles of the chain. Immediately after cell division, pairing appearance might remain. The organism is surrounded by the polysaccharide capsule, which is covalently bonded to the cell wall peptidoglycan. It, therefore, creates a mucoid capsule layer that is used in covering the surface of the bacteria. The S. agalactiae cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan, other structures called the teichoic acids and, other proteins (Raabe & Shane, 2019). The cell membrane has a lipid-protein bilayer which is significant in transporting diverse molecules inside and outside the cells by utilizing different transport channels.

Virulence Factors:

The infection of S. agalacticiae occurs depending on cell types, including the epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. In helping to overcome such defensive attributes and hide in the host, any organism has to survive many different virulent factors. The virulence factors enable the microorganism to enter the host and protect the microorganism against the host’s immune activities (Bush, 2021). S. agalactie possesses several such mechanisms or factors that permit it to cause different infection types.

First, its capsule serves as the significant virulent factor—the capsular layer composed of polysaccharide act as a medium for serotyping in laboratory referencing. The capsular layer comprises several other repeating units of the monosaccharide galactose. Salinic acid is a vital component of the capsule. It primarily inhibits different alternative pathways by preventing the deposition of the active C3 complement found on the surface of GBS.

Secondly, it contains lipoteichoic acid that contains glycerol phosphate, a vital component present among most Gram-positive Bactria. Diverse functioning in bacteria is categorically associated with the polymer. One of such functions involves facilitating adherence found between the Gram-positive bacteria and eukaryotic cells. The lipoteichoic cells have also been proven to bind in the cell membrane of most epithelial cells and the erythrocytes. However, the occurrence or the binding of LTA to human fetal always occurs in a distinct two-way process (Raabe & Shane, 2019. The first process is hydrophobic interaction, while the other involves the interaction between the embryonic eukaryotic surfaces with glycerolphosphate backbone.

The third virulence factor is hyaluronate lyase, which effectively degrading hyaluronic acid. The importance of hyaluronate lyase is to play the role of a spreading factor to destroy the common connective tissues in the host structure then promote the dissemination of bacteria.


S. agalactiae has protection from innate immunity attacks because they have several oligosaccharides repeating units. The perfect methodology to counteract that is to release specific antibodies specifically designed to target the PS through vaccination. Mostly, the immune response triggered due to PS is mostly nonoptimal and has chemical conjunction to a carrier protein. The carrier protein facilitates the engagement of the T-helper cells to assist in the development of the immune response.

It is a massive challenge for the body to fight against S. agalactiae. The bacteria is highly adaptable to humans because it is a constituent of both the virginal and intestinal flora. It can evade the immune system, and along with the invasive potential, it may cause serious inflammation, sepsis, or even death, especially in the elderly, diabetic patients, and infants. Therefore, the bacterium has the immense capabilities to stay in the healthy host and evolve along with it. While it stays there, it holds its virulence intact. S. agalactiae, as a vital member of GBS, thus produces a diverse range of molecules that slowly permits them to break down the immune system of an individual. One vital molecule in that process is the hemolytic pigment, also known as granadeane. It kills the red cell and several others found in the immune system. This kind of toxin also helps the bacteria aggravate the defensive barrier in the human body, like the blood-brain and the placenta barrier.

Infectious disease information:

Streptococcus agalactiae is known for causing diverse bacterial diseases like meningitis, especially in the neonatal period. It does so by breaching the blood-brain barrier and subsequently invades the Central Nervous System through trans-cellular mechanism approaches. The infectious agents affect different parts of the body, including the throat, sinuses, heart valves, and bloodstream. It causes symptoms including swollen tissues, sore throat, and even rashes. However, the severity of the symptoms depends on the specific area attacked by the bacteria. If such symptoms fail to be treated, they often result in different kinds of complications (Raabe & Shane, 2019). Some of the complications occur due to the infection to the nearby tissues. For example, an ear infection may easily cause sinusitis. Others may develop inflammation of the kidney or even rheumatoid fever. The symptoms could be chronic for people who already have underlying medical conditions. Lastly, it is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes typically healthy adults asymptomatically. Frequently, it inhabits the vagina, and when transmitted to the newborn, it may even cause severe consequences.


Show the Schematic representation of sources and transmission routes for the S. agalctiae

Fig 1.0 Show the Schematic representation of sources and transmission routes for the S. agalactiae

The sources are represented in boxes, while the transmission routes are indicated in arrows. The origins and transmission routes include the environment, cattle, and humans. The full arrow representations are sourced from scientific evidence, while any scientific research does not support the dashed arrows. The call-outs have listed the mode of transmission alongside supporting evidence. Intra-species transmission is highlighted in red, while inter-species transmission is represented in blue. The environmental transmission modes are in green.

The known reservoir for the infection of S. agalactiae in the dairy farm is the milk sourced from the infected mammary origins. The bacteria may be prevalent on surfaces with the contaminated milk, including the farmer’s hand and the contaminated milk (Shabayek & Spellerberg, 2018). The transmission type is mainly vertical, involving utero passage or birth canal routes. The bacteria’s portal of entry are the same they used to exist; the mucous membrane, the skin, and the gastrointestinal tracts.


Antibiotics like penicillin can prevent group B bacteria from spreading to the baby, especially during labor or delivery. The doctor can give permit it when the labor begins.

There is an increased use of intravenous intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to minimize or prevent the early onset of GBS, especially among infants. The studies were conducted in the 80s, continuing until now (Raabe & Shane, 2019). Penicillin in the initial agent involved intrapartum prophylaxis. Ampicillin could be used as an alternative as well.

Another strategic approach that is still undergoing development to limit the occurrence of GBS disease is vaccination of mothers. That happens in the trimester against S. agalactiae. For pregnant mothers, group B strep screening is necessary. The screening should take place during the 36 or 37th week of pregnancy.


Penicillin G remains the first line of treatment for GBS disease for older people. The duration of the therapy always depends on the clinical representation. For bacteria, ten days of the therapeutic session may be enough.

When exposed to bête-lactam antibiotics, S. agalactiae immediately becomes susceptible. Such antibiotics may include ampicillin and carbapenems. The activity levels vary considerably, depending on the agents to which the bacteria is exposed. For patients with allergies, options are available like erythromycin, fluoroquinolones, and clindamycin. However, a longer treatment duration is needed for meningitis, which may take up to 14 days.

Clinical Relevance:

A multi-drug resistant strain refers to the particular strain that has shown resistance to two or even more antimicrobial drugs. MDR and PEN –NS strains of GBS have since emerged. One of the strains emerged from the patient (H21) and (F49) strains from isolates of the tilapia fish. The effect has since limited the effective treatment of all the patients as the increased resistance has become a threat to public health globally (Li et al., 2021). The principal patients or victims are pregnant mothers as well as neonates. There is a need to revisit the CLSI guidelines to test PEN meningitis and PEN MICs breakpoints using Streptococcus pneumonia as a reference point. The rationale is that the highlighted strains have become increasingly identifiable from meningitis and sepsis patients. However, new antibiotics have been developed to help combat the effects of the MDR strains. Such antibiotics include fourth-generation fluoroquinolones, tetracycline derivatives, and siderophore cephalosporins.


Streptococcus agilactiae is a Gram-positive organism. It is recognized globally as one of the leading causes of invasive disease in young infants and neonates. Among the infections, it causes diseases such as meningitis and sepsis. The use of penicillin G remains its first line of treatment. Mainly, it is transmitted vertically. Once inside the host cell, it might compromise the cellular infrastructure due to the polysaccharide capsule, making it very hard for the body to fight against it.


Bush, L. (2021). Streptococcal Infections. Retrieved from:

Li, C., et al. (2021). Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus agalacticiae Strains Found in Human and Fish with High Penicillin and Cefotaxime Non-Susceptibilities. Microorganisms, 8 (7):1055.

Raabe, V. N., & Shane, A.L. (2019). Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae). Microbiology Spectrum, 7, (2), 10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3=0007-2018

Shabayek, S., & Spellerberg, B. (2018). Group B Streptococcal Colonization, Molecular Characteristics, and Epidemiology. Frontiers in microbiology, 9,437.